Modifying and Creating Poetry

In document Kawi Dalang- Creativity in Wayang Theatre I Nyoman Sedana (Page 196-200)

Part of the improvisation in the performance of wayang theatre also involves working with the established kakawin verse and composing songs and poetry. Many dalang call this activity ngawi kakawin, which basically means to reinterpret and give new meaning to the kakawin. For example, prihan temen darma dumeranang sarat originally means ‘‘to make sure to obtain dharma, causing prosperity throughout the world.’’ Recently the phrase has been modified to prihan temen (to make sure to seek for) darma dum (a chance to derive benefit) ngeranang sarat (for which you ought to

struggle). This literary modification based on the common memory of pre-existing literature is meant to expose the shift in the thinking about the Indonesian leadership in Jakarta whose function has been to derive benefit from its political power.

Dalang may also use a word in Kawi language in a Balinese sense to transpose the entire meaning of a passage. For example the word mitra. In Kawi language mitra means good friends; in Balinese language it means extra-marital partner, boyfriend, or girlfriend. Thus, the common passage Nora hana mitra mangluwihi waraguna maruhur originally means, ““There is no friend better than one’’s useful skill/knowledge.”” It is corrupted into ““There is no fortune more useful than to have an extra boy/girl friend.””

This sentence can easily be applied to any antagonistic character because the character may see the pleasure instantly and ignore the bad consequences.

Editing and combining poetry from several different parts of the same kakawin source is a very common way of modifying literature in a wayang. The following is a simple combined stanza, type, mredu komala, derived from two different stanzas of the kakawin Arjuna Wiwaha.

Ong sembahning anatha tinggalana detri loka sarana.

Wakya dyatmika sembahing ulun i jong ta tan hana waneh.

Utpatti sthiti linaning dadi kita ta karanik.

Sang sangkan paraning sarat sekala niskala mara kita.

Om ‘‘God,’’ the creator of three worlds, please witness my purist homage.

I just glorify you materially and spiritually, and no one else.

You cause the birth, life, and death of creatures.

You are the source of the universe materially and spiritually.

The first two-lines are taken from the following stanza.

Ong sembahning anatha tinggalana detri loka sarana.

Wakya dyatmika sembahing ulun i jong ta tan hana waneh.

Sang lwir agni sakeng tahen kadi minyak saking dadi kita.

Sang saksat metu yan hana wang amuter tutur pinahayu.

Om ‘‘God,’’the creator of three worlds, please witness my purist homage.

I just glorify you materially and spiritually, and no one else.

You are like fire coming out from woods, like oil coming out of your coconut milk.

You manifest yourself to those who listen your edifying discourse.

The second two-lines are taken from the third and fourth line of the following stanza.

Wyapi wyapaka sarining parama tatwa durlabha kita.

Icchantang hana tan hana ganal alit lawan hala hayu Utpatti sthiti linaning dadi kita ta karanika.

Sang sangkan paraning sarat sekala niskala mara kita.

You are omnipresent, yet hard to access.

Your dispositions are visible and invisible, big and small, good and bad.

You cause the birth, life, and death of creatures.

You are the source of the universe materially and spiritually.

A dalang may hardly combine some lines from a few different un-matched types of kakawin which is actually violating the rule. In this case, however, a dalang would typically avoid an obvious violation by not singing them properly, but rather recite them as spoken lines. The following example is combined form the type of girisa and ratri kretu or totaka.

Tuhu buru temaan mong, sangkeng satwa dahat ika.

Girisa Sakatilinganing ambek tan wyarthandaki kapitut

Ketemunta sireka tan katemu

Ratri Kretu or Totaka Kahidepta sireka si tan kahidep

A committed hunter must get a tiger, for ultimately seeking animals.

Any goal is accomplished through an ultimate concentration.

(With a full commitment) You find what is not found.

You understand what is not understood.

The first two lines are derived from line one and three of the stanza number 63 of the kakawin Arjuna’’s Wedding. These lines are subtly twisted from the original that fully goes as follows.

Tuhu buru temahan [character ““h”” was cut out] mong, sangkeng satwa dahat ika.

Tuhurawa wuhayekan dadyaning drda ring iwak.

Sakatilinganing ambek tan wyarthandaki kapitut Taya mara ya katresnan, byaktekang taya katemu.

The hunter is the reincarnation of a tiger, extremely obsessed by animals.

The fisherman is the reincarnation of a crocodile, overly obsessed by fish.

Any goal is accomplished through an ultimate concentration.

If the ultimate freedom is the searched, it is certain that freedom is accomplished.

The second two-lines are taken from the first two lines of the stanza number 101 of the kakawin Arjuna’’s Wedding.

Ketemunta sireka tan katemu Kahidepta sireka si tan kahidep Kawenangta sireka si tan akwenang.

Paramatatwa Siwatwa nirawarana.

You find what is not found.

You understand what is not understood.

You obtain what is unobtainable.

The lore of Siwa is without hindrance.

In addition to editing and reconstructing kakawin, some dalang often compose kakawin-like passages, directly or indirectly based on the pre-existing literature. In

dalang Madra’’s Dharmadewa, a commercial audio cassettes of his performance, we find that the bragging court attendant Delem parodies kakawin poetry in response to the recitation of an actual kakawin recited by his skeptical younger brother Sangut.

SANGUT. Nguni kala Bhatara Wisnu sira nadi bupati sura sakaning jagat. Sura narendra Kresna pangaran nira tuhu, katakutin parangmuka.

A long time ago, god Wisnu became a king, a lord ruling the world.

He was a divine ruler namely Kresna, who scared his enemies.

Sangut’’s kakawin glorifies Kresna as the reincarnation of the god Wisnu. Delem who does not like Kresna, counters Sangut’’s kakawin by creating an impromptu kakawin that glorifies himself and Sangut as ““reincanations of God Siwa and Buddha.””

DELEM. Nguni kala Bhatara Siwa Buddha, mapalemah ka mercapada dadi Delem ajak Sangut.

A long time ago, God Siwa and Buddha reincarnated themselves and became Delem and Sangut in the world.

Delem in his intention to undermine socially accepted truth, uses kakawin forms.

Another senior dalang, Sidja, often creates passages that he sings in kakawin-like poetry or geguritan verse. For example, the following passage is sung in Pangkur verse.

Asing belog katetehan

Dyastun menak twara ngitung sor singgih Asing pradnyan yata kajungjung

Menadi agung pregarbha mrintah jagat Manggeh kasatriane telu

Tri kang sinanggeh satria

In document Kawi Dalang- Creativity in Wayang Theatre I Nyoman Sedana (Page 196-200)