1.4 Objectives of the study 1 General objective

1.4.4 Variables Definition 1 Conceptual definition Operational Definitions

Occupational Safety and Health Management System

Occupational Safety and Health Management System provides a set of tools that enhance safety, risk management efficiency related to all organization’s activity, it is a systematic means for employers to handle challenges and reduce haphazard attitudes to risk and problems in the work environment. It is an interdisciplinary field which encompasses among others, the disciplines of industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, occupational nursing,

engineering, epidemiology, and toxicology. It includes the surroundings and conditions that affect employees and other related persons at workplace. The prevention of work related injuries still remained as a major problem faced by all types of organization. OSH management system (OSHMS) is an integral part of the overall management system of the organization.(Levitt and Samelson, 1993).

Ergonomics risk factors

Ergonomics risk factors consist of internal risk factors which are work related and can cause musculoskeletal disorders. Examples of such factors are awkward postures,




heavy workload, static postures, prolonged sitting or standing, vibration from power tools, repetitive tasks and manual material handling. External factors include environmental factors such as temperature, stress and lightening which can indirectly contribute to musculoskeletal disorders too.(Lim, 2008).




Abdullah, N.C. 2010.Occupational Health and Safety Management Perceptions in Malaysian Public hospitals Implications for the Implementation of Standardized Management Systems.Ph.D Thesis Curtin University of Technology.

Abdullah, A.S.andRahman, A.(2009). Ergonomic assessment of working postures in semiconductor manufacturing processes.National Symposium on Advancements

in Ergonomics and Safety (ERGOSYM2009), 1-2 December 2009, Perlis,

Malaysia page 111-114.

Abeysekera, J.D.A. (1997). Ergonomics problems outside work establishments in industrially developing countries: an example from Sri Lanka. In: P. Seppalä, T. Luopajärvi, C-H, Nygård and M. Mattila (Eds), Finnish Institute of

Occupational Health. From Experience to Innovation (pp. 63-65).

Abdoli-E, M. and Stevenson, J. (2008). The effect of on-body lift assistive device on the lumbar 3D dynamic movements and EMG during asymmetric freestyle lifting. Clinical Biomechanics 23; 372-380.

Adler, P. (1998). In P. Landsbergis (Ed.), Lean production and worker health: A

discussion. New Solutions, 8, 499-523.

Ahasan, M.R. (2001). Human adaptation to shift work in improving health, safety and productivity-some recommendations.Work Study, 51(1), 9–17.

Ahasan, M. R. and Benincasa, T. (1999).Technology, society and human factors. In: Straker L, Pullock S & Smith R (eds), The 2nd International Virtual Conference

on Ergonomics, (Online: http://cyberg.curtin.edu.au/members/papers/45s.html).

Ahmad, R. I., Baba, Md. D., Mohd, Y. M. and Yusof, M.H. (2012).Modeling and Optimization Approach of Quantitative Environmental Ergonomics in Malaysian Automotive Industry.Journal of Occupational Safety and Health 9 : 1-6.

Arifin, K., Aiyub,K., Razman, M. R. and Jahi, J. (2013).Occupational safety management in Malaysia.Occupational safety management in Malaysia. Journal

of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 11(2), 995-998.

Ariffin, K., Razman, M.R., and Zainon, R. (2006). Legislation control on industrial accident in Malaysia: Study on the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1994 (Act 514). Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Environmental

Management: Managing Changes, 5-6 September 2006, Bangi.

Ashish, D. N.(2014). Risk of neck musculoskeletal disorders among males and females in lifting exertions.International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 44:2;253-259 .

Angelina,A.(2012).Perkeso:Socsocompensationandbenefits.nbc.com.my/blog/socso(20 14 November 10).




Arocena, P., Núnez, I. and Villanueva, M. (2008).The impact of prevention measures and organizational factors on occupational injuries.Safety Science, 46, 1369– 1384.

