D. CHEMICAL AND RADIOISOTOPE UNITS
In Canada, laboratory use of radioisotopes is regulated by the (federal) Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations. The AECB issues licences to the institution for the possession of radioactive material. When radioisotopes are used in animals
experimentally, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to ensure that related hazards are minimized should be defined and enforced; these SOPs are considered by the AECB when it issues the Radiation Licence. As well, the AECB recommends that the institution's Radiation Safety Officer sit on the Occupational Health and Safety Committee in an ex-officio capacity.
The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) is regulated by federal and provincial health and safety authorities. It legislates labelling requirements, availability of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), and training programs required for personnel to work safely with certain hazardous materials.
The chemical and radiation hazard area should be separated from other animal housing and work areas.
The hazardous area must be clearly posted and entry restricted to necessary personnel. Contaminated cages should not be transported through corridors. Safe transport equipment and procedures should be developed if necessary. Laminar flow cage-changing stations are recommended to protect the staff from aerosolized contaminants (Hessler and Moreland, 1984) (see also Occupational Health and Safety).
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CLOUGH, G. Environmental factors in relation to the comfort and well-being of laboratory rats and mice.
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IV. FARM ANIMAL FACILITIES AND ENVIRONMENT
These guidelines are intended for farm animals used in agricultural research and teaching. Where agricultural animal species serve as models for humans in biomedical research projects and teaching demonstrations, they are to be kept in similar facilities compatible with each animal's normal
requirements and under conditions that will minimize stress, bearing in mind the conditions required for non-agricultural species used in similar experiments.
When farm animals are brought to the laboratory, consideration must be given to the transition from the ambient outdoor conditions (e.g., cold weather, photoperiod), so that the animals are given as smooth a transition period as possible. Bringing animals in from the cold will result in physiological changes (e.g., hyperventilation in sheep) which will also be reflected in changes in their dietary requirements.
Husbandry procedures such as shearing sheep, the trimming of hoofs, may also be of benefit to the animals at this time. The time required for the animals to adapt to the laboratory's environment will vary.
The transition back to outdoor farm conditions following laboratory confinement also requires careful planning, not only with respect to the ambient climate, but also with respect to the regrouping of the animals.
Comprehensive guidelines for environmental enrichment, as well as for housing large animals in metabolism crates, are found in the chapter on Social and Behavioural Requirements of Experimental Animals.
The use of metabolism cages or crates necessarily reduces the animal's social and behavioural activities.
This practice should not, therefore, be used merely for the purpose of convenient restraint, but should be reserved for approved metabolic studies. Animals so housed should be under close and expert observation throughout the period of the study (see also Social and Behavioural Requirements of Experimental Animals).
Acceptable baseline information on facilities and housing for farm animals for production purposes may be found in the National Research Council (NRC) Canadian Farm Building Code (NRC, 1990). Similarly, the various recommended Codes of Practice for livestock and poultry published by Agriculture Canada
(Agriculture Canada, 1771/E, 1984; 1821/E, 1988; 1757/E, 1989; 1853/E, 1990; 1870/E, 1991) are also useful references. In addition, a revision of the Recommended Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Farm Animals--Pigs (1898/E) is now in press.
Where a new facility or extensive remodelling of existing housing is contemplated, the plans should be discussed with agricultural engineering experts (provincial departments of agriculture and regional agricultural colleges). Detailed information is available in the most recent edition of the Canadian Farm Building Code (NRC, 1990), and the Canadian Farm Building Handbook (Agriculture Canada, 1988).
The American Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Curtis, 1988), contains useful information. The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) has also published a volume on farm animal well-being (Mench, Mayer and Krulisch, 1992).
A number of articles on Farm Animal Housing were compiled as a special feature by the Veterinary Record (Wathes, Jones and Webster, 1983; Linklater and Watson, 1983; Sainsbury, 1983). The British Veterinary Association's (BVA) Animal Welfare Foundation has published guidelines for the detection and relief of
pain in a number of species of farm animals (Edwards, 1985; Gentle, 1985; Oldham, 1985; Silver, 1985).
It has also published guidelines on transportation of farm species (Gibson and Paterson, 1986).
Facility design and the nature of the primary enclosures used for the housing of farm animals have a major impact on their welfare. The conditions for production-oriented agricultural research must often be simulated and sometimes intensified in commercial applications of intensive husbandry practices in food animal production (Fraser, 1975). With others, however, attempting to impose close confinement can introduce a severe stress and "skew" research results.
Probably the most important factor in the provision of appropriate animal care for farm animals is the attitude and concern for animal well-being of the animal attendants and herdsmen.
Domestication is a continuing process, and much of today's livestock and poultry production involves animals of genetic strains that were selected for growth or reproduction in various environments under varying degrees of control (Siegel, 1984).
Currently, no precise objective measures exist which can be employed to evaluate the stress level of livestock production systems. Due to problems inherent in biochemical monitoring, the physiological parameters of stress cannot be completely relied upon (Freeman, 1971). The suggestion that high productivity does not constitute a reliable indication of a lack of stress may, in some special instance, be correct. However, wide acceptance of the negative correlation between stress and productivity has proven most useful and beneficial in that its acceptance by agricultural producers has given rise to continuing efforts to upgrade environmental conditions (Mann and Harvey, 1971; Wilson, 1971; Agriculture Canada, 1988). The Report of the Technical Committee to Enquire into the Welfare of Animals kept under
Intensive Livestock Husbandry Systems in Britain concluded that no one factor can be considered
conclusive in assessing well-being, and the fact that farm animals are producing normally should be taken as no more than a guide in this regard (Brambell, 1965). The well-being of farm animals probably will be assessed best by an integrated system of indicators in four categories: 1) reproductive and productive performance; 2) pathological and immunological traits; 3) physiological and biochemical characteristics;
and 4) behavioural patterns (Curtis, 1988; Duncan, 1981; Curtis, 1982; Smidt, 1983).
Cages and pens should not only serve to confine the animal, but must also ensure its comfort and safety by permitting normal postural and behavioural adjustments. Adequate ventilation, ready access to food and water, and satisfactory viewing of the confined animal are also mandatory. The Brambell Report in dealing with the implications of modern technology on animal welfare, summarizes this concept by suggesting that regardless of the system of management, five basic freedoms should be respected for all farm animals; the freedom to get up, lie down, groom normally, turn around and stretch its limbs
(Brambell, 1965). Criticism that these criteria are not always fully met, and that intensive livestock systems restrict living space and in some cases drastically reduce freedom of movement, is often
justified. The equivocal point is, to what extent the potential stress of confinement is counterbalanced by such things as the period of the imposed stress, injury prevention and improved disease control.
If slatted or partially slatted floors are used, the slat width and spacing will vary with the species, but should be such as to provide adequate support and minimize the risk of injury while permitting free drainage of excrement (Smith and Robertson, 1971). Slat material should be durable. The possibility that toxic gases may develop from the liquid manure disposal system must always receive consideration, as these may prove dangerous to both livestock and personnel.
Solid floor surfaces for farm animals should be finished with materials and finishes that will minimize slippage and thus the probability of injury and bruising. Epoxy resin floors if properly keyed have been recommended for swine. The use of heavy rubber matting (rubber cow mats) may prove useful in farrowing crates and for tethered animals, as well as for stanchion-tied cattle. The arrangements for tethering animals in relation to each other and to service areas within a facility may have a considerable influence on the well-being, health and production of the animals. For example, sows in tie stalls will generally thrive better if they can see each other and are fed simultaneously.