Relationships of Pupils’ Self-perceptions and Views of primary school to their developmental outcomes

In document Final Report from the Primary phase: pre school, school and family influences on children’s development during Key Stage 2 (7 11) (Page 96-99)

Conclusions

Section 6: Exploring Pupils’ Self-perceptions and Views of primary school

B. Relationships of Pupils’ Self-perceptions and Views of primary school to their developmental outcomes

Pupils’ Self-perceptions and outcomes

The three factors ‘Enjoyment of school’, ‘Academic self-image’ and ‘Behavioural self-image’ were tested as predictors of pupils’ outcomes at age 10 and progress from age 6 to age 10 (cognitive and social/behavioural), controlling for child, family and home learning environment (HLE) characteristics extending the models and analyses described in Section 4. Pupils’ self- perceptions (particularly ‘Academic self-image’ and ‘Behavioural self-image’) were stronger predictors of their social/behavioural and cognitive outcomes at age 10 than pupils’ views of their

‘Academic self-image’ and ‘Behavioural self-image’

All self-perception factors were related to pupils’ outcomes, suggesting that having a higher ‘Academic self-image’ and/or ‘Behavioural self-image’ is associated with higher cognitive

attainment and better social/behavioural outcomes, as well as progress on these outcomes from Year 1 to Year 5 (ES=0.16 to 0.51 for cognitive progress and ES=0.18 to 1.05 for

social/behavioural development).

Pupils’ ‘Academic self-image’ was the strongest predictor of cognitive progress (ES=0.38 for Reading and ES=0.51 for Mathematics) and progress in ‘Self-regulation’ (ES=0.56), whereas pupils’ ‘Behavioural self-image’ was the strongest predictor of ‘Hyperactivity’ (ES=-1.05), ‘Pro- social’ behaviour (ES=0.68) and ‘Anti-social’ behaviour (ES=-0.48). These findings are in line with research on pupils’ self-concept (Marsh, 2006) and suggest that a pupil’s views of their own academic abilities are more likely to be related to their attainment and progress in Reading and Mathematics, as well as teacher’s ratings of the pupil in terms of ‘Self-regulation’.

Similarly, a pupil’s own views of their behaviour are likely to be related to teacher’s ratings of ‘Pro-social’ behaviour, ‘Hyperactivity’ and ‘Anti-social’ behaviour (for similar findings see Haynes, 1990). However, it is not possible to conclude that there is a causal effect of pupils’ self-

perceptions on their cognitive and social/behavioural outcomes. The findings only show that the relationship between ‘Academic self-image’ and cognitive outcomes is strong and statistically significant, taking account of other influences, which was expected since previous studies have consistently shown a strong reciprocal relationship between academic self-concept and

academic achievement (Marsh, 1994; 2006; Marsh and Yeung, 1997). Similarly, there is likely to be a reciprocal relationship between ‘Behavioural self-image’ and social/behavioural outcomes (Sammons et al., 2008e).

‘Enjoyment of school’

The factor ‘Enjoyment of school’ was positively related to social/behavioural development, indicating that pupils who enjoyed going to school and were interested in classes had higher progress in ‘Pro-social’ behaviour (ES=0.37) and ‘Self-regulation (ES=0.29), and also larger

reduction in ‘Hyperactivity’ (ES=-0.42) and ‘Anti-social’ behaviour (ES=-0.16) as shown in Fig. 6.1.

Figure 6.1: The effect of ‘Enjoyment of school’ on children’s Social/behavioural development from Year 1 to Year 5

However, the relationship between ‘Enjoyment of school’ and cognitive progress was not linear. Medium levels of ‘Enjoyment of school’ were linked with higher progress in Reading (ES=0.30) and Mathematics (ES=0.25) than either high or low levels of ‘Enjoyment of school’. This

indicates that pupils who enjoyed going to and being in school the most did not necessarily have the highest cognitive progress, but this relationship varies for different levels of ‘Academic self- image’. The results show that low levels of ‘Academic self-image’ were related to the lowest progress in Reading and Mathematics regardless of the level of ‘Enjoyment of school’. However, for higher levels of ‘Academic self-image’, the ‘Enjoyment of school’ did matter: medium levels of ‘Enjoyment of school’ were related to the highest progress in Reading (ES=0.51) and

Mathematics (ES=0.64) from Year 1 to Year 5. Pupils’ Views of primary school and outcomes

Pupils’ views of ‘Positive Social Environment’

The measure of children’s views of ‘Positive Social Environment’ was related to all pupil

outcomes in Year 5, as well as progress in these outcomes from Year 1 to Year 5 (ES=0.20 for Reading, ES=0.17 for Mathematics, ES=0.21 for ‘Self-regulation’, ES=0.30 for ‘Pro-social’ behaviour, ES=-0.41 for ‘Hyperactivity’ and ES=-0.21 for ‘Anti-social’ behaviour) as shown in Figures 6.2 and 6.3. This suggests that when a pupil feels safe and peers are viewed as friendly, both educational and social/behavioural outcomes benefit.

Figure 6.2: The effect of ‘Positive Social Environment’ on children’s Reading and Mathematics progress from Year 1 to Year 5

Figure 6.3: The effect of ‘Positive Social Environment’ on children’s Social/behavioural development from Year 1 to Year 5

‘Positive Social Environment’

‘Positive Social Environment’

Pupils’ views of ‘Teachers’ support for pupils’ learning’

Pupils’ perceptions of ‘Teachers’ support for pupils’ learning’ were positively related to progress in ‘Self-regulation’ (ES=0.25) and ‘Pro-social’ behaviour (ES=0.33). Attending a school where the pupils perceive they get support for learning from their teachers predicts better pupil development in terms of ‘Self-regulation’ and ‘Pro-social’ behaviour from Year 1 to Year 5 (see Figure 6.4).

Figure 6.4: The effect of ‘Teachers’ support for pupils’ learning’ on pupils’ Social/behavioural development from Year 1 to Year 5

Pupils’ views of ‘Headteacher qualities’

The factor ‘Headteacher qualities’ was a weakly significant predictor of progress in ‘Pro-social’ behaviour and reduction in ‘Hyperactivity’. Where a pupil perceives that the Headteacher is interested in pupils and is making sure that pupils behave, pupils have slightly higher progress in ‘Pro-social’ behaviour (ES=0.16) and larger reduction in ‘Hyperactivity’ (ES=-0.16) from Year 1 to Year 5.

These analyses of pupils’ views of their primary school broadly support the conclusion that the quality of pupils’ experiences in terms of feeling safe and supported in schools provides measurable benefits in terms of pupils’ all round development.

In document Final Report from the Primary phase: pre school, school and family influences on children’s development during Key Stage 2 (7 11) (Page 96-99)