Industrial and Institutional Detergents

In document 23550908 Laundry Detergents (Page 132-135)

Even though the principles that determine the effectiveness of detergents for house-hold and professional laundries are the same, detergents for large-scale institutional use generally differ insofar as they must be designed to meet the special circumstances associated with laundry on an industrial scale [135]. In contrary to home laundering, professional laundries have to deal with large volumes of textile garments and require therefore completely automatic processing with microprocessor-controlled machines and dosing units. They also need data retrieval systems for complete process control.

The washing process is in general much shorter and is operated with soft water. For environmental and economic reasons energy and water recycling is essential. Since soil levels are commonly much higher in professional than in household laundry and the variety of textiles is very large, concentrated products, special bleaches, and stain-removal processes are often applied. In many cases disinfection of the laundry load is necessary. Specific packaging for laundry products in large quantities and safe storage systems are frequently required. On the whole, a professional laundry process is a thorough balance between economy, ecology, quality, and safety.

A large variety of products for professional laundries is available today. These products belong to one of the following three major categories:

Base detergents Detergent additives Specialty detergents

Table 36 shows the formulation of these products for institutional use.

Base Detergents. In principle, such products are completely built detergents and they are primarily responsible for a good basic detergency. Base detergents are usually highly alkaline and contain no bleach. The major ingredients are surfactants, builders (either phosphate or zeolite with polymer cobuilder), alkalies, fluorescent whitening agents, complexing agents, antiredeposition agents, and enzymes. Currently, they are used quite commonly in continuous batch washing machines with counterflow systems.

LaundryDetergents

4.3.4.2. Odor Removers for Washer Application

Laundry odor removers are liquid products. They were introduced on the U.S.

market in the year 2000. Their formulation and technology allows the removal of (unpleasant) odors from laundry. The product is dispensed directly into the washer along with the detergent at the beginning of the wash cycle. Their main active component is based on cyclodextrins.

5. Industrial and Institutional Detergents

Even though the principles that determine the effectiveness of detergents for house-hold and professional laundries are the same, detergents for large-scale institutional use generally differ insofar as they must be designed to meet the special circumstances associated with laundry on an industrial scale [135]. In contrary to home laundering, professional laundries have to deal with large volumes of textile garments and require therefore completely automatic processing with microprocessor-controlled machines and dosing units. They also need data retrieval systems for complete process control.

The washing process is in general much shorter and is operated with soft water. For environmental and economic reasons energy and water recycling is essential. Since soil levels are commonly much higher in professional than in household laundry and the variety of textiles is very large, concentrated products, special bleaches, and stain-removal processes are often applied. In many cases disinfection of the laundry load is necessary. Specific packaging for laundry products in large quantities and safe storage systems are frequently required. On the whole, a professional laundry process is a thorough balance between economy, ecology, quality, and safety.

A large variety of products for professional laundries is available today. These products belong to one of the following three major categories:

Base detergents Detergent additives Specialty detergents

Table 36 shows the formulation of these products for institutional use.

Base Detergents. In principle, such products are completely built detergents and they are primarily responsible for a good basic detergency. Base detergents are usually highly alkaline and contain no bleach. The major ingredients are surfactants, builders (either phosphate or zeolite with polymer cobuilder), alkalies, fluorescent whitening agents, complexing agents, antiredeposition agents, and enzymes. Currently, they are used quite commonly in continuous batch washing machines with counterflow systems.

LaundryDetergents

Laundry Detergents. E. Smulders Copyright © 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA ISBNs: 3-527-30520-3 (Hardback); 3-527-60045-0 (Electronic)

Oxygen or chlorine bleach can be added depending on the degree of soiling. The addition of other detergent additives such as disinfecting agents or enzyme boosters is optional. Base detergents are available in form of powders, liquids, and pastes.

Detergent Additives.In order to improve the removal of heavy soilings and tough stains, which are quite common in professional laundries, detergent additives are frequently used. Special products like surfactant, alkaline, bleach, and enzyme boosters are commonly available. One of the most important additives is the disinfectant for hospital use. Such disinfectant additives are specifically designed to handle laundry originating from isolation wards and therefore require thermal and chemothermal sterilization. Common disinfectants for this purpose include peracetic acid – hydrogen peroxide mixture, sodium N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine T), dichlorodi-methylhydantoin, quaternary ammonium compounds, and other organic chlorine carriers which liberate active chlorine in the presence of water. Disinfecting procedures of this kind are mainly common in Europe. Laundry sterilization in the USA is accomplished either thermally or by active chlorine bleaches.

Specialty detergentsare products formulated in such a way as to meet the demands of particular kinds of laundry or particular laundering processes. These include, for example, detergents without whitening agents for easy-care and colored fabrics, de-tergents with high contents of nonionics for heavily soiled working clothes, and enzyme-containing products for proteinaceous soils.

In many semiprofessional laundries like in small hotels and restaurants, detergents which are more or less comparable to those for the household sector are required. For example, perborate-containing detergents have been very popular especially in Europe.

The formulation of a perborate containing detergent is given in Table 37.

Table 36. Formulations of various types of detergents for institutional use

Components Detergents Partially built products

Base Specialty Surfactant

Alkalies (soda ash, metasilicate) ” ” ”

Bleaching agents ”

Fluorescent whitening agents ” ” ”

Enzymes ” ”

Complexing agents (phosphonates) ” ”

Antiredeposition agents ” ” ”

IndustrialandInstitutionalDetergents

6. Production of Powder

In document 23550908 Laundry Detergents (Page 132-135)

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