The Bones, Joints and Ligaments

In document The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments and the Back (Page 41-47)

This is the order of the illustrations in the book.

When beside the name of a structure there is a listing - (see XYZ)…

it will be listed at the site XYZ, which may also refer to its alternative name; when beside a structure there is a listing - (also see XYZ)…

further information about that structure will be at the site for XYZ, but it will be present in the order listed site as well; this includes structures listed in the BACK section.

Bonesare listed in BLACK; Jointsare listed in DARK YELLOW& ligaments when referred to separately are listed in ORANGE. Generally ligamentswill be referred to in joint diagrams and not listed or demonstrated in separate diagrams. Overviews of regionsare listed in MAROON (DARK RED).

Acetabular joint (see HIP JOINT) Acromioclavicular articulation & joint

ANKLE BONE (see Talus - (biggest of the Tarsal bones aka Tarsus)) ANKLE JOINT = Talocrural joint = Talus + Tibia + Fibula

= Subtalar joints = Talus + Calcaneus + Os Tarsus ARM = Upper limb = Humerus + Radius + Ulna (see Humerus) Atlas (C1 ) - (Vertebra - cervical) also see the Back

Atlanto-Axial joints (C1/C2)

Atlanto-Occipital joint (see Craniovertebral joint) Axial-Occipital joint (see Craniovertebral joint) Auditory Ossicles (see EAR BONES overview) Axis (C2) - (Vertebra - cervical) also see the Back BACK See end of this section the Back = Vertebral Column.

BREAST BONE (see Manubriosternum) Calcaneus (aka HEEL)

Capitate (see Carpus disarticulated, also Hand & Wrist overview) Carpus - carpal bones wrist (Os Carpus = Wrist bones) articulated see Hand & Wrist overview

individual bones

1strow - Trapezium, Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, Pisiform, 2ndrow - Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate

Carpus - disarticulated

Carpo-Metacarpal joints (see HAND and WRIST joints)

© Dr Ama

nd a Ne ill

Cuneiforms (foot)

1st- medial cuniform, 2ndintermediate cuniform, 3rdlateral cuniform EAR BONES overview

ELBOW - articulation, joint (humero-ulnar) Ethmoid bone

Femur (upper leg bone) aka THIGH bone aka LEG bone Fibula (lower leg lateral bone part of the SHIN)

FINGERS articulation overview ((see Hand and Wrist bones overview) FINGER JOINTS = interphalangeal joints + MCP joints

FOREARM (see Radius, Ulna) FOREHEAD (see Frontal bone)

FOOT BONES (tarsal + metatarsal + phalanges) overview (see also Metatarsals)

FOOT JOINTS - aka Intertarsal joints Frontal bone (aka FOREHEAD)

Glenohumeral joint (see SHOULDER JOINT) Hamate (see Carpus disarticulated, also Hand & Wrist) HAND (and WRIST bones) overview

Carpal, Metacarpal bones and Phalanges - articulations HAND BONES (see Metacarpals disarticulated)

HAND JOINTS intercarpal joints = IC joints

Carpometacarpal, intercarpal joints = C-MC, IC joints HANGING joint (see Atlanto-Axial median joint) also see the Back HEAD/SPINE JOINTS (see Craniovertebral joints) also see the Back HEEL (see Calcaneus)

Hip (aka Os Coxae - Innominate) HIPISCHIUM, ILIUM, PUBIS overview HIP joint (also see PELVIC GIRDLE Sacrum) HIPS (also see PELVIC GIRDLE)

Humeroulnar joint (see ELBOW joint) Humerus = ARM bone (upper arm bone) Hyoid

Inferior Nasal Concha (also see Nasal Bones & Cavity) Innominate (see HIP)

Interphalangeal joints of the Foot = TOES

© Dr Ama

nd a Ne ill

Ischium (see HIP) JAW (see Mandible) Knee articulations

KNEE CAP (see Knee articulations) aka Patella

KNEE JOINTS (Tibiofemoral + [Tibiofibular]+ Femoropatellar + Tibiopatellar)

Lacrimal (see inf Nasal Concha) Larynx overview (aka VOICEBOX)

LEG = Lower limb = Femur + Patella +Tibia + Fibula Lunate (see Carpus disarticulated, also hand & wrist)

Mandible (aka JAW aka CHIN) Mandibular joint (see Temporomandibular joint)

Manubriocostal joints (see Sternocostal joints)

Manubriosternum = Manubrium + Sternum + Xiphoid process aka BREAST BONE

Manubrium (see Manubriosternum) Maxilla (aka UPPER JAW)

Metacarpals aka HAND BONES (see Hand & Wrist overview) Metacarpal Individual views - disarticulated

1st- the thumb / 2nd- the index / 3rd- the middle 4th- the ring / 5th- to the little finger

Metatarsals (bones b/n the ankle & the toes) aka FOOT BONES see overview

NOSE (see Nasal Bones & Cavity) Occipital bone / Occiput

Odontoid Joint (see Atlanto-Axial median joint) Os Coxae (see HIP bone)

Palantine bones / Palate Parietal bone

Patella = aka KNEE CAP (see Knee articulations) Pectoral girdle = articulations

PELVIS = HIPS(see Pelvic girdle)

