Foster child-friendly communities: Children and adolescents should be supported to partner with adult stakeholders in government and local communities and develop comprehensive plans to make

In document Cities and Children: the challenge of urbanisation in Tanzania (Page 97-103)

communities and cities friendly to children.

Endnotes

1 UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities. Bridging the Urban Divide, 2010/11, Earthscan, London, 2011, p.ix; UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children Report 2012, New York, 2012, p.2

2 Ibid, p. 284

3 World Bank, The Urban Transition in Tanzania, World Bank, Washington D.C., April 29, 2009, pp.6, 11.

4 UN HABITAT, National Urban Profile, Tanzania, Report prepared by David Kithakye, Phillemon Mutashubirwa, and Lusungu Kayani, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Regional and Technical cooperation Division, 2009, p..4,

5 World Bank, World Development Report, Reshaping Economic Geography, Washington, D.C., 2009, p. 283.

6 United Republic of Tanzania (URT), Tanzania Census 2002 National Projections Volume XII, National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Planning, Economy and Empowerment, Dar es Salaam, December 2006, p. 10-11; UN HABITAT, Urban Profile, 2009, p.12.

7 World Bank, Urban Transition, 2009, p.3.

8 Ibid, pp.70 and 85.

9 International Labour Organization (ILO), International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), Tanzania, Child Labour in the Informal Sector: A Rapid Assessment, Investigating the Worst Forms of Child Labour No. 14, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, January 2002; van der Kruk, Marije, Towards Places of Opportunity? A Literature Study into Rural-Urban Migration among Young People in Tanzania, Wageningen University, 2009, p. 25.

10 World Bank, Urban Transition, 2009, p.93.

11 URT, Tanzania Census 2002, p.33.

12 Tulchin (2003) in van der Kruk, 2009.

13 Parnwell (1993) in van der Kruk, 2009, p.32.

14 UN HABITAT, Urban Profile, p.14.

15 Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA), The Oversight Processes of Local Councils in Tanzania, REPOA, Dar es Salaam, 2008.

16 URT (2005) in UN HABITAT, Urban Profile, pp. 6, 14.

17 REPOA, Oversight, 2008.

18 PMO-RALG and Ministry of Finance, Local Government Finance Information for Tanzania Mainland, Local Government Finance Working Group, Dar es Salaam, 2012, http://www.logintanzania.net

19 Boex, J. and P. Tidemand, Intergovernmental Funding Flows and Local Budget Execution in Tanzania, Final Draft, Dar es Salaam, October 16, 2008.

20 Tidemand, Per and Jamal Msami, The Impact of Local Government Reforms in Tanzania 1998-2008, Special Paper 10/1, REPOA, Dar es Salaam, 2010.

21 UN HABITAT, Urban Profile, 2009, p.15.

22 Tidemand and Msami, Local Government Reforms, 2010.

23 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force: Urban Poverty and Climate Change in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Case Study, Final Report, World Bank, Washington, D.C., May 31, 2011, pp.8-9.

24 Ibid., pp. 8 and 14.

25 Meikel, Sheilah, ‘The Impact of Energy Use on Poor Urban Livelihoods in Arusha, Tanzania,’ Energia News Vol 9 nr 1, 2006.

26 Nyerere, Madaraka G., “Another Explosion Rocks Dar es Salaam,”Daily News, 19 Feb. 2011. The bomb explosions that took place in Mbagala in 2009 and Gongolamboto in 2011 due to unprotected military installations led to civilian loss of life and separation of parents from their children. These are sad reminders of how disaster prevention and preparedness are still grossly deficient, especially in dense urban centres.

27 Mgwabati, Faraja and Alvar Mwakyusa, “Met Warns of More Floods in Dar es Salaam,” Daily News, 26 December 2011; World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, p.36.

28 Watkiss, P., et al, The Economics of Climate Change in the United Republic of Tanzania, Report to Development Partners Group and the UK Department for International Development, 2011, p.69.

29 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, pp. 8, 36.

