Biology, ecology and control of the Penthaleus species complex (Acari: Penthaleidae)

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Abstract. Blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp. (Acari: Penthaleidae), are major agricultural pests in southern Australia and other parts of the world, attacking various pasture, vegetable and crop plants. Management of these mites has been complicated by the recent discovery of three cryptic pest species of Penthaleus, whereas prior research had assumed a single species. The taxonomy, population genetics, ecology, biology and control of the Penthaleus spp. complex are reviewed. Adult Penthaleus have a dark blue-black body approximately 1 mm in length, and eight red-orange legs. Within Australia, they are winter pests completing two or three generations a season, depending on conditions. The summer is passed as diapausing eggs, when long-distance dispersal is thought to occur. The Penthaleus spp. reproduce by thelytokous parthenogenesis, with populations comprising clones that differ ecologically. The three pest Penthaleus spp. differ markedly in their distributions, plant hosts, timing of diapause egg production and response to pesticides, highlighting the need to develop control strategies that consider each species separately. Chemicals are the main weapons used in current control programs, however research continues into alternative more sustainable management options. Host plant resistance, crop rotations, conservation of natural enemies, and improved timing of pesticide application would improve the management of these pests. The most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable means of control will result from the integration of these practices combined with the development of a simple field-based kit to distinguish the different mite species.

 

Paul A. Umina1, Ary A. Hoffmann1 and Andrew R. Weeks1

(1) Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, Australia

Biology - Blue oat mite - Clone - Control - Ecology - Parthenogenesis - Penthaleus

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Biology, ecology and control of the Penthaleus species complex (Acari: Penthaleidae)

Paul A. Umina1, Ary A. Hoffmann1 and Andrew R. Weeks1

(1) Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, Australia

Abstract. Blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp. (Acari: Penthaleidae), are major agricultural pests in Southern Australia and other parts of the world, attacking various pasture, vegetable and crop plants. Management of these mites has been complicated by the recent discovery of three cryptic pest species of Penthaleus, whereas prior research had assumed a single species. The 1--taxonomy, 2--population genetics, 3--ecology, 4--biology and 5--control of the Penthaleus spp. complex are reviewed. (((Adult Penthaleus have a dark blue-black body approximately 1 mm in length, and eight red-orange legs. Within Australia, they are winter pests completing two or three generations a season, depending on conditions. The summer is passed as diapausing eggs, when long-distance dispersal is thought to occur. The Penthaleus spp. reproduce by thelytokous parthenogenesis, with populations comprising clones that differ ecologically.))) The three pest Penthaleus spp. differ markedly in their 1--distributions, 2--plant hosts, 3--timing of diapause egg production and 4--response to pesticides, highlighting the need to develop control strategies that consider each species separately.

Chemicals are the main weapons used in current control programs, however, research continues into alternative more sustainable management options.

1--Host plant resistance, 2--crop rotations, 3--conservation of natural enemies, and 4--improved timing of pesticide application

would improve the management of these pests.

The most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable means of control

will result from the integration of these practices combined with the development of a simple field-based kit to distinguish the different mite species.

(From: Umina, Paul A.; Ary A. Hoffmann and Andrew R. Weeks (2004) «Biology, ecology and control of the Penthaleus species complex (Acari: Penthaleidae)». Experimental & Applied Acarology,

 

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Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

(simplified) Abstract

From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the petroleum spray oil (pSo) against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseidae) in an integrated pest management program.

The results showed that 0,5%, pSo applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T. urticae infestation when the mite popullation was not yet established.

However, pSo applied after roses were infested with T.urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold.

Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of pSo at 7-day intervals, and application of pSo to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P. persimilis as spraying the entire plant.

Combining pSo with P. persimilis gave better control of T.urticae than using P.

persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of pSo in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with pSo.

Comparison of a control program for T. urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of pSo revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining pSo and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

(simplified) Abstract

From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the petroleum spray oil (pSo) against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseidae) in an integrated pest management program.

Four experiments

were conducted

on greenhouse roses

g to assess the effectiveness of the petroleum spray oil against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

and

g to determine how the oil

could be

most efficiently and effectively

used

in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in an integrated pest management program.

NOTE: Against In combination with The results showed that 0,5%, pSo applied fortnightly to roses

gave excellent protection from T. urticae infestation when the mite population was not yet established.

g However,

PSO applied after roses were infested with T.urticae above the economic threshold

... only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold.

Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and

application of PSO to the upper canopy was  

as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P. persimilis as spraying the entire plant.

In document Working with Techincal and Scientific English (Page 159-163)