When discussing strategic culture in IR theory in more detail, it is necessary to elaborate on two interrelated issues on constructivism and strategic cul- ture: 1) IR constructivist understanding of causality and norms, and 2) the so-called Gray-Johnston debate, which concerns the connection between strategic culture and state behaviour (discussed in 1.4.). Firstly, it is impera- tive to consider the understanding of norms within IR constructivism, be- cause this discussion by and large forms the essence of the ontological foun- dation upon which the most influential accounts of strategic culture rest. Secondly, the Gray-Johnston debate best illustrates the strengths and weak-
What does strategic culture do?
What is strategic culture? 1st generation: strategic style, a context for evaluation
Strategic culture functions as the context for strategic decision-making in that it contains the attitudes and ways in which strategic beliefs and attitudes convey a picture of how a polity would act when faced with a certain crisis situation. These attitudes and strategic beliefs reveal the nationally and historically embedded nature of strategic culture.
domain of political instrumentality
Strategic culture is essentially a myth, at best it functions as a resource in security and defence policy issues that can be instrumentally harnessed by policy actors. These actors are not ‘encultured’ to the degree that they actually have a hidden agenda beyond what they actually think and say.
explanatory concept that is falsifiable
Strategic culture is a set of specific, ranked security and defence policy preferences expressed in strategic ideas and beliefs established over time, which have a direct impact on actual policy choice. Hence, strategic culture is the explanandum and policy choice is the explanans.
site of struggle over political hegemony
Strategic culture is a social mechanism, which consists of epistemic communities that constitute the core of strategic sub-cultures within strategic culture, which strive for hegemony in security and defence policy.
nesses of various accounts that deal with strategic culture. The interrelated factor between these two points is also important, since what Colin Gray and Iain Johnston are actually arguing about is whether culture can actually ex- plain anything in causal terms.
To begin with, the IR constructivist position provides more questions than answers – a position not uncommon to ‘grand’ IR theories in general. IR constructivism consists of a vast and epistemologically varied pool of re- search in which the interest concerns international phenomena. Epistemo- logically, constructivism has aimed to seize what IR scholars refer to as the ‘middle-ground’, meaning a position between rationalism and interpretivism that is based on social ontology and scientific epistemology.74 There are many
different strands of constructivism ranging from so-called ‘thin’ Wendtian constructivism to more ‘thick’ approaches that favour post-positivism instead of positivism. According to Hay, both positions see the relationship between the material and the ideational as dialectical, but the thick constructivism prioritizes ideational factors and constitutive logics and thin constructivism prioritizes material factors and causal logics.75 Despite these differences,
however, common ground for all is found in an understanding of a socially constructed world that is fundamentally shaped by human action. For the purposes of this study, I have concentrated on a few commonly accepted po- sitions on norms in IR constructivism, because these positions are regularly adopted in the study of strategic culture. It needs to be noted, however, that the two pivotally important scholars on norms among the constructivist scholarship, Friedrich Kratochwil and Nicholas Onuf, are largely absent from the discussion regarding norms in the accounts on strategic culture.76
First of all, norms are accepted as some sort of ‘carriers of identity’, epit- omizing the socially and culturally agreed form of behaviour in some shape or form. This is something the bulk of IR constructivist scholarship would agree on. For example, Onuf would talk about the regulative and constitutive effects of norms understood as informal rules. Following on from this, the primary question for a student of strategic culture is this: Can norms func- tion as causes or is their role solely constitutive? Can the compliance/non- compliance of norms explain policy decisions or even patterns of state behav- iour? Some constructivists argue that they can while others claim they do
74 See Checkel, Jeffrey 1998, ‘The Constructivist Turn in International Relations Theory’, World Poli-
tics, Vol. 50, No.2, pp.324-348; Hopf, Ted 1998, ‘The Promise of Constructivism in International Rela- tions Theory’, International Security, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 171-200; Wendt, Alexander 2000, ‘The Con- structivist Challenge to Structural Realism’, International Security, Vol. 25, No.2, pp. 187-212.
