All of the surveyed students were asked which sources of funding they would receive or apply for to help pay for their time at university (Figure 2.11). As self-reported by the students, the vast majority were going to rely on government-funded student maintenance grants (90%), student loans for tuition fees (90%) and student loans for living costs (79%). Most students (56%) also reported that they would receive or apply for a bursary or scholarship. However, under half of the students (43%) intended to get money from paid employment or from their parents or family (32%). Only 3 per cent of students would receive additional government support through social security benefits. A notable finding here is that 10 per cent of students reported that they would not receive or apply for funding from a student maintenance grant. In fact, all of the surveyed students were eligible for a grant, yet this minority either did not realise this or had opted not to accept such support. 29 Similarly, all the students surveyed were eligible for student loans for fees and for living costs. Figure 2.11 Sources of funding students will receive or apply for

90 90 79 56 43 32 3 2 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Student maintenance grant

Student loan for tuition fees

Student loan for living costs

Bursary / scholarship

Paid work during term-time

Parents / family

Social security benefits

Other issues

Per cent of students (N=4848)

Base: All students

These students were going to be somewhat more dependent on government-funded grants or loans than students nationally. For instance, provisional Student Loan Company figures show that in 2008/09 approximately 80 per cent of students received a student loan for living costs and 69 per cent a maintenance grant. 30 These findings reflect the nature of the sample. When the sources of funding to be received or applied for to help pay for university were compared across key student socio-economic characteristics notable differences were evident (Table A2.4 Statistical Appendix).

Firstly considering the receipt of or application for government-funded student grants and loans (student maintenance grants, student loans for tuition fees and student loans for living costs):

Students from middle income households (94%) were the most likely to receive or apply for a student maintenance grant and students from high-income households were the least likely (86%).

Students from high-income households (92%), White students and those of Black ethnicity (92%) were the most likely to receive or apply for a student loan for tuition fees and Asian students were the least likely (82%).

Students from high-income households (84%) were the most likely to have received or applied for a student loan for living costs and Asian students (53%) were the least likely.

Statistically significant intra-group differences in students‟ likelihood to receive or apply for government-funded student grants and loans were identified by:

Gender - student maintenance grants were more commonly reported as being received or applied for by female students than by male students.

Ethnicity - students of Asian ethnicity were substantially less likely to have reported receipt of, or application for, government-funded grants and loans than students of White, mixed or Black ethnicity.

Household income - students from high-income households were less likely than students from middle or low-income households to have reported receipt of or application for a student maintenance grant. Conversely, students from high- income households were notably more likely to have received or applied for student loans for both tuition fees and living costs.

Parent HE qualifications - students whose parents held HE qualifications were slightly more likely to have received or applied for student loans for tuition fees and living costs than students whose parents did not hold HE qualifications.

And, thirdly, considering any additional financial support received from paid work during term-time, parents or family, and social security benefits:

White students (47%) and students from high-income households (47%) were the most likely to seek paid work during term-time and Asian students (29%) were the least likely.

Students from high-income households (51%) were the most likely to seek financial support form parents or family and older students (10%) were the least likely.

Older students (14%) were the most likely to receive or apply for social security benefits and students from high-income households (0%) were the least likely.

Statistically significant intra-group differences in students‟ likelihood to receive or apply for financial support through paid work during term-time, parents or family, and social security benefits were identified by:

Gender - female students were more likely than male students to source funding from paid work during term-time and social security benefits, while male students were more likely than female students to seek financial support from parents or family.

Age - A greater proportion of younger students sought paid work during term- time or funding from parents or family than older students. Conversely, older students were substantially more likely than younger students to receive or apply for social security benefits.

Ethnicity - White students were the most likely ethnic group to seek funding from paid work during term-time and parents or family, but amongst the least likely to receive, or apply for, social security benefits. Asian students were also amongst the most likely to seek parent or family financial support, and amongst the least likely to receive or apply for social security benefits, however, they Statistically significant intra-group differences in students‟ likelihood to receive or apply for a bursary or scholarship were identified by:

Gender - females were more likely to receive or apply for a bursary or scholarship (57%) than males (54%).

Age - a greater proportion of older students reported receipt of, or application for, a bursary or scholarship (62%) than younger students (55%).

Household income - students from high-income households (39%) were substantially less likely to receive or apply for a bursary or scholarship than students from middle (66%) or low (62%) income households.

In document The impact of institutuional financial support in England: higher education students' awareness, knowledge and take up of bursaries and scholarships (Page 58-61)