EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY (ESS) QUESTIONNAIRE

In document Trust in justice: why it is important for criminal policy, and how it can be measured (Page 50-61)

Appendix 1 presents the ‘trust in justice’ module of the fifth ESS questionnaire. This represented the core of the suite of questions developed by Euro-Justis, and covers trust in justice, including: confidence in the police and courts, cooperation with the police and courts, contact with the police and attitudes towards punishment.

For the full ESS questionnaire and for other details about the fifth sweep, see http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org

ASK ALL: Now some questions on a different topic. I would now like to ask you some questions about how wrong1 you consider certain ways of behaving to be.

CARD 25 Using this card please tell me how wrong it is to…READ OUT… Not wrong at all A bit wrong Wrong Seriously wrong (Don’t know) D1 ...make an exaggerated or

false insurance claim2? 1 2 3 4 8

D2 ...buy something you3 thought

might be stolen? 1 2 3 4 8

D3 ...commit a traffic offence like speeding or crossing a red light?

1 2 3 4 8

1 ‘Wrong’ in the sense of ‘morally wrong’. Countries should use the scale used at E13–E16 in

ESS Round 2 for items D1-D3. Note however that only D1 was fielded in Round 2 (as E15) but in a slightly different form.

2 The phrase ‘Made an exaggerated or false insurance claim’ was included in Item E15 in ESS

Round 2 but the question stem was different.

CARD 26 Now just suppose you were to do any of these things in [country]. Please tell me how likely it is that you would be caught and punished4 if you… READ OUT…

Not at all likely Not very likely Likely Very likely (Don’t know) D4 ...made an exaggerated or false

insurance claim? 1 2 3 4 8

D5 ...bought something you thought

might be stolen? 1 2 3 4 8

D6 ..committed a traffic offence like speeding or crossing a red light?

1 2 3 4 8

Now some questions about the police5 in [country].

D7 CARD 27 Taking into account all the things the police are expected to do, would you say they are doing a good job or a bad job? Choose your answer from this card.

Very good job 1

Good job 2

Neither good nor bad job 3

Bad job 4

Very bad job 5

(Don’t know) 8

4 ‘Punished’ as in ‘punished by the law’; this could be in the form of a prison sentence, fine or

any other sentence.

5 Note that a generic term should be used here and consistently throughout the module. The

translation should encompass all of the different types / levels of police in [country]. Countries might refer to the translation used at B6 in the core questionnaire. If any country specific examples are required to demonstrate that all the police are to be included (e.g. City guards in Poland) these should be mentioned once here and the respondents should then be informed that ‘from now on we will simply say the police in [country]’. Countries should reflect on the questions in the module and consider whether any officials who share a range of powers with the police should be mentioned. Note that groups who only control parking should not

ASK ALL D8 In the past 2 years, did the police in [country] approach6 you7, stop you or make contact with you for any reason?

Yes 1 ASK D9

No 2 GO TO D10

(Don’t know) 8

ASK IF HAS BEEN APPROACHED / STOPPED / CONTACTED BY THE POLICE FOR ANY REASON IN PAST 2 YEARS (code 1 at D8)

D9 CARD 28 How dissatisfied or satisfied were you with the way the police treated you the last time this happened? Choose your answer from this card.

Very dissatisfied 1

Dissatisfied 2

Neither dissatisfied nor satisfied 3

Satisfied 4

Very satisfied 5

(Don’t know) 8

ASK ALL Now some questions about whether or not the police in [country] treat8 victims of crime equally. Please answer based on what you have heard or your own experience. D10 CARD 29 When victims report9 crimes, do you think the police treat rich people worse, poor people worse, or are rich and poor treated equally? Choose your answer from this card.

Rich people treated worse 1

Poor people treated worse 2

Rich and poor treated equally 3

(Don’t know) 8

D11 CARD 30 And when victims report crimes, do you think the police treat some people worse because of their race or ethnic group or is everyone treated equally? Choose your answer from this card.

6 Approach for any reason (e.g. to ask you for information or because they suspect you have

committed a crime or they need to ask you to do something).

7 ‘You’ as in ‘the police approached, stopped or contacted the respondent personally’. 8 Treat in the sense of how the police respond to and deal with people.

People from a different race or ethnic group than most [country] people treated worse

1

People from the same race or ethnic group10 as most [country] people treated worse

2

Everyone treated equally regardless of their race or ethnic group (Don’t know)

3 8 D12 CARD 31 Based on what you have heard or your own experience how successful do you think the police11 are at preventing crimes in [country] where violence is used or threatened? Choose your answer from this card, where 0 is extremely unsuccessful and 10 is extremely successful.