75 Hay, Colin 2002, Political Analysis, Basingstoke, Macmillan 2002, p.206 (Table 6.1); see also
Wendt, Alexander 2001, Social Theory of International Politics, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
76 See e.g. Onuf, Nicholas 1989, World of Our Making: Rules and Rule in Social Theory and Interna-
tional Relations, University of South Carolina Press, 1989; Kratochwil, Friedrich 1991, Rules, Norms, and Decisions: On the Conditions of Practical and Legal Reasoning in International Relations and Domestic Affairs, Cambridge University Press, 1991.
not. The pro-argument, here advocated by Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, for example, is based on the idea that as norms create expectations towards appropriate behaviour (i.e. norms constitute behaviour), they can be seen as reasons for certain type of action or policy behaviour.77 Hence, this
view represents those constructivists that fall under the conventional label for which it can be argued that they “subscribe to a notion of causality that takes reasons as causes”.78 The contra-argument presented by Kratochwil
and Ruggie in short, is that “unlike the initial conditions in positivist expla- nations, norms can be thought of only with great difficulty as ‘causing’ occur- rences. Norms may ‘guide’ behaviour, they may ‘inspire’ behaviour, they may ‘rationalize’ or ‘justify’ behaviour, they may express ‘mutual expectation about behaviour’, or they may be ignored. But they do not effect cause in the sense that a bullet through the heart causes death or an uncontrolled surge in the money supply causes inflations.”79 This argument is more in line with the
writings of Nicholas Onuf, whose main argument remains that norms (as informal rules) simultaneously fulfil a regulative and a constitutive function because just as norms regulate conduct, they also constitute the social ar- rangements within which they function.80
However, even though constructivists such as Onuf and Kratochwil talk about ‘causal explanation’ as having something going about it, it is not clear why their preferred mode of ‘constitutive’ argumentation is not identified as causal as both seem to reject Humean empiricism and strict positivism on the basis of determinism and materialism.81 Kurki has criticized this, and
suggests that IR scholars should instead adopt an acceptance of ‘philosophi- cal realism’ that operates with a deeper conception of cause (Aristotelian cause) that broadens the view of causality by departing from an understand- ing of cause as effective ‘pushing and pulling’.82 As Kurki argues, philosophi-
cal realism (or critical realism in terms of social inquiry) is an anti-Humean philosophy that maintains that causes are ontologically real independent of our knowledge or conception of them. What this implies is a move away from attempting to grasp cause in terms of observable regularities between objects in the material world: “(t)o grasp the real underlying causes (why something
77 Finnemore, Martha & Sikkink, Kathryn 2005, ‘International Norm Dynamics and Political Change’,
International Organization, Vol. 52, Issue 04 (September 2005), pp. 887–917.
78 Adler, Emanuel 1997, µSeizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics’, European
Journal of International Relations, Vol.3, No.3, p. 329.
79 Kratochwil, Friedrich and Ruggie, John G. 1986, ‘International organization: a state of the art on an
art of the state’, Vol. 40, No. 4, p. 767.
80 See Onuf, Nicholas 2014, ‘Rule and Rules in International Relations’, Erik Castrén Institute of Inter-
national Law and Human Rights University of Helsinki, 24 April 2014. Available at: (http://www.helsinki.fi/eci/Events/Nicholas%20Onuf_Rule%20and%20Rules%20%204-2-14.pdf).
81 Kurki, Milja 2006, µCauses of a divided discipline: rethinking the concept of cause in International
Relations theory’, Review of International Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 199-200.
happens), realists argue, we need knowledge based on various types of evi- dence and, importantly, a conceptual framework that allows us to conceptu- alise the real (ontological) unobservable causal powers that are behind ob- servable events (or regularities of events).”83 Hence, “causation is defined
much more openly, or common-sensically, by the philosophical realists. Causes are defined rather loosely as all those things that bring about, pro- duce, direct or contribute to states of affairs or changes in the world.”84
Moreover, this view on causality seems to be in line with the sociological notion of culture often conceived of as a metaconcept that goes beyond rep- resenting a singular process of cause and effect, reflects a national identity (‘who we are’) and provides a normative basis for our actions (‘what it is that we do’) or (‘should do’).85 Importantly, if taken seriously, this philo-
sophical realist notion of cause also has far-reaching implications for the conduct of strategic culture research. In particular, it will enable us to break out of the epistemological impasse of determinism vs. holism that currently prevails in the mainstream accounts on strategic culture.