Azman, A.M.M. (2007). Occupational Diseases in Asian Countries.Proceeding from

10-15 September 2007, World Social Security Forum, Moscow.

Bakri, A., Zin, R. M., Misnan, M. S., and Mohammed,A. H. (2006). Occupational Safety and Health(Osh) Management Systems: Towards Development of Safety and Health Culture.Proceedings of the 6th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering

and Construction Conference (APSEC 2006), 5 – 6 September 2006, Kuala

Lumpur, Malaysia.

Bergenudd, H.andNilsson, B. (1988). Back pain in middle age; occupational workload and psychologic factors: an epidemiologic survey. Spine, 13(1), 58-60.

Bernard, N. (1997). Musculoskeletal disorders and workplace factors: a critical review of epidemiologic evidence for work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, Upper Extremity, and Low Back. Cincinnati: DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-141.

Bin, W.S and Richardson, S. (2010) An Ergonomics Study of a Semiconductors Factory in an IDC for Improvement in Occupational Health and Safety.

International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), 16(3),


Blegen, M.A., Pepper, G. A. andRosse, J. (2005). Safety climate on hospital units: A new measure. Advances in Patient Safety, 4, 429-433.

Bernacki, E.J., Guidera, J.A., Scharefer, J. A. and Lavin, R.A. (1999). An ergonomics program designed to reduce the incidence of upper extremity work related musculoskeletal disorders. Journal of Occupational and Environmental

Medicine, 41, 1032-1041.

Brisson, C., Montreuil, S. andPunnett, L. (1999).A six-month follow-up of the effect of an ergonomic training program on musculoskeletal disorders among video display unit workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 25, 255-263.

Bunn III, W.B., Pikelny, D.B., Slavin, T. J. and Paralkar, S. (2001). Health, safety, and productivity in a manufacturing environment.Journal of Occupational and

Environmental Medicine 43, 47–55.

Burdorf, A. and Zondervan, H. (1990).An epidemiological study of low-back pain in crane operators .Journal Ergonomics,33 (8), 981-987.

Caurso, C. C. (2006). Possible broad impacts of long work hours. Industrial Health 44; (4) 531-536.

Chatterjee, D. (1992). Workplace upper limb disorders: a prospective study with intervention.J. Soc. Occup. Med. 42, 129–136.




Cheyne, A., Cox, S., Oliver, A. and Tomas, J., (1998). Modeling safety climate in the prediction of levels of safety activity.Work and Stress, 12(3), 255-271.

Cheyne, A., Oliver, A., Tomás, J. M. and Cox, S. (2002).The architecture of employee attitudes to safety in the manufacturing sector.Personnel Review, 31(6), 649 – 670.

Chung, H .C. and Wang, M. J.(2002). Ergonomics interventions for wafer-handling task in semiconductor manufacturing industry.Human Factors and Ergonomics

in Manufacturing 12, 297–305.

Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Australia (2002). Civil aviation safety authority

Australia safety management systems: What’s in it for you?Retrieved March 20,

2004, fromhttp://www.casa.gov.au/avreg/business/sms/index.htm.

Coelho, J.F. and Moy, D. (2003).The new performance evaluation methodology and its integration with management systems.The TQM Magazine, 15(1), 25 – 29. Concha-Barrientos, M., Nelson, D.I, Fingerhut, M. and Driscoll, T. (2005).The global

burden due to occupational injury.American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48(6), 470-481.

Choobineh, A., Tosian, R., Alhamdi, Z. andDavarzanie, M. (2004).Ergonomics intervention in carpet mending operation.Applied Ergonomics, 35, 493–496. Cox, S. J. and Cheyne, A.J.T. (2000).Assessing safety culture in offshore

environments.Safety Science, 34(1-3), 111–129.

Coyle, I. R., Sleeman, S.D. and Adams, N. (1995).Safety climate.Journal of Safety

Research, 26(4), 247-254.

Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests.Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.