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88

D13 STILL CARD 31 And how successful do you think the police are at catching people who commit house burglaries12 in [country]? Use the same card.

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88

D14 CARD 32 If a violent crime13 or house burglary were to occur near to where you live and the police were called14, how slowly or quickly do you think they would arrive at the scene? Choose your answer from this card, where 0 is extremely slowly and 10 is extremely quickly.

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88

(Violent crimes and / or house burglaries never occur near to where I live) 55

10 See core questionnaire item B35 for a translation of ‘people from the same ethnic group as

most [country] people’.

11 Again the generic name for all police in [country] should be used (see footnote 35). The

question itself and those that follow provide specific cues to respondents that might limit the frame of reference to a specific group / type of police in some countries. However this should be achieved by the crime referred to and NOT by amending the name of the specific police referenced.

12 House burglary is when someone breaks into a property or enters uninvited with the

intention of stealing.

13 ‘Violent crime’ meaning crimes where violence is used or threatened (as at question D12). 14 Called in the sense of telephoned.

Now some questions about when the police15 deal with crimes like house burglary and physical assault. The next few questions do not have a showcard.

D15 Based on what you have heard or your own experience how often would you say the police generally treat people in [country] with respect …READ OUT…

…not at all often, 1

not very often, 2

often, 3

or, very often? 4

(Don’t know) 8

D16 About16 how often would you say that the police make fair, impartial17 decisions in the cases they deal with? Would you say…READ OUT…

…not at all often, 1

not very often, 2

often, 3

or, very often? 4

(Don’t know) 8

D17 And when dealing with people in [country], how often would you say the police generally explain their decisions and actions when asked to do so? Would you say…READ OUT…

…not at all often, 1

not very often, 2

often, 3

or, very often? 4

(No one ever asks the police to explain their decisions and actions) 5

(Don’t know) 8

Now some questions about your duty18 towards the police in [country]. Use this card where 0 is not at all your duty and 10 is completely your duty.

CARD 33 To what extent is it your duty to…READ OUT…

15 Note we do not suppose there is a police force that only deals with burglary and physical

assault in a particular country. A general reference to the police should be used throughout the module.

16 About in the sense of approximately or roughly.

17 ‘Fair, impartial’ - in British English the use of both of these words clarifies the meaning of

‘fair’ in the context of this question. Countries should ensure that impartiality is conveyed.

18 ‘Duty’ in the sense of a citizen’s moral duty to the state. The same translation for duty

CARD 34 Using this card, please say to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about the police in [country].

READ OUT EACH STATEMENT AND CODE IN GRID Agree

strongly

Agree

Neither agree nor

disagree Disagree Disagree strongly (Don’t know)

D21 The police generally have the same sense of right and

wrong20 as I do. 1 2 3 4 5 8

D22 The police stand up for21 values that are important to

people like me. 1 2 3 4 5 8

D23 I generally support how

the police usually act. 1 2 3 4 5 8

D24 The decisions and actions of the police are unduly influenced by pressure from political parties and politicians.

1 2 3 4 5 8

Now one last question about the police and things they may or may not do.

D25 CARD 35 How often would you say that the police in [country] take bribes22?

19 Back in the sense of ‘support ‘.

20 ‘Sense of right and wrong’ in terms of ‘feeling of morally right or wrong from a personal

point of view’.

21 ‘Stand up for’ in the sense of ‘defend/uphold/promote’.

Not at all my duty Completely my duty (Don’t know) D18 …back19 the decisions made

by the police even when you disagree with them?

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88 D19 …do what the police tell you

even if you don’t understand or agree with the reasons?

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88

D20 … do what the police tell you to do, even if you don’t like how they treat you?

Choose your answer from this card where 0 is never and 10 is always.

Never Always (Don’t

know)

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88

I am now going to ask you some questions about the courts in [country] that deal with crimes such as house burglary23 and physical assault. Again please answer based on what you have heard or your own experience.

D26 CARD 36 Taking into account all the things the courts are expected to do, would you say they are doing a good job or a bad job? Choose your answer from this card.

Very good job 1

Good job 2

Neither good nor bad job 3

Bad job 4

Very bad job 5

(Don’t know) 8

D27 CARD 37 Please tell me how often you think the courts make mistakes that let guilty people go free? Use this card where 0 is never and 10 is always.

Never Always (Don’t

know)

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88

D28STILL CARD 37 How often do you think the courts make fair, impartial decisions based on the evidence24 made available to them? Use the same card.

Never Always (Don’t

know)

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88

Now some questions about the chances of different people in [country] being found guilty25 of crimes they did not commit.

22 ‘Bribes’ can include ANY unauthorised inducement – whether it is an amount of money

and/or something else that is valuable or gives influence.