30 Climate Works Foundation, European Commission, Global Environmental Facility et al., Shaping Climate-Resilient Development: A Framework for Decision-Making, A Report of the Economics of Climate Adaptation Working Group, 2009

31 Stacey Noel, The Economics of Climate Change Tanzania: Water Resources, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockhodl, n/d.

32 United Nations, Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989.

33 UN in UN HABITAT, Urban Profile, pp. 7 and 22.

34 World Bank, Urban Transition, p.63.

35 URT (2010), Household Budget Survey (HBS) 2007, National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Dar es Salaam, 2007; Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, 2009/10 Household Budget Survey, Office of Chief Government Statistician, Zanzibar, 2011.

36 David Satterthwaite, “Under-Counting the Urban Poor,”In Focus, A.Grinspun, Editor, International Poverty Centre, UNDP, 2005, p.3-5.

37 World Bank, Urban Transition, p.52.

38 FAO, Urban Food Insecurity and Malnutrition in Tanzania, Revised Report prepared by Bureau for Agricultural Consultancy and Advisory Services (BACAS) of Sokoine University of Agriculture, March, 2009, pp.31, 41.

39 URT, The Tanzania Long Term Perspective Plan (LTPP) 2011/12-2025/26, The Road Map to a Middle Income Country, President’s Office, Planning Commission, Dar es Salaam, Draft, March 2012.

40 Between 2001 and 2006 the urban unemployed population remained virtually the same in absolute numbers, while its proportion in urban areas declined, from 46 to 31 per cent in Dar es Salaam and from 26 to 16 per cent in other cities. URT, Integrated Labour Force Survey (ILFS) 2006: Key Findings, NBS, Dar es Salaam, 2007.

41 URT, HBS, 2007; URT, Labour Force Survey 2006, p.47.

42 NBS, UNICEF and REPOA, Childhood Poverty in Tanzania: Deprivations and Disparities in Child Well-Being, Dar es Salaam, 2009.

43 Ibid.

44 NBS and ICF Macro, Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) 2010, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: NBS and ICF Macro, 2011, p.22-23, and 36-37.

45 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, p.36.

46 Idem; Taylor, Ben, Situation Analysis of Women, Children and the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector in Tanzania, Extended Analysis for the Joint Water Sector Review 2009, Joint Annual Health Sector Review 2009, Joint Education Sector Review 2009, and MKUKUTA Review, Dar es Salaam, September, 2009, Dar es Salaam, September, 2009, p i.

47 NBS and ICF Macro, 2011, p.23.

48 Ibid, pp.40-41.

49 Ibid, pp.32-38.

50 World Food Programme, A Report on the Pilot Study on the Impact of Global Economic and Financial Crisis on Urban Food Security in Tanzania, Dar Es Salaam, April, 2010.

51 Drechsel, Pay and Dongus, Stefan, “Dynamics and Sustainability of Urban Agriculture: Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa,” Sustainability Science 5(1), p. 69-78, 2010.

52 FAO, Urban Food Insecurity, p. 29.

53 Ibid., pp. 41, 70.

54 Ibid., p.42.

78 Shivji, Issa, Not Yet Democracy: Reforming Land Tenure in Tanzania, IIED, London, 1998, p. 31

79 Kironde (2006) in Ndezi, Timothy , Advocating for Effective Urban

Resettlement: Effective Guidelines for Resettlement. A Case Study of Kurasini Settlement, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, n/d.

80 Cadstedt, Jenny (2010), ‘Private Rental Housing in Tanzania: A Private Matter?

Habitat International, 34, 2010, pp. 46-52.

81 UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

82 Kironde, “Regulatory Framework,” Idem.

83 Mwanakombo, Mkanga, Impact of Development-Induced Displacement on Households Livelihoods: Experience of people from Kurasini Dar es Salaam – Tanzania, MSc Thesis, 2010.

84 UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

85 Kanyama, Ahmad, et.al, Public Transport In Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

Institutional Challenges and Opportunities for a Sustainable Transportation System, December 2004, pp. 46, 48, 64, 66.

86 UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

87 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, pp.40- 41.

88 UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

89 REPOA, Children and Vulnerability In Tanzania: A Brief Synthesis, Special Paper 07.25, REPOA, Dar es Salaam, 2007, p.19.

90 CCI is a partner of the Tanzania Federation for the Urban Poor, a body linked to Slum Dwellers International, a global network of slum dweller associations, active in several countries of the world, especially in Africa and Asia.

91 WAT Human Settlement Trust, Documentation of Regularisation Experience in Informal Settlements in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam. Experience of Hananassif, 2010

92 Personal communication with CIUP Coordinator, Temeke Municipality, October, 2011

93 UN-HABITAT, Urban Profile, 2009, p.13.

94 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, p.22; URT, HBS 2007/08, NBS, Dar es Salaam, 2008, p.14; Taylor , 2009, p.i.

95 URT, HBS, 2007/08, p.14; NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, p.22.

96 URT, “Briefing: Economic Impact of Water and Sanitation,” Sanitation and Water for All, March 2012, p. 3.

97 Taylor, Ben, op. cit, 2009.

98 UNICEF Tanzania, 2010 Situation Analysis, Vol. I, 2010, p 94..

99 WaterAid-Tanzania, “Water reforms and PSP in Dar es Salaam, New Rules, New Roles: Does PSP Benefit the Poor?” WaterAid, Dar es Salaam, 2003, p.4.

100 URT, Briefing: March 2012, p. 3.

101 From the perspective of water service, a variety of parameters are adopted to measure service level, such as continuity of supply, quantity supplied, pressure at consumer points, and tariff. In view of deteriorating water quality, service levels may be in serious jeopardy as well. See UNICEF Tanzania, Situation Analysis 2010, p.80, and UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

102 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, pp.44-45.

103 Kessy, Flora and Brigit, Obrist, ‘Identifying Resilience Pathways to Sanitary Health Problems in Unplanned Ward of Dodoma, Tanzania,’ Medische Antropologie, 2008, 20(2): 227-239.

104 UNICEF Tanzania, Urban Consultations, 2011.

105 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, p.22.

106 WaterAid-Tanzania, “Water Reforms,” p.6.

107 UNICEF Tanzania, 2010 Situation Analysis, p.92.

108 WaterAid-Tanzania, “Water Reforms,” p.7.

109 Idem; URT & REPOA, Poverty and Human Development, p.78.

55 Croke, Kevin, Johannes von Engelhardt and Andrew Dorica, in collaboration with Datavision, The Dar es Salaam Mobile Phone Monitoring Project, 2012.

56 URT, HBS 2007, pp.45-46.

57 World Food Programme, European Commission Humanitarian Aid, Department for International Development, Urban Food Security and Nutrition Assessments, Technical Guidance Sheet, June 2008; UNICEF Tanzania,

“Report on Consultations in Six Urban Communities on Childhood Poverty”, UNICEF, Dar es Salaam, 2011.

58 FAO, Urban Food Insecurity and Malnutrition in Tanzania, p.viii

59 In urban areas, there is a risk of shifting to industrially produced, nutritionally poor, packaged or ready-to-eat foods, a problem that may be more widespread among young people and the middle-class, influenced by misleading commercial advertisement and alluring urban lifestyles. With obesity on the rise, special attention should be paid to nutrition education from early age, in communities and schools.

60 Twaweza, Malnutrition: Can Tanzania Afford to Ignore 43,000 Dead Children and Tshs 700 Billion in Lost Income Every Year: A Policy Note, No 35, 2011, Uwazi InfoShop at Twaweza, Sikika, and Policy Forum, Dar es Salaam.

61 UNICEF, Situation Analysis: Children and Women in Tanzania, Volume 1, Mainland, UNICEF, Dar es Salaam, 2010, p. 64.

62 FAO, Urban Food Insecurity, pp.47-50. The survey was carried out among 773 families living in low-income settlements in 22 wards of Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Lindi, Mbeya, Mtwara and Mwanza.

