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The following terms (bold letter type) are followed by sentences used to make up a complete definition. Try to organise the sentences so that a proper definition comes up:
an inland body of water, larger than a pool or pond river drainage, etc.,
usually fresh water, formed by glaciers, lanceolate
-broadest toward the base and narrowed to the apex, several times longer than wide.
shaped like a lance;
a lateral outgrowth from a stem
and functions primarily in food manufacture by photosynthesis.
that constitutes part of the foliage of a plant monocotyledons -
a class of angiosperms
and scattered vascular bundles.
having an embryo
leaves with parallel veins,
part of the flower usually in threes, with only one cotyledon,
morphology - a branch of biology
a study of the forms, relationships, metamorphoses, and phylogenetic development of organs
apart from their functions.
that deals with the form and structure of animals and plants,
UNDERSTANDING THE LANGUAGE: COMPLEX NOUN PHRASES
COMPLEX NOUN PHRASES are strings of two or more nouns that form a language unit. They work in a similar way to adjectival modification: the last noun in the string is the one we want to talk about, describe or define. The preceding nouns give us more information on the qualities and characteristics of this noun that we are describing. An example of adjetive modification is: (the) nervious system. An example of complex noun phrase is: (the) control system. Observe the following complex noun phrase example:
If we want to talk about the quality of water we may use a complex noun and say
In the following phrase we are talking about «supply»
Oil supply a a a here we are talking about a «supply»
But in the next example we are talking about a «crisis» that is modified with or specified in the preceding nouns:
Oil supply crisis a a a here we are talking about a «crisis»
We may also find combinations of noun modification with adjectival modification as in:
(ADJ) + (N) + (N) Solar energy use
EXPLAIN WHAT THE FOLLOWING COMPLEX NOUN PHRASES MEAN BY REPHRASING THEM IN ENGLISH:
1. waxy citrus leaves 2. leaf growth stage 3. citrus trees leaves 4. tcm damaged leaves 5. tip-burned yellow leaves 6. blister-like eruption
7. easy-peeling, seedless citrus fruits
NOW, DO THE OPPOSITE: WRITE COMPLEX NOUN PHRASES FROM THE PHRASES BELOW.
WORK IN PAIRS: One of you will try to guess which is the right option. The other will read the first line and see if his/her colleague transforms it into a coherent phrase
1. flowers which have not been protected 2. flowers that have a low quality
3. insects which visit the flowers 4. flowers that are rich in nectar
5. flowers that have suffered serious damage
NEXT, translate the following phrases into your mother tongue:
a) conventional agricultural chemicals b) fresh food products
c) herbicide resistant crops d) genetically modified maize e) Monarch Butterfly survival study f) biotechnology research projects g) Renewable Energy Promotion Law h) non-violent direct action
i) illegally logged wood
THE FOLLOWING SENTENCE CHUNKS PROVIDE EXAMPLES OF NOUN MODIFICATION, MOST OF THE NOUNS ARE MODIFIED BY OTHER NOUNS IN COMPLEX NOUN PHRASES. THE NOUNS ARE CRISIS, ELECTRICITY AND INDUSTRY. READ THE EXAMPLES IN ENGLISH AND THEN TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH THE PHRASES THAT APPERAR IN SPANISH:
1. a much more serious planetary life-threatening ecological crisis 2. las dos grandes crisis constitucionales británicas del siglo 3. An economic and constitutional crisis
4. The British fuel crisis
5. the Agency has also tackled issues such as the fuel supply crisis , the impact on meat supplies of the foot and mouth outbreak and the introduction of single-use instruments for tonsillectomies
6. the Country’s post war economic and fuel crises 7. nuevas aproximaciones a la crisis global del agua
8. unu-inhweh’s mission is to respond to the growing global water crisis and to recommend positive steps to be taken to implement Millennium Declaration Goals in this context
9. Global health crises - hiv / aidS and bird flu - represent new threats.
10. El periódico afirmó que el gobierno francés había preparado una ambiciosa declaración llamando la atención sobre la crisis higiénica global y la situación crítica que surge de la falta de medicina de bajo coste en Africa, Latinoamérica y Asia
11. The cost of cost of nuclear-generated electricity
12. There are obvious environmental benefits using waste-wood as a heat source rather than unsustainable ones like oil, nuclear-generated electricity and natural gas.
13. Proporcionará la suficiente electricidad sin contaminación como para afrontar las necesidades anuales de más de 13.000 hogares
14. the uk food and drink manufacturing industry
15. la contribución de la industria farmaceutica a la investigación y desarrollo 16. the seminars aim to bring together national and international experts to debate
key issues concerning the cultural and creative industries - a crucial part of the international knowledge economy.
17. una campaña dirigida a obligar al gobierno a que regule la industria del seguro de automóbiles
18. fla ha estado trabajando en nombre de la industria de las finanzas del motor para promover las mejores practicas y encabezar nuevas iniciativas relacionadas con el fraude
The following text talks about a laboratory and how it was designed. The aim of this reading and comprehension exercise is for you to pay attention to the descriptive language used in the text: