Table 10 Main series concerning gastro-intestinal bladder augmentation in neurological patients with bladder dysfunction (Max BC:Maximal Bladder capacity
D. NEUROLOGICAL FAECAL INCONTINENCE
- Utilization of a short intestinal segment (10 cm maximum).
- Minimal dissection of the ureters. • There are several reports of good results
for ileovesicostomy, but the medium-term results need to be confirmed in the long term. Quality-of-life studies should also be performed (C).
• Vesicostomy may be a useful transient solution, particularly for children (D) • Cutaneous ureterostomy shouldn’t be used
for non continent urinary diversion in adult patients because of the rate of long term complications (B).
• Non-continent urinary diversion is the last resort for patients with neurogenic bladder (A).
• Bladder should be removed during the procedure because of the risk of later complications at this site (B)
• It may be indicated for urological dysfunction or in the event of a motor handicap that prevents other modes of micturition (C). • Ileal conduit urinary diversion has the best
long-term results for non-continent diversion, if the following pre- and peri- operative precautions are taken (B):
- Pre-operative location of the stoma, with wheelchair test, if necessary.
and also other relevant papers that were not cited in the previous edition were recruited and summarized as follows:
1. SPINAL CORD INJURY
During rehabilitation phase, Aya? et al (2006) studied 24 traumatic SCI patients before applying abdominal massage and found that 45.8% had abdominal distention, 41.7% had FI and 25% had difficult intestinal evacuation. New PW (2007)  retrospectively reviewed 70 non-traumatic SCI consecutively admitted for initial rehabilitation, 5% of the patients (excluded who died) reported having FI, incontinent at least once per week before discharge.
According to the survey of the impact of secondary conditions after SCI reported in 2007 , 13.8% of 65 chronic SCI persons (mean current age 43.8 years, mean years since injury 13.7) rated bowel dysfunction (FI, constipation, diarrhea) as significant or chronic problem, equal to bladder dysfunction and circulatory problem.
Regarding chronic SCI, Tongprasert and Kovindha (2006)  studied 100 chronic traumatic SCI patients (duration from onset > 6 months, average 6 years) in Chiang Mai, Thailand and compared with 55 normal persons; 86% of the SCI patients reported constipation, 35% reported FI and 16% had hemorrhoids. The prevalence of constipation and FI were significantly different (P<0.0013) from the normal population (constipation 5%, FI 1.8%). However, prevalence of hemorrhoid between SCI and normal persons was not different (16% vs. 20%, p = 0.338). According to the study of Ng et al (2005) done in 110 established traumatic SCI persons (> 12 months after injury, median 17 years) in Sydney, Australia, the prevalence, based on the Rome II Integrative Questionnaire, was as follows: 41% of FI, 22% abdominal bloating, and 46% constipation (including laxative use). Another prospective, multicentre follow-up observational study was reported in 2007 by the Italian Group for the Epidemiological Study of SCI , only 2.7% of 403 traumatic SCI persons (mean duration from discharge to follow-up 3.0+/-0.68 years) reported no bowel continence (= FI), 20.1% had partial, 77.2% had full bowel ‘continence’ (absence of unplanned bowel evacuations) and 70.5% had bowel autonomy (patient’s ability to perform bowel management without assistance). According to the survey in Canada reported in 2004 by Liem et al , the most common complication among 352 SCI volunteers for more than 20 years was bowel problems: 47.9% constipation and 41.8% diarrhea/bowel accidents.
FI was found to associate with higher level of anxiety (odd ratio, OR = 2.4, p =0.05)  and severity of injury  but not with the level of injury [5,6]. According to the study of Vallès et al (2006), they found that in 54 patients with motor complete SCI (mean duration from onset 6 years), 67% presented with constipation
(according to Rome II criteria) and 85% some degree of FI. They also found associations between bowel abnormalities i.e., constipation and FI and different neuropathophysiologic patterns. Those with SCI above T7 had frequent constipation (86%) and not severe FI; those with SCI below T7 with preserved sacral reflexes had not so frequent constipation (50%) and not severe FI; and those with SCI below T7 with no sacral reflexes had not very frequent constipation (56%) and greater severity of FI. When compared with those with spinal sacral reflexes, those with no such reflexes had significantly more severe FI (p < 0.005).
According to Krog et al (2006) who did a study in 424 SCI patients to develop and validate a symptom- based score for NBoD, those with daily FI had 10 times more impact on QOL than those with no FI (OR 10.0, p <0.05). Moreover, studies showed that NBoD had significant impact on QOL of chronic SCI patients  and they had significantly lower Gastrointestinal QOL score as compared with the normal persons (92.51 +/- 16.21 vs 118.33 +/- 14.17, p <0.001). From the Italian study , loss of bowel/bladder autonomy was correlated significantly with complications (OR 2.202; 1.357-3.574; p <0.001), re- admission (OR 2.097; 1.306-3.366; p < 0.002) and death (OR 5.457; 2.350-12.670; p <0.0001). Regarding constipation, its association with level of injury was supported by many studies [5,6,9] i.e., upper motor neuron NBoD vs lower motor neuron NBoD (p =0.0013); cervical injury had more than 5 times more frequent constipation than lumbar injury (OR =5.6, p =0.02); lesion above T7 had more constipation than lesion below T7 (p <0.05). In addition, constipation was also associated with severity of injury  and taking bladder relaxants . Moreover, it was associated with a 97% increase in the likelihood of needing more help with activities of daily living (ADL) .