Cruez, A.F. (2002 May 4). Workplace Accidents Alarming-Steady Rise Since 1998 Due To Poor Enforcement.New Straits Times Malaysia 60, 1-4.

Currington, W. P. (1986). Safety regulation and workplace injuries.South.Econ. J., 53(1): 51-72.Fabiano B, Curro F, Pastorino R (2004). A study of the relationship between occupational injuries and firm size and type in the Italian industry.Safety Sci., 42: 587-600.

Dahalan, J., Shamsdin, Z.R., Osman, N.H., andAbd.Ghafar, S. (2003). Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Visual Display Terminal Users in Malaysia. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Malaysia.Cited in American Journal of

Scientific Research ISSN 1450-223X Issue 3(2009), pp.51-66.

Dalrymple, H., Redinger, C., Dyjack, D., Levine, S. and Mansdorf, Z. (1998). Occupational health and safety management systems: review and analysis of international, national, and regional systems. Proposals for a new international document.International Labour Organization,Suite 2, Geneva, Switzerland.




Daniel,W.W. (1999). Biostatistics: A foundation for analysis in health sciences (7th ed.). New York, NY: JohnWiley and Sons. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2532686 Das, B. andSengupta, A. (1996). Industrial workstation design: A systematic

ergonomic approach. Applied Ergonomics, 27(3), 157-163.

Das, B. and Shikdar, A. (1999). Participative versus assigned production standard setting in a repetitive industrial task: A strategy for improving worker productivity. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 5(3), 417-430.

David, G., Woods, V., Buckle, P. and Stubbs, D., (2003). Further development of the Quick Exposure Check (QEC). In: Ergonomics in the Digital Age. Proceedings

of the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association,

August 24-29, 2003, Seoul, Korea.

De Kort, W.L., Fransman, L.G. and van Djik, F.J.H. (1991). Pre-employment medical examinations in a large occupational health service.Scandinavian Journal of

Work Environment and Health, 17, 392-397.

De Raeve, L., Jansen, N. and Kant, I. (2007). Health effects of transitions in work schedule, work hours and overtime in a prospective cohort study. Scandinavian

Journal of Work Environment and Health, 33(2), 105-113.

Denisi, A.S. and Griffin, R.W. (2005).Human Resource management. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin company, (chapter 15).

Department of Occupational Safety and Health Malaysia (2013).DOSH Annual Report, Ministry of Human Resource, Putrajaya,Malaysia.Department of statistics



Deros, Md. B., Darius, D. D. and Ismail, R. A. (2010).Work-related musculoskeletal disorder among workers performing manual material handling work in an automotive manufacturing company. American Journal of Applied Sciences 7 (8): 1087-1092.

Dias, L.A. (2005). Occupational safety and health management systems in construction: The need for a recognition system at the national level. Retrieved

April 26, 2013

http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/CTN/XXVIII%20SIMP%C3%93SIO%20INTE RNACIONAL%20DA%20AISS_Anis_do_Evento/ALVESDIAS.pdf.

Dunning, K. K., Davis, K.G., Cook, C. and Kotowski, S.E. (2010). Costs by industry and diagnosis among musculoskeletal claims in a state workers compensation system: 1999-2004. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53, 276-284. Dyjack, D.T., Levine, S.P. and Holtshouser, J.L. (1998).Comparison of AIHA ISO

9001-Based Occupational Health and Safety Management System Guidance Document with a Manufacturer Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Instrument.American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 59(6), 419-429.




EC.(2002).ErgonomicsCentre,MultimediaUniversity,Malaysia.(URL)http://www.mmu. edu.my/~fom/home.htm.

Eerd, D.V., Beaton, D., Cole, D., and Lucas, J. (2003). Classification systems for upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders in workers: a review of the literature, variance and dissent. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 56, 925–936.

Eriksson, H. and Hansson, J. (2006).Integrated management systems – theoretical and practical implications.Asian Journal on Quality, 7, 69-82.

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. (1994)EuroReview: Issue on Repetitive Strain Injuries.

