Development Of An Expert System For Welding Process Verification Using MS Visual Basic

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UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM

FOR WELDING PROCESS VERIFICATION

USING MS VISUAL BASIC

Thesis submitted in accordance with the partial requirements of the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka for the Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering

(Manufacturing Design)

By

Sharaynee a/p Krishnan

Metric Number: B050410026

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APPROVAL

This thesis submitted to the senate of UTeM and has been accepted as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing Design). The members of the supervisory committee are as follow:

………. En Shajahan B. Maidin

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DECLARATION

I hereby, declared this thesis entitled “Development of an Expert System for Welding Process Verification using Ms Visual Basic” is the results of my own research except

as cited in references.

Signature : ……….

Author’s Name : ………

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ABSTRACT

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ABSTRAK

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DEDICATION

“To my beloved parents, Mr Krishnan a/l Marimuthu and Mrs Devi Rani a/p Kuruppan, whom give me love and support …………..”

“To my family ………always believe in me………”

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank Mr Shajahan Bin Maidin as my supervisor for giving full support, guidance, encouragement to develop this project successfully. Special thanks to Miss Zeratul Izzah and Mrs Azlianor for spending time to clear my doubts in programming.

I would like to thank my family and friends which give full support and stand beside me when I face problem.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Abstract………..………...…….i

Abstrak………..……ii

Dedication……….……...iii

Acknowledgement……….……….….iv

Table of Contents………...……….…...v

List of Figures….……….……...viii

List of Tables……….………...……….…...x

List of Abbreviations, Symbols and Specialized Nomenclature……...….……....xi

List of Appendices……….…....xii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the problem……...…………..……….…………1

1.2 Problem Statement………..……….………….2

1.3 Objectives………..…….…….………...…..2

1.4 Scope………...………….……….2

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction………...3

2.2 Welding Process Definition……….….3

2.2.1 Arc Welding……….…………5

2.2.1.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding...6

2.2.1.2 Gas Metal Arc Welding………….……….……….….7

2.2.1.3 Flux Core Metal Arc Welding………...8

2.2.1.4 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding………..…….……8

2.2.2 Brazing………..…...9

2.2.3 Soldering…...11

2.2.4 Resistant Welding...…...12

2.2.4.1 Resistant Spot Welding………….………..12

2.25 Laser Beam Welding……….………..13

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2.3.1 Types of Material...……...………..…….……15

2.3.2 Location of Work...15

2.3.3 Types of Joint………...……...…….17

2.3.4 Size of Material………...……….17

2.4 Comparison of Welding Process………...……….18

2.5 Expert System Technique……...………..………….20

2.6 MS Visual Basic and Access Tools………...…21

2.6.1 MS Visual Basic………..…...……..21

2.6.1.1 Introduction to MS Visual Basic………..21

2.6.1.2 Characteristics of Visual Basic………22

2.6.1.3 Editions of Visual Basic………...22

2.6.1.4 Visual Basic Objects………23

2.6.1.5 Steps in Program Development………...24

2.6.1.6 MS Access and VBA………...26

2.6.2 MS Access………..26

2.7 Reviews on Previous Study………..27

2.8 Conclusion………..…..29

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction………..…...30

3.2 Flow chart………...…30

3.3 Project Details………….………..……..…..…..………32

3.4 Conclusion………..………34

CHAPTER 4 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMMING 4.1 Introduction……….…35

4.2 Visual Basic Programming…...……….……….35

4.2.1 Analyze and Define the Problem ……….……...…...35

4.2.2 Designing the Visual Interface………38

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4.2.3.1 Object Properties………….………40

4.2.3.2 Method and Event………...52

4.2.4 Design the Code Structure………..54

4.2.4.1 Procedure………...……...54

4.2.4.2 Variable and Constants………...…………55

4.2.4.3 Code Block………..…………...56

4.2.4.4 Modules………..………57

4.2.5 Write Code………..………58

4.2.6 Test and Edit the Program………...…………...…59

4.3 Building Database in Access………..………59

CHAPTER 5 PROGRAMMING RESULT 5.1 Introduction………..………….….60

5.2 Interface Design………….………..………..60

5.3 Module Coding………..………....73

5.4 Database Design………...………..74

CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION 6.1 Introduction……….……….….76

6.2 System Development……….………76

6.3 Selection Data………77

6.4 Design Interface………...………..77

6.5 Database Design……….78

6.6 Development of Code………...………..79

6.7 Access Data from Microsoft Access database………80

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS 7.1 Conclusion……….………....….81

7.2 Recommendation………82

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LIST OF FIGURE

2.1 Classification of Welding and Allied Process (AWS) 4

2.2 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process 6

2.3 Gas Metal Arc Welding Process 7

2.4 GMAW Welding 7

2.5 FCAW Welding Process 8

2.6 GTAW Welding Process 9

2.7 Brazing a Butt Joint 10

2.8 Machining Tool Bit Showing How the Carbide Insert is Brazed to the Tool Bit Body Using Pre placed Brazing Filler Metal Shims.