In 2006, Brittain et al  reported prevalence of isolate UI, FI and double incontinence (DI) in stroke survivors living in community of Leicestershire, United Kingdom. Those living in institutional care were excluded. Of 1,483 stroke survivors, the prevalence was as follows: 6.9% any FI, 4.7% major FI, 2.2% minor FI, 4.3% FI and UI (or DI) and 0.8% isolated FI. Major FI (soiling of underwear or more on a monthly basis) was 4.5 times as prevalent in stroke survivors as in the non-stroke population. DI (major FI and monthly urine leakage) was more than 4 times as high in stroke survivors than in the non-stroke population (4.3% vas 0.9%, P < 0.001). Isolated FI as well as isolated UI was also significantly higher in the stroke population. According to the epidemiologic multi-centre study of the Thai Stroke Rehabilitation Registry , on admission to rehabilitation, 31.5% of 327 stroke patients (median 24 days; about 5%
admitted one year after onset) reported of bladder and bowel problems: 24.5% UI, 8.6% urinary difficulty and 11.9% FI.
Regarding factors related to FI in stroke, urinary incontinence (adjusted OR 8.1; 95% CI 6.62-9.69) and functional limitation (adjusted OR 4.02; 95% CI 3.27-4.95) were significantly related to major FI in stroke living in community .
According to the Dutch study on the prevalence of incontinence in young adult spina bifida reported in 2007, of 179 participants (142 with spina bifida aperta and 37 with spina bifida occulta), 60.9% had UI and 34.1% had FI (defined as having accident once a month or more); 109 were diagnosed as having myelomeningocele, 13 as having meninogocele and 119 suffered from hydrocephalus. When classified by type of lesions, 40.8% of spina bifida aperta and 8.1% of spina bifida occulta; 46.2% of those with hydrocephalus and 10% of those with no hydrocephalus; and 39.7% of those having lesion at L5 or above and 13.2% of those having lesion below L5 reported FI (P <0.05). Moreover, about 2/3 of those with spina bifida aperta, hydrocephalus and lesion at L5 or above had UI as well; and most of them perceived FI and UI as problem.
4. PARKINSON’S DISEASE
Recently Krogh et al (2008)  did a study to compare bowel symptoms in PD with normal control subjects. Most of the cases had minor constipation-related symptom. However 7% of 416 PD but 0% of normal controls reported severe constipation; 27% and 23% with PD had bowel movements less than every second day and incomplete emptying every week, respectively. The severity of PD was associated with assisted defecation (p < 0.001) and unsuccessful attempts at defecation (p < 0.001). Regarding incontinence, 6% of PD patients reported incontinence to solid stool at least one per month, 6% to liquid stool at least one per month; 32% of PD patients had flatus incontinence at least one per week; these were no statistically significant difference to normal control group. They believed that the increase in obstructed defecation symptom but the less prevalence of FI are due to dystonia of the external anal sphincter but intact internal anal sphincter with normal anorectal sensibility.
5. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI)
According to the report from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems national database , the incidence of FI among TBI patients was 68% at admission to inpatient rehabilitation, 12.4% at rehabilitation discharge and 5.2% at 1-year follow-up; and FI was significantly associated with admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, length of coma and post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), length of stay (LOS), frontal contusion,
functional independence measure (FIM) scores and urinary tract infection.
6. MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY (MSA)
Wenning et al (1994)  described the clinical features and natural history of 100 patients diagnosed as probable MSA. The most frequent autonomic symptom in men was impotence, and in women was UI. Moreover, Parkinsonism was the initial feature in 46%, but had subsequently developed in 91% of subjects at latest follow-up. According to the North American Multiple System Atrophy Study Group (2005) , UI occurred commonly. According to Sakakibara et al. (2004) , 93% of MSA patients showed neurogenic motor unit potentials in anal sphincter EMG and concluded that FI resulted from weak anal sphincter due to denervation.
• Variation of definition of faecal incontinence as well as constipation should be minimized. • More epidemiologic study on neurogenic
bowel dysfunctions and its consequences in other neurologic diseases.
• Faecal incontinence is prevalent among neurological patients, but less prevalent than urinary incontinence. (LOE 3)
• In spinal cord injured patients, constipation is more frequent than faecal incontinence; faecal incontinence is more severe in those without external anal sphincter responses/ reflexes; and constipation is more frequent in those with higher level of injury. (LOE 3) • The prevalence of faecal incontinence in stroke and traumatic brain injury survivors in community was lower than in hospital- based patients; and urinary incontinence, anticholinergic drug use and functional limitations were associated with faecal incontinence. (LOE 3)
• Faecal incontinence is commoner in spinal cord injured than in stroke patients. (LOE 3)
• Faecal incontinence is a significant problem of chronic neurological patients but not of multiple system atrophy patients. (LOE 3)
1. SEARCH STRATEGY
To add new information to the previous edition, we searched from Pubmed from 2004 to 2007 with search words of neurogenic bowel and faecal incontinence. There have been only 9 relevant papers and they are summarized as follows:
2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
According to the previous section D2 in the chapter 17 of the 3rd ICI on Neurologic Urinary and Faecal incontinence , 22 papers published from 1996 to 2004 were reviewed. Specific diagnostic tests for faecal incontinence (FI) are tests to assess anal sphincter including levator ani complex functions and structures, anal sensation, rectal sensation and rectal accommodation/compliance.
For neuropathic patients, comprehensive neuro- physiologic or electrodiagnostic tests – rectal mucosal electrical sensory threshold, thermal sensation, pudendal nerve latency, and needle EMG of the anal sphincter or puborectalis muscle, may be helpful to distinguish non-neurogenic from neurogenic causes of FI especially in those with lower motor neuron lesions (LMNL) including conus medallaris, cauda equina and peripheral nerve damage. For those with suprasacral or upper motor neuron lesions, electromyography (EMG) during straining and balloon expulsion test may show dyssynergic pattern. In addition, saline enema test has been suggested as