European Work conditions survey (2005).(EWCS) Fourth European working

Conditions Surveys 225-


European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2010).Improving occupational safety

and health in SMEs: examples of effective assistance.( 2010).European Agency

for Safety and Health at Work Publications of the European Communities.Luxembourg 20 - 4 -2010.

Fabiano, B., Curro., F and Pastorino, R. (2004).A study of the relationship between occupational injuries and firm size and type in the Italian industry.Saf. Sci. 42, 587–600. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2003.09.003

Falzon, P.; Sauvagnac, C..(2007). Carga de trabalho e estresse. In: Falzon, P. Ergonomia. São Paulo: Ed. Edgar Blucher LTDA, 2007. pp. 141 a 154.

Faucett, J., Garry, M., Nadler, D. and Ettare, D.(2002). A test of two training interventions to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity.Applied Ergonomics 33, 337–347.

Ferguson, S.A., Marras, W.S., Gary Allread, W.G. and Knapik, G.G. (2012). Musculoskeletal disorder risk during automotive assembly: current vs. seated.

Applied Ergonomics, 43, 671-678.

Fernandez-Muniz, B., Montes-Peon, J. M. and Vazquez-Ordas, C.J. (2007). Safety culture: Analysis of the causal relationships between its key dimensions.

Journal of Safety Research, 38, 627 – 641.

Fleming, M. and Lardner, R. (1999).Safety culture - the way forward. The Chemical

Engineer, 16-18. Retrieved at January15, 2007 from


Flin, R., Mearns, K., O’Connor, P. and Bryden, R., (2000). Measuring safety climate: identifying the common features. Safety Science 34, 177–193.

Frick, K. and Wren, J. (2000).Reviewing occupational health and safety management: multiple roots, diverseperspectives and ambiguous outcomes. In: Frick, K., Jensen, P.L., Quinlan, M., Wilthagen, T. (Eds.), Systematic Occupational Health




and Safety Management: Perspectives on an International Development. Pergamon, Amsterdam, pp. 17–42.

Friend, M. A. and Khon, J. P. (2007).Fundamentals of Occupational safety and

Health.Fourth Edition. Government Institute. The Scarecrow Press, Maryland.

United States of America .pp1-7.

Frymoyer, J.W. and Mooney, V. (1986). Current concepts review, occupational orthopaedics. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 68A, 469-474.

Gallagher, C., Underhill, E. andRimmer, M. (2001). Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems: A Review of their Effectiveness in Securing Healthy and Safe Workplaces, National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, Sydney, Australia.Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, Issue 2, pp. 67- 81(15).

Geoffrey, D., Valerie, W. and Peter, B (2008).The development of the Quick Exposure Check (QEC) for assessing exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders.Applied Ergonomics Volume 39, Issue 1, January

2008, Pages 57–69

Glendon, A.I. and Litherland, D.K., (2001). Safety climate factors, group differences and safety behavior in road construction.Safety Science 39, 157–188.

Granerud, R.L. and Rocha, R.S. (2011). Organizational learning and continuous improvement of health and safety in certified manufacturers. Journal of Safety

Science, 49, 1030-1039.

Guastello, S.J. (1993). Do we really know how well our occupational accident prevention programs work? Safety Science, 16, 445–463.

Goetsch, D. L. (2005).Occupational safety and health for technologists, engineers and

managers (5th ed.Pg 120-128). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Habeck, R. V., Hunt, H. and vanTol, B.(1998). Workplace factors associated with preventing and managing work disability. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin 42, 98–143.

Hale, A.R., Heming, B.H. J., Carthey, J. and Kirwan, B. (1997). Modeling of safety management systems.Safety Science, 26(1/2), 121-140.

Harrington, S.S. and Walker, B.L., (2004). The effects of ergonomics training on the knowledge,attitudes, and practices of teleworkers. Journal of Safety Research 35, 13–22.

Health and Safety Executive (1997).Successful Health and Safety Management

HS(G)65 (second edition). Sudbury: HSE Books.