63 NBS and ICF Macro, Micronutrients: Results of the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, Dar es Salaam, NBS and ICF Macro, 2011, pp.163-166.

64 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, pp. 172-181.

65 Ibid, pp. 171, 174.

66 FAO, Urban Food Insecurity, p.47-57.

67 Undernourishment indicates a body mass index of less than 18.5 kg/m2.

68 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, pp. 176, 187. See also: UNICEF, 2010 Situation Analysis, p. 62 and UNICEF, Adolescence in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, September 2011, pp.12-18.

69 Ibid., TDHS, p. 24; 2010 Situation Analysis, p.63.

70 FAO and Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Improving the Nutritional Quality of Street Foods to Better Meet the Micronutrient Needs of Schoolchildren in Urban Areas, FAO and SUA, Dar es Salaam, 2006.

According to UNICEF-supported consultations held in Arusha, food is available in schools when parents agree to make contributions. Some mothers are concerned that giving money to children on a daily basis is not sustainable. They suggest that parents and schools collaborate and plan a food budget affordable to families, so that children can have a proper meal at school.

71 FAO, Urban Food Insecurity, p.61.

72 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, 2011, p.42.

73 Kombe, Wilbard J., “Formal and Informal Land Management in Tanzania:

The Case of Dar es Salaam City,” Spring Research Series 13, University of Dortmund, 1995; Lupala, Aldo, “Peri-urban Land Management for Rapid Urbanisation: The case of Dar es Salaam,” Spring Research Series 32, University of Dortmund, 2002.

74 Kironde, Lussuga, ‘The Regulatory Framework, Unplanned Development and Urban Poverty. Findings from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,’ Land Use Policy, 23, 2006, pp. 460–472.

75 Kombe, Wilbard J., “Land Use Dynamics in Peri-Urban Areas and Their Implications on the Urban Growth and Form: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.” Habitat International 29 (1, March): 113–35.

76 An indicator of the gap between demand and supply for land can be evinced from the discrepancy between applications for planned plots and the number of plots that are actually surveyed and allocated. At the national level, the recorded annual shortfall is of about 95 per cent. See Lussuga Kironde, op.

cit.

77 Kombe, “Land Use Dynamics,” pp. 113–35.

137 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS, p.152.

138 UNICEF, 2010 Situation Analysis, pp.43, 88.

139 Penrose, et.al.

140 Amury Zena and Aneth Komba (2005), Coping Strategies Used by Street Children in the Event of Illness, Research Report 10/1, REPOA, Dar es Salaam 141 TACAIDS, et.al., Tanzania HIV and AIDS and Malaria Indicators Survey

(THMIS) 2007/08, TACAIDS, ZAC, NBS, OCGS and Macro International, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2008, p.149; De Castro, et. al. “Integrated Urban Malaria Control: A Case Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2004, pp. 103-17.

142 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, pp.194-95.

143 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, 2011.

144 Castro M.C., Kanamori, S., Kannady, K., Mkude S., Killeen, G.F., Fillinger, U., The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dos 4(5), 2009: e693. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000693 145 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, pp.141-42.

146 M. Mahmud Khan, et. al., “Geographic Aspects of Poverty and Health in Tanzania: Does Living in a Poor Area Matter?” Policy Plan (March 2006) 21 (2): 110-122); see also Joel Msami, Location of Private Health Care Facilities in Rapidly Urbanising Cities. The Case of Peri-Urban Area of Dar es Salaam, Thesis, Department of Architecture, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2011.

147 Youth Action Volunteers (YAV), Cost Sharing, User Fees, Waivers and Exemption in Health Sector Systems in Kinondoni, Ilala, Temeke and Kibaha Councils, YAV/SIKIKA, Dar es Salaam, 2008.