The stance taken on norms in this thesis is that they are the essential car- riers of a country’s strategic culture because they embody the societally ac- cepted forms of strategic behaviour in terms of the use of military force. Fol- lowing the discussion above, then, norms can be regarded as causes, because as ‘reasons for action’ they establish meaningful responses to the questions of peace and war and function as the regulative link between strategic ideas and strategic action. In this sense, I understand norms primarily in their regula- tive function which either constrains or enables certain kind of strategic be- haviour. However, there is more to norms than treating them simply as ‘road signs’ or ‘traffic rules’. They differ in one crucial respect: it is important to keep in mind that all norms are prescriptive or evaluative to the degree that they entail or express a moral stance of what acceptable behaviour is. More- over, and importantly, the treatment of norms as reasons for action does not translate into a positivist argument ‘if norm X, then behaviour Y’ precisely because 1) the relationship between strategic thinking and strategic action cannot be grasped in form of a natural law and that therefore, and following Kurki’s line of thinking, we can argue that 2) norms may possess various causal properties which need to be understood beyond the notion of ‘inde- pendent variables’ or ‘effective causes’.
Indeed, there are different causal mechanisms which make norms as rea- sons for action either a) constrain behaviour or b) enable behaviour.86 In this
study, I identify the re-interpretations of the German past as one of the pri- mary mechanisms, because they involve a re-assessment of the historical ex-
83 Ibid., p. 202. 84 Ibid.
85 See Jepperson, Ronald L. and Swidler, Ann 1994, ‘What Properties of Culture do we Measure?’
Poetics, Vol. 22, No. 4 (1994), p. 360.
perience in terms of warfare – the foundation of the ideational and norma- tive structure of any strategic culture. The notions of strategic cultural conti- nuity and change, then, are inextricably tied to the question of how the cau- sality of norms is conceived in constructivist theorizing, functioning either as the causal or the constitutive link between strategic discourse and strategic behaviour, depending on where one stands on the issue. As discussed earlier, the equivalent argument in which norms translate into policy in the context of German foreign and security policy is well known. Hanns Maull has de- fined Germany as a civilian power that acts according to its deeply rooted antimilitaristic norms that are then transformed into policies, whereby Ger- many abstains from the use of force and unilateral military action.87 (Maull
hence treats norms as causes of certain type of behaviour).
However, constructivists are inevitably puzzled here, because, although they are often able to show why states do not always act on behalf of their material interests based on strict rational decision-making, pursuit of power or economic calculations, they struggle with cases where a professed identity (such as that of a civilian power) seems to contradict with the policies pur- sued. As illustrated at the beginning of this chapter, German security policy behaviour after the end of the Cold War provides a case in point. Construc- tivists could argue that this occurred because of a potential conflict on the level of norms but in case of frequent deviation, the argument falls short be- cause it seems to suggest a change or at least a significant shift on either the level of state identity or the level of norms. The problem here is that these assessments often lack a systematic analytical basis and empirical evidence for changes on the level of identity. This point brings us back to the debatable question about causality understood as a co-constitutive relationship be- tween identity, interests and action where norms are supposed to function as carriers of identity and expressed in policy choices. I agree with constructiv- ists who claim that a concept such as identity is difficult to pin down in ana- lytical terms, let alone argue that it would cause a certain type of actions per
se. This is also the case with the concept of (strategic) culture if we opt for a
rigorous positivist understanding of cause (Humean cause) that endorses the study of social and political phenomena as strict law-like patterns or pre- conceived mechanisms for social and political behaviour – the thing which Kratochwil and Ruggie were lamenting.
Even though many scholars identifying themselves as constructivists would probably deny having argued about identity causing anything if ap- plied under the strictest rules of positivism, the fact remains that identity is still often considered to be a first-order explanans of state action/behaviour in the constructivist analyses, which in turn becomes the main explanandum, although Wendt specifically argued against any such attempt in his Social
87 Maull, W. Hanns 1990, ‘Germany and Japan: The New Civilian Powers’, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 69, Nr.
Theory of International Politics.88 However, and in contrast, the common
constructivist understanding of the co-constitutive relationship between identity, interests and action also warrants an analytical framework in which the distinction of explanantia from explananda is rather arbitrary. IR con- structivism is therefore perhaps better geared to answering ‘how’ instead of ‘why’ questions – as Wendt has famously argued “anarchy is what states make of it”89.