Heinrich, H.W. (1959). Industrial Accident Prevention, Second edition (Pg 80-90). McGraw-Hill, New York.




Herring, C. and Wick, J., (1998).Reducing the probability of ergonomicsrelated injuries in manufacturing.In: Kumar, S.(Ed. ), Advances inOccupational Ergonomics

and Safety, Vol.2. IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp.69–72.

Hitt, M.A., Hoskisson, R. and Harrison, J. (1991). Strategic competitiveness in the 1990s: challenges and opportunities for US executives. Academy of

Management Executive, 5, 7–22.

How, R.G., Ya, C.C., Wen, Y.Y., Chun, W.C. and Yueliang, L.G. (2004). Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder among workers in Taiwan: a nationwide study.

Journal of Occupational Health, 46, 26-36.

IDEA. (2000).Institute of Design and Ergonomics, University Malaysia

Sarawak.(URL) http://www.unimas.my/idea/mission.html.

IEA.(2005). http://www.iea.cc/ergonomics/.Citedin Niu ,S. (2010) .Ergonomics and occupational safety and health: An ILO perspective. Applied Ergonomics 41 (2010) 744-753.

Isa, N. S. M., Deros, B. M., Sahani, M., & Ismail, A. R. (2013). Personal and Psychosocial Risk Factor for Low Back Pain among Automotive Manual Handling Workers in Selangor, Malaysia International Journal of Public Health

Research Vol 4 No 1 2014, pp (412-418)

Ismail, A., Mansor, M., Kim, C. B. and Tahir, M. M. (2008). The relation between the discomfort level of automotive industries operators towards their workstation design and work environment. Journal of Achievements in Materials and

Manufacturing Engineering 31; 2:756-761.

Jeong B.Y. (1997). Characteristics of occupational accidents in the manufacturing industry of South Korea.Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 20: 301-306.

Johanning, E. (1998). Back disorder intervention strategies for mass transit operators exposed to whole body vibration e comparison of two transit system approaches and practices. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 215, 629-634.

Johansson, J.A and Rubenowitz, S. (1994). Risk indicators in the psychosocial and physical work environment for work-related neck, shoulder and low back symptoms: a study amongblue and white collar workers in eight companies.

Scand J Rehabil Med;26:131–42.

Joseph, B. (2003). Corporate ergonomics programme at The Ford Motor Company.

Appl .Ergon. 34 (1), 23–28.

Joseph, B. and Long, M. (1991).Fitting Jobs to People—an Ergonomics Process.The UAW-Ford National Joint Committee on Health and Safety, 2-3 September Dearborn.

Juul-Kristensen,B.,Hansson, G. A.,Fallentin, N.,Andersen,J.H&Ekdahl, C. (2001) Assessment of work postures and movements using a video-based observation method and direct technical measurements.Appl Ergo 32 (5)517-24.




Jzelenberg, W. and Burdoft, A. (2004).Impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of neck and upper extremities on health care utilization and sickness absence of low back pain. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61, 806-810.

Kaergaard, A. and Andersen, J.H. (2000). Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulders in female Sewing machine operators: prevalence, incidence, and prognosis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 528–534.

Kahya, E. (2007). The effect of job characteristics and working conditions on job performance.International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 37: 515-523. Klatte, T., Daetz, W. and Laurig, W. (1997).Quality improvement through capable

processes and ergonomic design.Int. J. Ind.Ergon. 20,399–411.

Kelly, T. and Boucher, B. (2003).Measuring safety performance.Paper presented at the

21st International Systems Safety Conference, 4-8th August 2003, Ottawa,


Keyserling, W. M., Brouwer, M. and Silverstein, B.A. (1993). The effectiveness of a joint labour-management program in controlling awkward postures of the trunk, neck and shoulder: results of a field study. International Journal of Industrial

Ergonomic, 11, 51-65.