148 Ibid.

149 Kida, Tausi, The Systemic Interaction of Health Care Market and Urban Poverty in Tanzania, Ph.D. Dissertation, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2009 150 URT, “Public Expenditure Review for Health, Ministry of Health and Social

Welfare,” Dar es Salaam, 2012. According to the 2010 TDHS, “less than 1 percent of respondents report having health insurance through social security, 4 percent of women and 3 percent of men are covered by health insurance through their employers, and 2 percent of women and 3 percent of men have mutual health organization or community-based insurance. In total, 94 percent of women and 93 percent of men do not have health insurance.”

(p.48)

151 Josephine, Borghi and August, Joachim, “Who is Covered by Health Insurance Schemes and Which Services are Used in Tanzania?”, Policy Brief SHIELD Health Financing Reform, Dar es Salaam, Ifakara Health Institute, 2011.

152 TACAIDS, et al, THMIS 2007/08, p.116-117, 122. See also: UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children 2012. Children in an Urban World, UNICEF, New York, 2012, p.22 and Children and AIDS Fact-Sheet, 2012.

153 UNICEF, Children and AIDS Fact-Sheet; TACAIDS et. al., THMIS 2007/08.

154 UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

155 UNAIDS estimates the total number of children orphaned by AIDS to be 1.3 million. See also NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, pp. 13-14.

156 UNICEF Tanzania, 2010 Situation Analysis, p.135; McCurdy, et al., “Heroin and HIV Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Youth Hangouts, Mageto and Injecting Practices,” AIDS Care, June 2005, 17, Supplement 1, pp. 65-76. At 31.4 per cent, the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among the estimated 7,000 female sex workers of Dar es Salaam is significantly higher than within the general sampled population (9.3 per cent). Almost three-quarters of the sex workers reported having a steady non-paying partner, while 20 per cent had casual non-paying partners. Consistent condom use was highest with regular clients and lowest with steady partners. The most common reason for not using a condom was partners’

objection or receiving higher pay for unprotected sex. National AIDS Control Program (NACP) and U.S. Mission to Tanzania, Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), HIV Behavioral and Biological Surveillance Survey Among Female Sex Workers in Dar es Salaam, 2010, Dar es Salaam, NACP and U.S.

Mission to Tanzania, Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, 2011, p.11.

110 WaterAid-Tanzania, “Water Reforms.”

111 UNICEF Tanzania, 2010, Situation Analysis, p.99; TWAWEZA, Safe Water for All: Do Mwanza’s Water Kiosks Reach the Underserved?, Policy Brief, TZ.02/2011, Uwazi InfoShop, TWAWEZA, 2011.

112 Kyessi, Alphonce, “Community-Based Urban Water Management in Fringe Neighbourhoods: The Case Of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,” Habitat International, 29, 2005, pp.1–25.

113 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force: p.45.

114 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS 2010, p.23.

115 Penrose, Katherine, et al., ‘Informal Urban Settlements and Cholera Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.’ PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 4(3): e631. doi:10.1371/

journal.pntd.0000631; Lugalla, Joe L.P, and Jessie Kazeni Mbwambo, “Street Children and Street Life in Urban Tanzania: The Culture of Surviving and its Implications for Children’s Health,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol.23, No. 2, 1999, pp. 329-44.

116 URT. 2012 Briefing, p 3; Taylor, 2009, op. cit.

117 UN HABITAT, Urban Profile, p.13; UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

118 UN HABITAT, Urban Profile p.13.

119 UNICEF Tanzania, Urban Consultations, 2011.

120 Ibid.

121 UNICEF Tanzania, 2010 Situation Analysis, p.86.

122 SNV, Water Aid and UNICEF, School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Mapping in Tanzania; Consolidated National Report, SNV, Water AID and UNICEF, Dar es Salaam, 2010

123 Water Aid-Tanzania, “Water Reforms” p.7.

124 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, p.41.

125 Kaunde, Osmund and Nancy Nyenga, E-waste management in Tanzania:

Case Study of Dar es Salaam, University of Dar es Salaam and National Environmental Management Council, Dar es Salaam, 2009; Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority and Dar es Salaam City Council, Strategic Sanitation Plan for Dar es Salaam City, DAWASA and DCC, Dar es Salaam, 2011); Dar es Salaam City Council, Study Report on Assessment of Healthcare Waste Management Practices in Dar es Salaam, DCC, Dar es Salaam, 2010.