Another option for the constructivist would be to adopt a post- structuralist position and argue that identity is an (inter)subjective matter since it is about the use of language which goes ‘all the way down’ and that it is inherently built around the eternal conflict about power.90 Yet with this
position it becomes even more problematic for the constructivist to attempt to explain (and understand) those policies which do not sit well with, or seem to be diametrically opposed to, what a given identity would suggest since shifts in elite power and interests would then explain what identity cannot explain, which is a contradiction in terms if, as constructivists claim, identity and interests co-constitute one another. 91 Although identities can be consid-
ered to be relatively stable and shared cognitive and social entities, they do not cause certain policies in the way bullet goes through the heart and causes death.
If there was no detectable pattern of German foreign and security policy behaviour, the post-structuralist critique that ‘all events are unique’ would apply to some extent.92 In contrast, many constructivists would claim the
opposite since in their assessment, state identity is a relatively stable social entity and numerous studies on German foreign and security policy are a tes- tament of this argument.93 Yet, at least since the end of the Cold War, the
pattern is anything but consistent. However, this does not mean that we should not try to attempt to explain why there is none or why it is incon- sistent. This thesis suggests that the solution to this will not be found in rein- venting the concept of cultural continuity but in a more nuanced understand- ing of how cultural norms function and how they are conditioned by other
88 Wendt 2001.
89 Wendt, Alexander 1992, ‘Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Poli-
tics’, International Organization, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring 1992), pp. 391-425.
90 For similarities and differences between constructivism and post-structuralism, see e.g. Palan, Ro-
nen 2000, ‘A world of their making: an evaluation of the constructivist critique in International Rela- tions’, Review of International Studies, Volume 26, Issue 4 (October 2000), pp. 575-598.
91 See Katzenstein 1996.
92 See e.g. Hansen, Lene 2006, Security as Practice: Discourse Analysis and the Bosnian War,
Routledge, New York 2006.
93 See Boekle, Henning, Rittberger, Rainer & Wagner, Wolfgang 2001; Rittberger, Volker (ed.) 2001,
German Foreign Policy Since Unification: Theories and Case Studies, Manchester University Press, 2001; Harnisch, Sebastian 2001, ‘Change and continuity in post-unification German foreign policy’, German Politics, Vol.10, No.1, pp.35-60.
social factors. This will also allow us to make better arguments about the pos- sibility and preconditions for strategic cultural change when the functioning, meaning and purpose of norms is not taken as ‘given’ and that there is indeed more to norms than conventional constructivist wisdom on national security would suggest.
There is also a growing literature of pragmatist studies on German foreign and security policy that actually suggests a move away from the ‘logic of ap- propriateness’ – in this sense meaning the functioning of the cultural norms in constructivist thinking towards a more situational understanding of for- eign and security policy-making, something which also has implications for constructivist research.94 These studies are also critical of the conventional
constructivist position albeit for different reasons. Through the philosophical lens of pragmatism95 , strategic culture could be coined as the sum total of
social interactions and practices of the strategic actors. From this point of view, strategic culture can be considered both a context and an epiphenome- non since what actually counts is the situational awareness of the strategic actors. Overall, pragmatist approaches highlight the fact that political deci- sion makers face problematic situations where the logic of appropriateness fails to account for the possible solutions that rest on a re-interpretation of existing cultural variables. IR scholars that utilize some of the insights of pragmatism regarding agency offer some interesting insights into the study of German foreign and security policy96 yet the arguments are not directly
applicable in terms of strategic culture research; i.e. the notion of change would rather be limited to a focus in changes in actors’ beliefs. I will briefly come back to discuss this in the next chapter.
94 See Wagner, Wolfgang, Baumann, Rainer & Hellmann, Gunther 2001, ‘Agents, Structures, and Ger-
man Foreign Policy after Unification. From Metatheory to Empirical Enquiry’, Paper Prepared for Presentation at the 42nd Annual Convention of the International Studies Association in Chicago, 20-24 February 2001; Hellmann, Gunther 2009, ‘Fatal attraction? German foreign policy and IR/foreign policy theory’, Journal of International Relations and Development, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 257-292; Zeh- fuss, Maja 2002, Constructivism in International Relations: The Politics of Reality, Cambridge Uni-