Khan, R., Surti, A., Rehman, R. and Ali, U. (2012).Knowledge and practices of ergonomics in computer users.J Pak Med Assoc 62(3): 213–17.

Kho, M.E., Carbone, J.M., Lucas, J., & Cook, D.J. (2005). Safety climate survey: Reliability ofresults from a multicenter ICU survey. Quality Safety Health Care, 14, 273 – 278.

Kim, J.Y. (2003). Occupational Ergonomics: Engineering and Administrative ControlsCRC Press, Boca Raton (2003), pp. 7/1–7/5

Kirwan, B. (1998). Safety management assessment and task analysis - a missing link? In: A. Hale, M. Baram (Eds.). Safety Management: The Challenge of Change. Elsevier, (pg 60-70) Oxford.

Kuorinka, I. (1996). The Influence of Industrial Trend on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDSs).International Journal of Industrial

Ergonomics, 21, 5-9.

Kuorinka, I., Alaranta, H. and Erich, I. (1995). Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders at work: Validation and reliability in a multicenter intervention study.

International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 15, 437 446.

Kuorinka, I., Jonsson, B. and Kilbom, A. (1987).StandardizedNordic Questionnaires for the analysisof musculoskeletal symptoms.AppIErgon; 18:233-7.

Landau, K.Rademacher, H., Meschke, H.,Winter, G. and Schaub, K. (2008) Musculoskeletal disorders in assembly jobs in the automotive industry with special reference to age management aspects. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. (2008); 28:561– 576.




Laitinen, H., Saari, J., Kuusela, J., (1997). Initiating an innovative change process for improved working conditions and ergonomics with participation and

performance feedback: a case study in an engineering workshop. Ind. J. Ind.

Ergon.9, 299-305.

LaMontagne, A.D., Barbeau, E., Youngstrom, R.A. and Lewiton, M. (2004). Assessing and intervening on OSH programmes: effectiveness evaluation of the Wellworks-2 intervention in 15 manufacturing worksites. Occupational and

Environmental Medicine, 61, 651–660.

LaMontagne, A. D., Rudd, R. E., Mangione, T. W. and Kelsey, K. T. (1996).Determinants of the provision of ethylene oxide medical surveillance in Massachusetts hospitals. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 38, 155–168.

Leigh, J., Macaskill, P., Corvalan, C., Kuosma, E. and Mandryk, J. (1999).Global burden of occupational disease and injury due to occupational factors.Epidemiology, 10(5), 626–631.

Leman A.M. and Hidayah N. A.(2013). Occupational Safety and Health: Workers and Industrial Safety Monitoring For Sustainable Work Environment Development.

Health and Safety 34-36.

Levitt, R.E and Samelson, N.M. (1993).Construction Safety Management, 2nd Edition, NewYork: John Wiley and Son, Inc., pp. 273.

Li, G. and Buckle, P. (1998). A practical method for the assessment of work-related musculoskeletal risks-Quick Exposure Check (QEC). In: Proceedings of the

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42nd Annual Meeting, October 5-9,

Chicago, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: 1351-1355.

Lim, S., Choi, W., & Lim, H. (2008).An ergonomic investigation for the discomfort of the lower extremities during ingress/egress of SUV.InInternational Federation

of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA) 2008 World Automotive Congress


Lin, R.M. and Chan, C.C. (2007).Effectiveness of workstation design on reducing musculoskeletal risk factors and symptoms among semiconductor fabrication room workers. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 37, 35–42. Lin, J. andMills, A. (2001).Measuring the occupational health and safety performance

of construction companies in Australia.Facilities, 19(3/4), 131-138.

Linda, J. B., Tim,A.W., John, G. W. (2008). Development of a functional model which integrates human factors, safety management systems and wider organizational issues.Safety Science 46: 3; 461–492.

Lo, C., Mark, K.Y., Frank, W. and Andy, C.L (2014). OHSAS 18001 certification and operating performance: The role of complexity and coupling.J. Oper. Manag. 32, 268–280. doi:10.1016/j.jom.2014.04.004.




