After You Read
Improving Study Skills: Underlining and Marginal Glossing
In colleges and universities, students need to read large numbers of articles and books and be able to repeat the information in papers and on tests. This is a lot to remember. Taking notes on reading can help. Highlighting, underlining, and writing notes in the margin are all useful tools to help remember information more effectively and to help locate the information more readily when it is needed at a later time. The Strategy box gives instruction and practice on these important skills.
3 Underlining and Marginal Glossing
• Discuss with students when it is appropriate to underline in a book. Ask students to discuss what they do with important or academic readings in their fi rst language. Do they underline? Do they use highlighter pens? How about marginal notes? Notes on note cards or on paper?
• Review the concept of main points and supporting details to assist students in knowing what to highlight.
• Go over the way the underlining and note taking were done in the example paragraphs in the Student Book on pages 143–144. What type of information is underlined? What information has boxes drawn around it? Were complete sentences underlined? • The role of marginal glossing is for the student
to leave indications summarizing the material in a paragraph or section. It does not matter if others understand what the student writes in the margins.
• Read the explanation in the Introduction box with students.
• Discuss the three questions in the box as a class. • Ask students what techniques they use to help
them memorize or remember things.
A Memory for All Seasonings
• Note that this passage is longer than most of the other passages in the Student Book.
• Have students read the passage silently or follow along while they listen.
• Tell them to underline any words or phrases that are new or that they don’t understand. Remind them not to use a dictionary during this part of the lesson. • You may wish to have students complete activity 4,
Recalling Information, on page 145 before doing activity 3, Underlining and Marginal Glossing, on page 143. This means skipping activity 3 which immediately follows the reading. You will want to give students detailed directions on how to complete this activity.
• Explain to students that the initial scene of the reading is a restaurant where a young man is working.
• In the United States universities are not funded as well as those in some other countries, so students pay a great amount for tuition. Many students also move away from home to go to college and are thus in need of money. Working as a waiter in a restaurant is a common way to earn money while in college.
• A large part of a waiter’s earnings come from tips. In an American restaurant it is customary to tip the waiter 15 percent of the bill. If the service is particularly good, it is customary to leave 20 percent.
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Student Book pages 136–149
• Do not read the questions in the order that the answers appear in the text.
• The answers to all of these questions should have been underlined or noted in the students’ texts. They are introducing new ideas or explaining main points.
4 Recalling Information
• This section is a bit different from other comprehension sections so far in that it asks students to complete the sentences with the correct information. All of the answers are correct or incorrect based on their veracity and not on grammatical accuracy.
• Have students complete this task individually. You may wish to give them a specifi c time limit.
• Correct the answers together as a class.
1. C 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. C 6. A
7. B 8. A or C
Writing a schematic diagram of materials can help students organize their thoughts and fi gure out what doesn’t fl ow well or where there are gaps. The study map in the following Strategy and activity helps students fi gure out the main ideas and supporting details. A study map can also be used to show causality or correlation.
• Marginal glossing and underlining should be seen as complementary, not competing. A student reading a social science article about a study might underline the number of subjects who participated. Then in a shorthand in the margin, the student might write “n=24” meaning the sample size, n, was 24 subjects. The margin is also a good place to make note of a particularly good quotation or to indicate agreement or disagreement with the author’s point of view.
Answers will vary. Make sure students are highlighting or underlining the main points and not the supporting details unless they have a specifi c reason for doing so. Also, check to see if they are doing anything special with names and dates. Check their marginal notes to be sure that students are writing in short phrases rather than lengthy, complete sentences.
• The aim of this activity is to have students practice marginal note-taking, highlighting, and underlining. • Have students turn in their books to the last reading
in Chapter 2, The Psychology and Physiology of Taking Risks on page 47. If students do not write in their books, you can provide copies of the reading. • Have students reread the passage, highlighting,
underlining, and writing notes in the margins. When they are done, ask them a quick series of comprehension questions based on the main ideas in the reading. Possible questions might include:
❑ Where are the adrenal glands and what do
they do to the body? (paragraph B)
❑ What are the biochemical-psychological
mechanisms motivating some risky behavior? (paragraph C)
❑ What are norepinephrine and dopamine? When
Understanding Mnemonic Systems Do you have any memory devices that you use to help remember student names? Share them with your class.
6 Understanding Mnemonic Systems
• Review the fi ve mnemonic systems listed in the Strategy box and ask students to give real life examples.
• Do the fi rst question together with the class. • Break students into groups of three to do the
Answers will vary. Possible answers include:
1. Word or sound pattern association: Paul’s son (Polson) and Eric’s son (Ericsson) lure (Luria) the nicer guy (Neisser) to help chase (Chase).