See also, FACET, Child Labour in Scavenging, Country Study Tanzania -Dar es Salaam, FACET, Dar es Salaam, 2004.

126 World Bank, Mayor’s Task Force, p.41.

127 UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

128 Elinorata, Mbuya, Solid Waste Management in Dar es Salaam: Privatizing and Improving Revenue Collection, IOIUSA.

129 UNICEF, Urban Consultations, 2011.

130 UNICEF Tanzania, 2010 Situation Analysis, p 35; NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS, p.55, 57, 111.

131 Ibid, pp. 34, 128, 131; Ibid., pp. 137-138.

132 NBS and ICF Macro, TDHS, pp.45, 199.

133 Nationally, more than half of girls with no education had borne a child before turning 20 years old, compared with only 6 per cent of those who had secondary education or more (TDHS 2010, pp. 55 and 65).

134 A plausible explanation for the narrowing urban-rural gap relates to household ownership and use of mosquito nets, which started early in urban areas but then lost momentum. Conversely, net ownership has grown steadily in rural areas. The groups that remain unreached by mosquito net programmes are likely to be those living in poor, remote rural areas and those belonging to the most vulnerable urban communities. (TDHS 2010, pp. 120-22.) 135 According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a child is considered

fully immunised when, during the first year of life, s/he receives a Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis; three doses of DPT vaccine to prevent diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus; at least three doses of polio vaccine; and one dose of measles vaccine.

136 URT, HBS 2007, p. 28-29; UNICEF, 2010 Situation Analysis, p.43.

182 Maarifa ni Ufunguo, “Cost Sharing in Education in Kilimanjaro III: 2008 – Gaps are Widening. A Follow-Up to Studies Conducted in 2000 and 2002,” 2008.

183 UNESCO, op. cit.; URT, HBS 2007, Table 4.7, p. 26.

184 For the purpose of this report, an analysis of Uwezo datasets has been carried out to identify the relationship between learning outcomes, household wealth and place of residence. Uwezo data is based on results of test scores in math, Kiswahili and English administered to about 83,000 children aged 10-16 in their homes. The tests assess the level of proficiency that a student is expected to achieve at the end of Standard 2 (i.e. 8 years of age, based on the mandatory age of entry into primary school at 7 years). The data analysis has applied the Alkire-Foster multidimensional poverty headcount index (Alkire & Foster, 2011), which focuses on the number of deprivations experienced by households across a range of dimensions of well-being. Six welfare dimensions have been adopted (and given equal weight) – access to electricity, access to piped water, ownership of a phone, ownership of a radio, ownership of a TV, and mother’s education. A household is defined as

‘ultra-poor’ if it is simultaneously deprived in all dimensions. If a household is not ‘ultra-poor’, then it is either defined as ‘poor’ if it is deprived in any four of these dimensions, and ‘non-poor’ otherwise.

185 UNICEF, Children and Women in Tanzania, Volume 1, Mainland, UNICEF, Dar es Salaam, 2010, p.130

186 URT/NBS Tanzania Disability Survey 2008, Dar es Salaam, 2010; UNICEF Tanzania, 2010 Situation Analysis, p 109.

187 Twaweza, Capitation Grant for Education: When will it make a difference?, UWAZI, Twaweza, Dar es Salaam, 2010; Mamdani, M., et.al.., Influencing Policy for Children in Tanzania: Lessons from Education, Legislation and Social Protection, Special Paper 09.30, REPOA, Dar es Salaam, 2009.

188 UNICEF Tanzania, 2010 Situation Analysis, p.120; UNICEF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Violence against Children in Tanzania: Findings from a National

188 UNICEF Tanzania, 2010 Situation Analysis, p.120; UNICEF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Violence against Children in Tanzania: Findings from a National

In document Cities and Children: the challenge of urbanisation in Tanzania (Page 97-103)