Lotz, C., Agnew, M., Godwin, A. and Stevenson, J. (2009).The effect of an on-body personal Lift0Assist Device (PLAD) on fatigue during a repetitive lifting task. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 19; 331-340.

Loo, H.S. and Richardson, S. (2012).Ergonomics issues in Malaysia.J. Soc. Sci., 8: 61- 65.

Lucire, Y. (1986). Neurosis in the workplace.Medical Journal of Australia, 145, 323- 327.

Lugah, V., Ganesh, B., Darus, A., Retneswari, M. and Rosnawati, M.R. (2010). Training of occupational safety and health: knowledge among healthcare professionals in Malaysia. Singapore Med. J., 51(7): 586-591.

Mansfield, J.A. and Armstrong, T.J. (1997).Library of Congress Workplace Ergonomics Program.American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58, 138-144.

Melhorn, J.M., Wilkinson, L., Gardner, P., Horst, W.D. and Silkey, B. (1999).An outcomes study of an occupational medicine intervention program for the reduction of musculoskeletal disorders and cumulative trauma disorders in the workplace. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 41, 833-846. Mearns, K., Whitaker, S. M. and Flin, R., (2003). Safety climate, safety management

practice and safety performance in offshore environments.Safety Science 41, 641–680.

Morse, T., Dillon, C., Kenta-Bibi, E.andWeber, J. (2005). Trends in work-related musculoskeletal disorder reports by year, type and industrial sector: a capture recapture analysis. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48, 40-49.

Moreau, M.(2003). Corporate ergonomics programme at automobiles Peugeot- Sochaux. Ergon.34 (1), 29–34.

Mossink, J. C. M., and Marc de G. (2002) Inventory of socioeconomic costs of work accidents:European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Printed in

Luxembourg Office for official Publications of the European Communities, 2002

ISBN 92-95007-67-0

Munck-Ulfsält, U., Falck, A., Forsberg, A.,Dahlin, C and Eriksson, A.

(2003).CorporateErgonomicsProgramme at Volvo Car

Corporation.AppliedErgonomics. 34(1):17-22.

Mustafa, S.A., Kamaruddin,S., Othman, Z. and Mokhtar, M (2009). Ergonomics awareness and identifying frequently used ergonomics programsin manufacturing industries using quality function deployment. Am. J. Sci. Res., 3: 51-66.

National Research Council (2001)Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace (2001).Report from National Research Council NRC (pg 1-4).




Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., Hart, P.M., (2000). The impact of organizational climate onsafety climate and individual behavior.Safety Science 34, 99–109.

NIOSH(1999).Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors

[Online],162paragraphs Available: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ergtxt6.html. Niu, S. (2009).Ergonomics and occupational safety and health: An ILO perspective

Proceedings of 17th World Congress on Ergonomics (CD), International Ergonomics Association.Beijing, China (August 2009)

National Occupational Health and Safety Commission Australia (NOHSC)(1997).

Health and safety management systems: An analysis of system types and effectiveness.RetrievedMarch20,2004,fromhttp://www.nohsc.gov.au/OSHInforma tion/NOHSCPublications/fulltext/toc/toc06397.htm

Norman, R., Wells, R., Neumann, P., Frank, P., Shannon, H., Kerr M., (1998). A comparison of peak vs. cumulative physical work exposure risk factors for reporting of low back pain in the automotive industry.Clinical Biomechanics 13; 561-573.

Nunnaly, J.C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd edition). New York: McGraw-Hill. O’Toole, M. ( 2002). The relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety and

organizational culture .Journal of Safety Research 33; 231–243.

O’Neill, D.H. (2000). Ergonomics in industrially developing countries: Does its application differ from that in industrially advanced countries? Applied

Ergonomics, 31, 631-640.

In document Implementation of occupational safety and health management system in reducing ergonomic risk among certified and uncertified automotive industry workers (Page 33-50)