After You Read
3 Getting Meaning from Context for
Everyday Words and Phrases • Read the directions aloud.
• Remind students that it is OK to guess the meanings. They can scan the reading passage to locate the context if they wish.
• When they fi nish, have students compare their answers with a partner.
• Circulate to answer questions and clarify as needed.
• Review the correct answers with the whole class.
1. earning the same amount of money; to fall behind
2. an idea that a person holds without evidence
3. a feeling of great dislike; contamination with new components
4. a person who is between 20 and 30 years of age
5. a factor that is hard to define
6. to do better than or win against (another person)
7. to pay the bill (at a restaurant or event)
8. an exchange in which a person gains something and loses something
2 Understanding Metaphors in Context
• Read the directions.
• Students might work with a partner to fi nd the answers or to check their work.
• If needed, students can scan the reading passage to fi nd the context for the metaphors.
• Review the answers with the class and clarify any misunderstandings.
ANSWER KEY1. B 2. A 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. A 7. B 8. B 9. A 10. C
• Have a student volunteer read the Introduction. • Tell students that they will discuss the two
questions with a small group after they read the passage.
How Women Became the New Breadwinners: A Review of the Book The Richer Sex
• Have students read the passage silently or read and listen as you play the audio.
• Remind students to read the subheadings.
• Tell students to underline any words or phrases that they don’t understand, but not to use a dictionary during this part of the lesson.
• Have students note the author’s affi liation and clarify. (The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion-reporting website.)
• When students fi nish reading, ask them to discuss their answers to the two questions in the Introduction.
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Student Book pages 56–66
1. phenomena 2. gender 3. abandon
4. gender 5. cited 6. established 7. involve
8. fi nance 9. version
Making Use of Academic Content
University students learn to diversify their use of rhetorical markers, or connectors, to increase their precision, to vary their word choice, and to suit the demands of various kinds of academic writing. The following Expansion Activity will help students see the subtle nuances differentiating the meaning and grammatical structure of some of these rhetorical markers.
4 Reading a Love Poem
• Read the information that introduces the poem. • Clarify and check comprehension as needed. • You may wish to bring in some samples of the
poetry of Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. • Have students skim the poem fi rst and mark
any words they aren’t sure about. Go over the pronunciation of any challenging words. Clarify meanings of unknown vocabulary as needed. • Divide the class into groups of three and instruct
students to orally read the poem to each other either.
• Have students answer the questions in their group. • Debrief by reviewing the answers to the questions
with the whole class.
1. 8 ways Other answers will vary.
5 Focusing on Words from the Academic
• Read the directions.
• You may want to have students work with a partner to help prevent them from looking back at the reading.
• Remind students to cross off the words as they use them. One of the words will be used twice.
• Let students know that they may have to read farther into the passage to guess the correct word. • Advise students that if they are unable to fi ll in one
or two items on the fi rst pass, they may decide on the answer through a process of elimination, looking at the words that they haven’t crossed off. • Have each pair compare their answers with another
pair of students to verify the correct answers. • If there are any questions, have students return to
6 Guided Academic Conversation
Students in classes at English-speaking universities are often required to discuss their understanding and present their opinions of academic topics. They must be confi dent and able to support their opinions with facts and details, as well as compare and contrast their thoughts with those of their classmates and the information in their reading.
• The aims of this activity are to have students discuss the reading and, in so doing, review and expand upon it.
• Ample practice in small groups builds confi dence in their English language skills.
• Read the directions.
• Divide the class into small groups.
• Remind students to use rhetorical markers to make their language more academic and easier to follow. • Have students take notes on the answers
developed in their group so that they can present them to the class. Is there a consensus or disagreement within their group?
• Call on a variety of students to present the groups’ thinking.
• The aim of this activity is to help students learn about the correct use of rhetorical markers. • Explain to students that rhetorical markers are an
important feature of academic writing and appear prominently in academic lectures. They can indicate sequence (therefore, at the same time, next, for example) and contrasting information (on the one hand, in contrast, however).
• Ask students to identify as many rhetorical markers of time as they can. (Examples include in the meantime, meanwhile, concurrently, as, leading up to, following.)
• Photocopy and distribute Black Line Master 5 “Rhetorical Markers” found on page BLM 5 of this Teacher’s Manual.
• Go over the expressions at the top of the
worksheet. Explain how these are useful in making language more comprehensible by helping the listener or reader fi nd their way in the discourse. • Have students complete the worksheet on their
own, then review the answers.
• Alert students that there may be more than one correct solution.
• Encourage students to use this vocabulary in their academic writing and speaking. You may wish to create a chart of common rhetorical markers to post in the classroom for students to reference.
2 Scanning for Effective Nouns, Adjectives,
• Remind students about the skill of scanning that they learned in Chapter 1. They should not to read the selection, but rather look for the specifi c words described in the items below.
• Read the instructions aloud.
• Go over the Example with the class.
• Have students work independently or with a partner to fi nd the effective nouns, adjectives and verbs in the reading passage.
• When everyone has fi nished, review the answers and the context where they are found in the reading passage.
ANSWER KEY1. juggernaut 2. ubiquitous 3. trashed 4. obsessive 5. insecurities 6. eroding 7. hover 8. launch 9. empathy 10. counterpart 11. reciprocity 12. self-conscious
Before You Read
Determining the Point of View in an Essay
• Read the information in the Strategy box. • Check comprehension of students’
understanding of an author’s point of view. Ask: What are the differences between a positive point of view, a negative point of view, and an objective point of view?
• Ask students for ways they might be able to tell if the author’s point of view is a negative one. (use of negative statements about the topic; complaints; comparisons with something positive)
1 Determining the Point of View
• Review the four items in the activity before students begin to read.
• Have students skim the fi rst 26 lines of the article independently or with a partner.
• Then have students complete the items, discussing the answers with their partner.
• Check answers with the whole class.
1. negative point of view
2. Answers will vary: negative language such as obsessive, insecurities, lowered standard (paragraph B); eroding true friendships to describe Facebook’s effects (paragraph C); use of phrases like too obsessed and try to be cool to describe Facebook users (paragraph D); saying people get too casual, too chatty, too quicklyon Facebook (paragraph H)
Main Ideas and Details
Student Book pages 67–75
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