• Have students read the passage silently, or follow along as they listen to the audio of the reading. • Tell them to underline any words or phrases that are
confusing or that they don’t understand. Remind them not to use a dictionary during this part of the lesson.
• Tell students to do activity 3, Analyzing Cause and Effect, when they fi nish reading.
After You Read
Analyzing Cause and Effect Be sure that students understand the concept of cause and effect.
Activating Prior Knowledge
In the following activity students will examine cause and effect. The cause is what permits or makes something happen. The effect is the resulting action. Thus, in a sentence like “We lit a fi re and warmed up” there is no rhetorical marker stating that the fi re warmed us up, but it is clear that the cause is lighting, or making, a fi re whose effect was to warm us up.
3 Analyzing Cause and Effect
• The aims of this activity are to check students’ reading comprehension and to further instill the concept of cause and effect. Many of the relationships are not made clear by the direct use of rhetorical markers and thus require inference on the part of the students.
• If students have not begun this activity directly after the reading, go over the directions together.
• This activity is to be done individually.
• Review the answers in a whole-class discussion.
Dr. Deborah Tannen, author of this reading, is a professor of linguistics at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. Much of her work looks at gender differences in speech. Her best known book, You Just Don’t Understand, examines how men and women communicate differently. You can learn more about Tannen and her work at
• The aims of this activity are to have students understand how subvocalization works and to be able to make a conscious decision as to whether it can help their comprehension or hurt their speed. Subvocalization means to move the lips and tongue while reading silently. Although this practice is often discouraged by teachers, it is actually a useful tool to help with comprehension when a task is mentally diffi cult.
• Give the students two newspaper or magazine articles. One should be from a relatively simple source such as USA Today. The second should be a more diffi cult and technical article from a publication such as the Economist.
• Ask students to read the two silently while moving their lips and tongues. In which passage do they feel a greater amount of movement?
PA R T
Student Book pages 256–265
1. B 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. A 6. A
7. B 8. A 9. B 10. A 11. B 12. A
• The aim of this activity is to have students compare idioms in English to those in their native language. Translating idioms word for word into a second language can cause great misunderstanding, but idioms are an important part of spoken language. • Copy and distribute Black Line Master 18
“Idioms” on page BLM 18 of this book. Model the fi rst few idioms with students from one or two different fi rst languages to show how this works. Allow students time to complete this activity at home or in a computer lab. Then share the results with the class.
• This activity will work differently depending on whether your students all speak the same fi rst language or if they speak different fi rst languages.
5 Focusing on Words from the Academic
• The aim of this activity is to reinforce the vocabulary selections for this chapter. You may want to have students fi rst attempt this with the list of words covered.
• The students are using the words in context and thus must make use of contextual cues as well as their knowledge of grammar.
• This activity is best done individually. Read the instructions. Remind students that one word will be used twice.
• When students have fi nished the activity, have volunteers read the three paragraphs with their answers. Correct errors and pronunciation as needed and answer any questions the students may have.
1. As a result, the woman got very angry and couldn’t get over her bad feeling toward her husband. She felt as though he didn’t care.
2. As a result, the employees forgave him, and they became more loyal to him.
3. Admitting fault can put you in a dangerous legal position, but failing to admit fault takes a spiritual toll.
4. As a result, the government showed that they cared about the African-American population.
5. Because of the apology, the Germans set up a fund to help the Czechs who had been persecuted by the Nazis during World War II. Consequently, the Czech Republic was asked to join the European Union and NATO.
6. As a result, the Khmer Rouge seemed to be forgiving itself because its statement of apology was not sufficient for the crimes it had committed. One can infer that this insufficient apology outraged the people of Cambodia as well as the general public.
4 Inferring the Meaning of Idioms
• This activity requires students to use contextual cues to infer the meaning of new phrases and idioms.
• Review how idioms work in English; they frequently have nothing to do with the meaning of their individual words. Give examples such as hit the hay or beat around the bush.
• Read or have a volunteer student read the
instructions aloud. Go over the fi rst question and its answer.
• Give students time for the remaining questions. They should complete this activity individually. • Go over answers, calling on volunteers. Correct
or have other students correct any erroneous answers.
7 What Do You Think?
• The aim of this activity is to have students discuss a reading and their opinions.
• Decide in advance if you prefer to do this as a whole-class activity, in small groups, or in pairs. You might ask students to write about their opinions after the discussion.
• Have students look at the photo of Nelson Mandela talking with rock singer, Bono. Explain apartheid and Mandela’s forgiveness of the former government. • Read the passage aloud. Give students a time
limit for their discussion and circulate while they are talking, offering suggestions and answering questions.
ANSWER KEY1. resolve 2. conflicts 3. acknowledge 4. restore 5. restore 6. strategies 7. cultural 8. context 9. evidence 10. inclined
Cultivating Critical Thinking
Students in the United States are often required to participate interactively with each other as part of class and lab work. They are also expected to read critically, as opposed to reading for rote memorization of facts. The aim of the following activities is to have students examine, reinterpret, and synthesize information.
6 Guided Academic Conversation:
Report from the Psychologists
• The aims of this activity are to have students discuss the reading and in so doing, review and expand upon it.
• Read the instructions to the students, and break them into groups of three.
• Circulate among students while they are talking and help with vocabulary problems or questions. Do not correct their grammar while they are speaking. • To shorten the activity, you may want to assign a
single topic to each group rather than have each group discuss all of the topics.
Reading Skills and Strategies
Student Book pages 266–273PA R T
2 Identifying Synonyms
• The aim of this activity is to reinforce the vocabulary selections for this chapter.
• This activity is best done individually. Read the instructions aloud.
• When students have fi nished the activity, have volunteers read their answers. Correct errors and pronunciation as needed and answer any questions the students may have.
1. swarmed 2. roughened, hunched
3. massive, disdainfully 4. demeanor, plebian
5. clenching 6. hobbling 7. dead
8. shuffling 9. tottering
• Have a student read the Introduction aloud. Ask for volunteers to answer the discussion questions.