2. Loci: I was walking down the street when I went under an apple tree, and one fell and hit me in the head and knocked me to the ground. There was rice on the ground from a wedding and a milk carton, too. I got up, fixed my dress and decided to cross the street to walk under pepper and olive trees, so if something fell it wouldn’t hurt. Word or sound pattern: am drop: apples, milk, dressing, rice, olives, pepper.
3. Mental graph or picture: Musicians might picture these notes on a scale. Others might imagine a four point scale with A at one extreme and D at the other, then imagine a line going up or down to the point representing the grade.
Improving Study Skills: Making a Study Map
Research has shown that some students learn better visually. A study map is a useful representation of a reading.
5 Making a Study Map
• Read the explanatory paragraph together and point out the features and organization on the sample study map. Help students see where the main points are located and how the supporting details are attached to them.
• Have students look at the incomplete study map. Ask volunteers to identify the main parts of the map. Explain that the circles need to be fi lled in with details and other information from the reading selection.
• Have students work with a partner to complete the study map. Then arrange the pairs in small groups to compare and discuss their study maps. Go over possible answers with the class.
Conrad was motivated by money. In order to remember, Conrad used physical appearance associations, mental graphs or pictures, and word or sound patterns. Faloon increased the average students’ ability to remember from 7 to 80 digits. Faloon associated digits with running times. Chase and Ericsson’s theory says that adult memory can be described by a single model. Erdelyi’s theory says that there are more individual differences. Other famous mnemonists are Shereshevskii and Toscanini.
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Student Book pages 136–149
1. There are many other professions where it is useful to have a good memory. Some include working as a cashier in a supermarket or produce store where one has to remember the codes of countless fruits and vegetables. Also, taxi drivers, who have to remember street names and locations throughout a city, make good use of their memories.
2. John Conrad, Shereshevskii, Arturo Toscanini, Steve Faloon.
3. Answers will vary.
8 Finding Support For or Against a
• Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory as described in the Student Book on page 148.
• Note that some writers present data that support their hypothesis but either leave out or paint a weaker version of any contradictory information. • The answers to the third question are related to
students’ own beliefs.
• This activity should be done individually with some time given to discuss the answers either as a whole class or in small groups.
4. Number association: 0915 can be recalled by thinking of September 15, about the first day of school; 1220 can be recalled by thinking of December 20th, the last day before Christmas vacation; and in 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue
5. Physical appearance association: Mrs. Stemski is like stemware (wineglasses), tall and slender. Mr. Barnes is built like a barn animal (a cow or bull). Miss Rich has a rich smile, and Mr. Winter is sad in the winter.
• The aim of this activity is to give students further practice in using mnemonic devices. Ask three student volunteers to write their parents’ names and birthdays on the board (six names, six dates). • Tell the students not to write down any of
the information. You should write down the information in a place where students cannot access it. Ask students to try to think of some mnemonic devices to remember them. Erase the board and continue with the class.
• About 20 or 30 minutes later, ask the students to take out a piece of paper and write down the information. See which students were the most successful and have them describe their strategies. You may want to reward the student who can best remember the information.
7 Guided Academic Conversation
• Arrange students in small groups.
• Ask students to write down their answers to help keep them focused on their task.
• Most of the questions have more than one section. The fi rst section is usually related to the reading and the second section to the students’ personal experiences and beliefs.
1. Conrad’s mental ability was described as average. Faloon showed incredible improvement due to the training he received. Conrad explained that by never writing orders down, he forced his memory to improve. He also tried to improve by starting with small tables and eventually working up to larger parties. The book states that researchers believe that Toscanini trained his memory and exercised it regularly.
2. Before any training, Conrad’s memories, when compared to other people’s memories, were much greater and more detailed. For example, he mentions never taking notes in high school classes, and he has memories dating back to the time he was in diapers. Brooklyn College researcher Matthew Erdelyi writes that even with memory
training, students’ ability to remember varies from person to person.
• Review the Introduction and have students discuss the two questions.
• Give any additional background that you may know about the life and work of Edgar Allan Poe.
• Make sure students are aware that the language they encounter will have some differences from contemporary English.
2 Getting Meaning from Context
• Encourage students to use what they have already learned in the book for this activity.
• Tell students to write a marginal note near a word so they remember to come back to it. They should try to guess at the word or hypothesize about the meaning before continuing.
• Remind students that after reading the next
sentence or two, they should look back at the word and see if its meaning is any more transparent. • There is no Answer Key for this activity.