2) To extrapolate the impact to a national level

3.3 Results of the study on GHG emissions from travel

3.3.1 Demographic information

A total of 1649 participants took part in the study across football tiers 3 to 10. 80% of the participants were male (n=1315) and 20% were female (n=334); and participants’ ages ranged from 18-84, with a mean age of 42.63 (SD=17.01).

3.3.2 Details of travel

The most frequent mode of travel used by the participants was by car (67%, n=1,113), followed by walking (13%, n=221), then bus (10%, n=166), train (8%, n=127), cycling (0.8%, n=14) and taxi (0.4%, n=7) as shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Participants’ percentage mode of travel across all the football tiers

The mode of travel within the football tiers is shown in Figure 3.2 with participants travelling to games mostly by car and the least used mode of travel was cycling.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Walking Cycling Bus Car Train Taxi

Percentage of participants (%)

Mode of travel

Chapter 3. Spectator-dominated sport: GHG emissions relating to travel and waste

75 Figure 3.2: Participants’ percentage mode of travel across all the football tiers

Distance travelled by participants

The mean distance travelled to and from games across the football tiers was 41.55km, SD=72.89.The distance travelled decreased from tier 3 (the highest e.g. Colchester United FC) down to the lowest tier 10 (Halstead Town FC). The mean distance travelled to and from football games is shown in Table 3.5.

Table 3.5: Mean distance travelled across the football tiers

Football Tier Mean Distance Travelled (km) Standard Deviation (SD)

Tier 3 66.92 101.65

Chapter 3. Spectator-dominated sport: GHG emissions relating to travel and waste

3.3.3 Annual attendances at the football tiers and mean GHG emissions

The GHG emissions for each participant was calculated by multiplying the distance travelled to and from games depending on the mode of travel by Defra’s conversion factors. From this data the mean GHG emissions at each football tier was applied to the annual attendance for each football tier during 2012/13 football season, the result was extrapolated to national level as shown in Table 3.6. Annual attendance varied across the football tiers during the 2012/13 season. Approximately 3.5 million people attended games at tier 3, almost 2.5 million people attended games at tier 4, about 1 million people at tier 5, roughly 540,000 at tier 6, nearly 420,000 at tier 7, around 464,000 at tier 8, approximately 540,000 at tier 9 and about 268,470 at tier 10. The mean GHG emission across the football tiers was 4.74kgCO2e per participant per game.

Table 3.6 describes the mean GHG emissions from the football tiers in England during the 2012/13 season. Mean GHG emissions among football tiers are highest among tier 3 at 8.46 kgCO2e and least at tier 9 at 2.04kgCO2e.

NOTE: Extrapolated annual attendance at each football tier during 2012/13 season

Source: Annual attendance at football tiers (EMF, 2013; FA, 2013; NLM, 2013; Isthmian League, 2013).

Annual GHG emissions at each football tier were calculated by multiplying the mean GHG emissions at each football tier by the annual attendance at the football tier. For example, the GHG emission at tier 3, (8.46* 3473154 = 29,382.88 kgCO2e).

Chapter 3. Spectator-dominated sport: GHG emissions relating to travel and waste

77 Annual GHG emissions for football tiers

The annual GHG emissions at football tiers were calculated by multiplying the mean GHG emissions at each football tier by the annual extrapolated attendance at each football tier as shown in Figure 3.3. GHG emissions from travel by football spectators reduced down the football tiers. The highest emissions were at tier 3 with 29,382 tCO2e and the least GHG emissions of 574 tCO2e at tier 10.

Figure 3.3: Annual extrapolated GHG emission during 2012/13 season

NOTE: Extrapolated annual GHG emissions were calculated by multiplying mean GHG emission at each tier by annual attendance at each football tier.

Extrapolating these results with a total of 9,162,067 participants that watched football games from tier 3 to tier 10 during the 2012/13 football season in England resulted in approximately 56,237 tCO2e.

Comparing GHG emissions between the football tiers

A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to evaluate differences in GHG emissions among the eight football tiers (tier 3-tier 10) in England from travel during the 2012/13 football season. The results of the analysis indicate significant differences between football tiers’ GHG emissions, [H(7)=46.474, p

<.001].

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000

Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 5 Tier 6 Tier 7 Tier 8 Tier 9 Tier 10 Annual GHG emissions (tCO2e)

Football Tiers

Chapter 3. Spectator-dominated sport: GHG emissions relating to travel and waste

Further pairwise comparison testing with adjusted p-values showed Tier 9 had significantly lower GHG emissions compared to tiers 4 and 5, while GHG emission was significantly higher in tier 3 than tiers 7, 8 and 10 (Table 3.7). The non-significant differences are shown in Appendix B.

Table 3.7: GHG pairwise comparisons between football tiers Sample 1- Sample 2 Test standard error, standard test statistic is the z-score, sig is the significant value, adj. sig is the adjusted p-value and EF is the effect size (.1 small, .3 medium and .5 and above large).

GHG emissions between home and away spectators

A Mann Whitney U test was conducted to compare the GHG emissions between two groups of participants: home and away. The results revealed a statistically significant difference with higher GHG emissions for away participants (M=13.77,SD=15.03, n=435) than for home participants as expected (M=1.75,SD=3.00, n=1214), [U = 87371.50, z = -20.766, p <.001, r =.51-large effect size].

Note: The number of participants was represented by n.

GHG emissions between non-league and league

A Mann Whitney U test was conducted to compare the GHG emissions between non-league (tier 5 to tier 10) and league levels (tier 3 and tier 4) and found a statistically significant difference, with higher GHG emissions at the league level (M=7.24, SD=12.26, n=718) than the non-league level (M=2.81, SD=5.90, n=931); [U = 284845.00, z = -5.159, p <.001, r =.13-small effect size].

Chapter 3. Spectator-dominated sport: GHG emissions relating to travel and waste

79 Relationship between GHG emission and distance travelled to games

The relationship between the two variables: GHG emission and distance was examined using a Spearman’s correlation coefficient. A statistically significant strongly positive correlation was found between GHG emissions and distance [r=.94, n= 1649, p<.001]. This finding show that the two variables are related and both variables increase simultaneously.

3.3.4 Summary of key findings of study 1 on travel

 Participants mean distance travelled to and from games was 41.55km and the majority

(67%) of participants travel by car.

 The mean GHG emission across the football tiers was 4.74kgCO2e per participant per game.

 Extrapolating the results to national level with a total of 9,162,067 participants from tier 3

to tier 10 during the 2012/13 football season resulted in approximately 56,237 tCO2e.

 GHG emissions significantly differ between the football tiers; Tier 9 had significantly lower

GHG emissions compared to tiers 4 and 5, while GHG emission was significantly higher in tier 3 than tiers 7, 8 and 10

 There was a relationship between GHG emissions and distance travelled to and from games. Both variables were strongly and positively correlated.

In document The environmental impacts and wellbeing benefits of sport: Assessing spectator and participant dominated sports in England (Page 74-79)

Related documents