© Dr Ama

nd a Ne ill

Sacroiliac joint also see the Back

Sacrum (lower BACK BONE) also see the Back Scaphoid (see Carpus disarticulated, also Hand & Wrist) Scapula (aka SHOULDER BLADE)

SHIN (see Tibia)

SHOULDER JOINT (aka Glenohumeral joint) Sinus overview (see Skull Internal views - coronal) Skull External Views and Internal Views

Sphenoid Tibia (aka lower leg bone aka SHIN - shin bone)) Tibiofemoral joint (see KNEE which includes this joint) Tibiofibula joints

TOES = digits = phalanges (see Foot bones overview)

Trapezium (see Carpus disarticulated, also Hand & Wrist overview) Trapezoid (see Carpus disarticulated, also Hand & Wrist overview) Triquetral (see Carpus disarticulated, also Hand & Wrist overview) Ulna (aka FOREARM - also funny bone)

Vertebrae, Vertebral Column and Vertebral joints see the Back VOICE BOX (see Larynx)


Wrist bones (see Carpal bones disarticulated also Hand & Wrist overview / Metacarpal bones)

Wrist joint (aka radiocarpal joint) Xiphoid (see Manubriosternum) Zygapophyseal joints see the Back Zygoma (aka CHEEK BONES) see the Back

© Dr Ama

nd a Ne ill

ngeM:FBones in order of frequency - greatest to least site in the bone tissuefeatures / X-ray appearanceMicroscopic features 2:1Femur, Humerus, Tibia, Feet, Pelvis, Scapula heads of these boneswell delimited, areas of rarefaction; painfulextreme cellularity & variability, polyhedral cells, GC, glycogen, reticulin 1:1Hands & Feet, Ribs, Femur, Humerus medulla of LBsbegins in the cavity of diaphysis of a LB expands & thins cortexmature lobules of cartilage 1:1Tibia, Femur, Feet, Pelvis near the heads of LBssharply defined, may be largehypocellular lobules with intersecting bands spindle cells, OC 1:1Humerus, Tibia, Pelvis, Mandible, mur, Scapula ends of shafts of LBslytic / honeycombedmature fibroblasts, abundant collagen 1:1Skull, VBs, Mandible medullasunburst trabeculation 2° to periosteal levationthick walled lattice pattern of cavernous spaces 2:1skull & facial bonesmay protrude inside a paranasal sinusdense mature lamellar bone 2:1femur, tibia, humerus, hands & feet, vertebrae, fibula cortex of LBlucent centre <15mm peripheral sclerotic reaction; painfulsharply delineated centre: osteoid lined by plump osteoblasts, w/o inflammation 2:1VBs, Tibia, Femur, Humerus, Pelvis, Ribs medulla of LBslarger centre, absent reactive bone; not painfulsharply delineated centre: osteoid lined by plump osteoblasts, w/o inflammation 1:1Femur, Tibia, Humerus, Pelvis cortex of LBsgrows out opposite to adjacent jointcap of cartilage covered by a membrane continuous with the periosteum 3:1Humerus, Femurthin cortex BENIGN BONE LESIONS

© Dr Ama

nd a Ne ill

nage range M :F

Bones in order of frequency - greatest to least site in the bone tissuefeatures / X-ray appearanceMicroscopic features hronic mas30-60

1: 1

Femur, Pelvis, VBs, Tibia, Humerus, Mandible, Skull, Ribs medulla of shafts of LBsbone production & destruction over a wide areaas per lymphoma elsewhere drosarcoma30-60

3: 1

Pelvis, Ribs, Femur, Humerus, VBs cortex of LBs medulla of central axial bones osteolytic with splotchy calcificationrange of differentiation: cartilaginous matrix, lack of direct bone formation ma40-60

2: 1

Sacrococcygeal, Spheno-occipital, cervical VBsosteolytic, rarely osteoblasticcords and lobules; physaliferous cells /PNET5-20

1: 2

Femur, Pelvis, Tibia, Humerus, Ribs, Fibula; Mets to lung, pleura, other bones medulla of shafts of LBs

cortical thickening with widening of the medullary canal; reactive periosteum

sheets of cells with fibrous strands, pseudorosettes, glycogen rcoma20-60

1: 1

Femur, Tibia, Mandible, Humerus medulla in LBsosteolytic “soap-bubble”as per soft tissue, no tumour osteoid cell ur20-40

4: 5

Femur, Tibia, Radius heads of these bones lytic expansile lesion w/o sclerosis or a periosteal reactionstromal cells, GCs nchymal osarcoma20-60

1: 1

Ribs, Skull, Mandible, VBs, Pelvis, soft tissues shafts of LBslytic expansile lesion w/o sclerosis or a periosteal reactiondimorphic: well-differentiated cartilage w undifferentiated stroma sarcoma10-25

3: 2

Femur, Tibia, Humerus, Pelvis, Jaw, Fibula medulla of LBsCodman’s triangle; metastasizes to: lung, bone, pleura, heartosteoid produced by tumour cells w/o intervening cartilage cell40-60

2: 1

VBs, Pelvis, Ribs, Sternum, Skull medulla of LBs

© Dr Ama

nd a Ne ill

Acromio-Clavicular articulation & joint =

In document The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments and the Back (Page 41-47)