CHAPTER III : FRANZ MAGNIS-SUSENO‟S THOUGHT
F. Ethical Dilemma Of Religion And State
2. Be Plural Such As Franz Magnis-Suseno
Pluralism itself is not new Productions appearing in this modern age. Pluralism would appear in traditional society with various tribal, ethnic and religion coexistence in the same area.
Franz Magnis-Suseno, Etika Politik, (Jakarta: Gramedia, 1994) pg. 150-151
38 Writing that was adopted from a paper presented by Franz Magnis in the National Seminar on "Masa Depan Pluralisme Agama Di Indonesia" organized by Student Senate of Theology Faculty of Setya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga, May 25, 2007. See also Franz Magnis suseno, Kebangsaan, Demokrasi, Pluralisme; Bunga Rampai Etika Politik Aktual, Jakarta: Kompas, 2015., p. 108
However, there are two elements that are typical in the traditional society of pluralism. First, it was dealt with on the basis of pluralism inequalities. Hierarchically structured society and all the elements therein, including those with a different culture or religion, have a place and a certain social standing in it. Second, pre-modern human insight that divides humanity into "our people" and "strangers". Which did not include indigenous communities, or the same religion they perceive as "foreigners".39 As it was, they were well received, respected foreign guests, where they are assured. However, as a foreigner.
But in modern pluralism, the two elements change. As the implications from ideals of the French revolution of minorities and, in general, groups of multicolored according equal rights and obligations as citizens and human beings. In modern language: the basic rights of citizens and human rights apply to all charged with the same.40
Demands made in common plague pluralism-not only social group pluralism, but pluralism, political beliefs, religion and moral-a challenge to the unity of the "nation" (which is a product of modern artificial). With other social groups demanding and seize equal rights, the traditional social order collapsed and the thrones of power whipped back. During the minorities accept their position abnormality, it not be a problem. But, as they demanded their rights to be given the same space to access the power possessed by the tribe, ethnicity or religion is dominant, then part of society which traditionally dominant in the order they are endangered.
To handle this kind of pluralism, society needs to develop psychic abilities and ethical-specific; the ability to coexist with the community that ethnic, tribal or other religions in a good and relaxed,
Franz Magnis-Suseno, Kuasa dan Moral,Op.Cit. pg. 35 40
the ability to be tolerant, to respect the religious beliefs and different political, and including to feel solidarity towards compatriots as human beings, although perhaps including ethnicity, race or social class to another.
Mybe indonesia has, after all, better cards in order to manage her diversity than many other countries. Her people are still prepared and used to accept fellow indonesian of other culture or religious orientation and to live together with them. If indonesia succeeds in establishing a democratic and just political and economic system, the traumas of the Soeharto area and the dislocations by the modernization process will loos thei spell and traditional indigenous tolerance will get a chance assert itself.
But this will be happen if ideological tendencies too religious and other exclusivism are resolutely repulsed and corresponding learning processes are installed.
It should be completely clear that a plural nation like indonesia cannot stay together exept she accepts her diversity. And this mean: indonesian society has, on principle, to be orgenazed in an inclusive way. Thus in such as way, that all the different ethnic, religious, and cultural groups do not feel threatened in their spesific identities. The legal social system must make it posible for all communities to live according to their cultural and religious ideas, without them trying to force these ideas upon other. Precisely this is the meaning of Pancasila.41
And therefore, all endeavors to put the counhtry under any exlusive, partcular; secretarian way of life are venom for the country and must be repelled. For instance, tendencies in some districs to enforce religiously distinctive clothing on certain day in schools and offices run counter to the very unity of Indonesia and should not be tolerated by the central government. Tolerance for the diversity of
Franz Magnis-Suseno, Berebut Jiwa Bangsa, Dialog Perdamaian dan Persaudaraan.,
Indonesians needs zero-tolerance towards all exclusivist ideologies, be they religiouse or otherwise.42
In another opinion, Franz put forward an argument that pluralism in conjunction with the values of openness, peace, and tolerance should be the subject of a national campaign and more specifically in schools.
At school, children should learn early that there are difficult people with different religious orientation among them, and that this need nod threeten their own religious identity. One of the main goals of formal education should be that children be helped early to accept othernes in their local environment.43
The point is, how indonesia manages her pluralityb will be of crucial importance for her future. Indonesia cannot be kept unite merely by force. We should learn the lessons from Aceh and Papua. Decades of military suppression could not win over the heart of their people and never will. Thus Indonesia will only stay together if all her communities want to stay together. And this demands that they all feel accepted and respected. Thus there is no alternative: in order to succeed, Indonesia has to develop into an open, tolerance, inclusive society. Indonesia has to say yes to her diversity.44