6. Costs and Benefits - Effects and Cost Calculations
6.1.3 Local and Regional Air Pollution
Local and regional air pollution differ in definition, included substances as well as method of estimation. Local effects of traffic are the direct effects of air pollution close to the source and include health effects due to emissions of NOx, SO2 and VOC as well as contamination from PMm (Trafikverket, 2018). Regional effects are both direct and indirect effects in a relatively large area around the source. The direct effects are the same as for the local pollution, while the indirect effects are effects that occur because the initially emitted substance react with some other chemical creating a new substance which in turn has damaging effects such as acidification or over-fertilization (a process known as “the cocktail effect”). The substances included in the regional estimates are NOx, SO2 and VOC for both health and environmental
The local and the regional effect are estimated differently. To calculate the cost of the local effects there are two steps, the first step is estimating the exposure according to the formula below to find the exposure unit per kilo of emission in which (Fv) = ventilation factor, (B) =
population amount, (0.029) = given parameter (Trafikverket, 2018).
Exposure unit per kilo of emissions = 0.029 * Fv * B0.5 (3) Depending on the location of the area and its population density, areas are assigned “ventilation factors” which are indicated on the map (figure 6), Jönköping municipality is located in area ventilation zone 3, and is therefore assigned the ventilation factor 1,1.
Figure 9 : Map of Sweden with five ventilation zones, Jönköping is marked with a red circle. (Trafikverket, 2018)
Ventilation zone Ventilation factor, Fv
Table 5. The ventilation zones and belonging ventilation factor in figure 6 (Fv) (Trafikverket, 2018)
The second step to reach the cost per/kg of emission is to multiply the exposure unit per kilo emission with the specific substance value per exposure unit in table 4.
Values of local effects of air pollution
Table 6: The values of the local effects of air pollution, $/exposure unit (Trafikverket, 2018)
The value of the local damage is estimated through a CV-method, namely the WTP for a decrease of the effects the emitted substance has (Trafikverket, 2018). The estimations are obtained using an effect-chain-model, meaning that there is an attempt to establishing the relationship between levels of emission and effects of exposure. The monetized value is gathered from the value of VOLL (Value Of a Lost Life year), that value is in turn taken from a VSL estimate used when estimating the cost of a death in traffic accidents. This could be problematic since the risk analysis and WTP could be dependent on what type of risk the individual is taking, Jones-Lee et al. (1998) has found supporting evidence that the WTP is higher to avoid mortality risk due to air pollution than traffic accidents. Nonetheless there has been no adaptation to this and the valuations are recommended by Trafikverket (2018) and therefore widely used, as in this thesis.
Values of regional effects of air pollution $/kg emission
Table 7: The values of the regional effect of air pollution emission ($/kg). (Trafikverket, 2018)
The regional damage value of damage due to air pollution is monetized differently than the local damage value. Damage to the environment is difficult to monetize, because of gaps of knowledge about ecosystems. Due to these gaps there is not satisfying knowledge about the exposure/response-relationship. Therefore, amounts are not estimated from damage costs but rather from the cost of action to achieve politically set environmental goal, what could also be described as the “political willingness to pay” which is meant to include damage on the environment as well as damage to human health (SIKA, 2005b). As an example, the cost for NOx emission is based on the estimated cost to achieve EU’s requirements for NOx-emission for gasoline fueled automobiles in 2005 and the value for SOx based on the calculated cost to
achieve the environmental goals proposed in the MaTs-project (Sika, 2005). There are several uncertainty aspects with these assessments; firstly the effect of air pollution on human health with its many intricate processes is in itself complicated to fully predict, and then to predict the cost of that damage poses additional problems. The emissions can also have negative effects on ecosystems, these effects are difficult to predict due to the nature of ecosystem with characteristics such as accumulation and different levels of resilience. The difficulty to monetize the effects have meant that they often are excluded as a cost parameter.
Marginal cost from local and regional air pollution ($/km)
Public transportation 0.0005
Table 8: Summary of marginal costs for local and regional air pollution, for all fuel types (Trafikverket, 2018)
Bicycle and e-bike
Neither bicycle or e-bikes produce the emissions during the operating phase and will therefore not be included.
Automobiles produces many substances in their exhaust, the once monetized and included in this thesis are: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOC), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate material (PMm). What emission factor that is used, meaning how much emission a vehicle produces while being operated, depends primarily on what fuel type is being used but also what model the vehicle and its exhaust is. The emission factors in table 6 are estimated using the handbook emission factors for road (HBEFA 3.2) a widely used database for modelling and estimating emission factors from a variety of vehicles. They are averages for the entire Swedish road traffic (apart from the values for VOC), meaning both older and newer automobiles with catalysts and older completely without. They also include driving with a warm engine, starting with a cold engine, evaporation and degradation due to age. (Trafikverket, 2018).
Fuel NOx NMVOC* SO2 PMm
Gasoline 0.22 0.048 0.06 0.0014
Diesel 0.43 0.008 0.02 0.0072
Ethanol 0.05 0.062 0.0008 0.08
Table 9: Emission factors for nitrogen oxide (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particles from road/tire friction (PMm) in g/km travelled using three different fuels types for automobiles (Trafikverket, 2017; EMEP/EEA report, 2016). *This value is taken from the European emission standard and the value is an average of the emission from all vehicles types. The emission values are Tier 2 emission factors which are recommended when the distance travelled is known but the speed is not. It should also be noted that for biofuels, which ethanol is, no internationally accepted emission factors exists, thus some uncertainty remain. (EMEP/EEA report, 2016; Åström et al, 2011)
The large majority buses in Jönköping run on biofuel (or compressed natural gas, CNG) which is a renewable fuel. The same cost assumptions used on automobiles will be used on buses. Since there is no fuel taxation of buses that run on biofuels, meaning that the
internalisation degree will be 0.
Substance emitted Emission (g/km)
Table 10: Emission factors for nitrogen oxide (NOx), volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), non-methane sulfur dioxide (SO2) particles from road/tire friction (PMm) for a bus which runs on biofuel (EEA, 2010)