23 See footnote 46.

24 Evidence’ refers to the ‘testimony’ a witness gives verbally in court AND other materials

presented to the court.

D29 CARD 38 Suppose two people - one rich, one poor - each appear in court, charged with an identical crime they did not commit. Choose an answer from this card to show who you think would be most likely to be found guilty.

The rich person is more likely to be found guilty 1 The poor person is more likely to be found guilty 2 They both have the same chance of being found guilty 3

(Don’t know) 8

D30 CARD 39 Now suppose two people from different race or ethnic groups each appear in court, charged with an identical crime they did not commit. Choose an answer from this card to show who you think would be most likely to be found guilty.

The person from a different race or ethnic group than most [country] people more likely to be found guilty

1 The person from the same race or ethnic group as most [country] people more

likely to be found guilty

2 They both have the same chance of being found guilty 3

(Don’t know) 8

Now a question about judges and things they may or may not do.

D31 CARD 40 Using this card please tell me how often you would say that judges in [country] take bribes?

Never Always (Don’t

know)

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 88

CARD 41 Using this card, please say to what extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about [country] nowadays.

READ OUT EACH STATEMENT AND CODE IN GRID Agree strongly Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Disagree strongly (Don’t know)

D32 Courts generally protect the interests of the rich and powerful above those of ordinary people.

1 2 3 4 5 8

D33 People who break the law should be given much harsher sentences than they are these days.26

1 2 3 4 5 8

D34 Everyone has a duty to back the final verdict of

the courts. 1 2 3 4 5 8

D35 All laws should27 be

strictly obeyed. 1 2 3 4 5 8

D36 Doing the right thing28 sometimes means

breaking the law. 1 2 3 4 5 8

D37 The decisions and actions of the courts are unduly influenced by pressure from political parties and politicians.

1 2 3 4 5 8

D38 CARD 42 People have different ideas about the sentences which should be given to offenders. Take for instance the case of a 25 year old man who is found guilty of house burglary for the second time. Which one of the following sentences do you think he should receive? Please use this card.

26 This item was included as D5 in Round 4 27 ‘Should’ - in the sense of ‘must’.

INTERVIEWER NOTE: If respondent wants to choose more than one sentence, record the sentence with the lowest code number.

If asked what a suspended sentence or community sentence is please say:

‘A suspended prison sentence is only served if the offender commits another crime or breaks other specific conditions during the suspended sentence period’

Community service refers to a sentence OTHER than a prison sentence or fine where the offender is asked to perform a task or tasks that benefit the community’

ASK IF PRISON SENTENCE GIVEN (code 1 at D38)

D39 CARD 43 And which of the answers on this card comes closest to the length of time you think he should spend in prison? Please use this card.

1-3 months 01 4-6 months 02 7– 11 months 03 About 1 year 04 About 2 years 05 About 3 years 06 About 4 years 07 About 5 years 08 6-10 years 09

More than 10 years 10

(Don’t know) 88

ASK ALL

Now some questions about what you would do if you were the only witness to a crime. The next few questions do not have a show card.

D40 Imagine that you were out29 and saw someone push a man to the ground and steal his wallet. How likely would you be to call30 the police? Would you be…

29 ‘Out’ as in ‘not at one’s home’. 30 ‘Call’ refers to telephoning the police.

Prison sentence 1 ASK D39

Suspended prison sentence 2

Fine 3

Community service 4 GO TO INTRODUCTION BEFORE D40

Any other sentence 5

READ OUT…

…not at all likely, 1

not very likely, 2

likely, 3

or, very likely? 4

(Don’t know) 8

D41 How willing31 would you be to identify the person who had done it? Would you be…READ OUT…

…not at all willing, 1

not very willing, 2

willing, 3

or, very willing? 4

(Don’t know) 8

D42 And how willing would you be to give evidence32 in court against the accused? Would you be…READ OUT…

…not at all willing, 1

not very willing, 2

willing, 3

or, very willing? 4

(Don’t know) 8

Now some questions about things you might have done.

CARD 44 Using this card please tell me how often you have done each of these things in the last five years? How often have you…READ OUT…

Never Once Twic e 3 or 4 times 5 times or more (Don’t know) D43 ...made an exaggerated or

false insurance claim? 1 2 3 4 5 8

D44 ...bought something you

thought might be stolen? 1 2 3 4 5 8

D45 ...committed a traffic offence like speeding or crossing a red light?

1 2 3 4 5 8

31 ‘Willing’ in the sense of ‘freely choose to’.

APPENDIX 2: EURO-JUSTIS PILOT

In document Trust in justice: why it is important for criminal policy, and how it can be measured (Page 50-61)