11

2.9 Soldering Process 12

2.10 Resistant Spot Welding. 13

2.11 Laser Beam Welding 14

2.12 Welding Positions Plate 16

2.13 Types of Welding Joints. 17

2.14 Program Developing Flow 25

3.1 Flow of the Project 30

4.1 Flow Chart of Interface Sequence 37

4.2 Form window for welcoming user (frmIntro) 39

4.3 Form window for selecting the welding joint type (frmJoint) 39 4.4 Form window for selecting the material name and thickness and

viewing the result. (frm BUTT/CORNER/EDGE/LAP/TEE)

40

4.5 Event Environment Flow 53

4.6 The Select Case Flow for Decision Making 56

4.7 Visual Basic Application Structure. 58

5.1 Before the program is run. 61

5.2 The introduction window when the program is run. 61

5.3 The welding joint selection window 63

5.4 The welding material Butt selection window before SEARCH command.

65

5.5 The welding material Butt selection window showing result after SEARCH command.

66

5.6 The organization of tables in Access Database 74

5.7 Table in Design View 75

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LIST OF TABLES

2.1 Comparison of welding positions, joint, quality between the different processes

18

2.2 Comparison of material and thickness available by each welding process

20

2.3 Summary of Previous Study 28

4.1 The pseudocode input and output 38

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4.4 Welding Material Type and Thickness Selection for Butt Joint Window

43

4.5 Welding Material Type and Thickness Selection for Corner Joint Window

45

4.6 Welding Material Type and Thickness Selection for Edge Joint Window

47

4.7 Welding Material Type and Thickness Selection for Lap Joint Window

49

4.8 Welding Material Type and Thickness Selection for Tee Joint Window

51

List of Abbreviations, Symbols and Specialized Nomenclature

AI Artificial Intelligence AWS American Welding Society ES Expert System

FCRAW Flux Core Resistant Arc Welding

GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding

GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

GUI Graphical User Interface

IDE Ideal Development Environment ISO International Standard Organizations

LBM Laser Beam Welding

MIG Metal Inert Gas

MS Microsoft

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RW Resistant Welding

SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding

TIG Tungsten Inert Gas

UTeM Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

VB Visual Basic

VBA Visual Basic Access

LIST OF APPENDICES

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Problem

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1.2 Problem Statement

The growths of industries and technology have resulted in many types of welding process. The selection of welding process depends on many factors. The knowledge of selection is obtained from book and experts. Traditionally, the transmission of knowledge from human expert to trainee requires education and internship periods ranging from 3-20 years (Anon, 2005). Thus, there is a need for transforming the information fast and an expert system. The cost for developing an expert system is expensive. Moreover, the program available will be difficult to be updated by the non- programmer. As a result an expert system shell will be developed for updating welding process verification using Ms Visual Basic and Ms Access tools.

1.3 Objectives

(a) To identify and obtain welding process data & information (b) To be familiar with the expert system concept.

(c) To be familiar with the concepts of database systems. (d) To learn MS Visual Basic and Microsoft Access software.

(e) To develop a computerised welding process selection system by using MS Visual Basic and MS Access software tools.

1.4 Scope

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter consists of Literature Review on welding. The types of welding are discuss with selected examples. The technique and tools will be used in this project is also introduced.

2.2 Welding Process Definition

A weld is defined as a localized coalescence of metals and non metals produced by either heating the material at required temperatures, with or without application of pressure or by application of pressure alone and with or without using filler materials by AWS (Jefus.L, 2004). While welding is defined as a joining process that produce coalescence of material by heating them to welding temperature, with or without the application of pressure alone and with or without using the filler metal (Jefus.L, 2004).

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welding technology; solid phase, thermo chemical, resistance welding, arc welding and radiant energy (Kalpakjian.S, 2001). Referring to the Master Chart of Welding of AWS, welding process is classified as Arc Welding (AW), Brazing (B), Solid State Welding (SSW), Soldering (S), Resistance Welding (RW) and Oxyfuel Gas Welding (OFW) (Jefus.L, 2004).

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2.2.1 Arc Welding

The term arc is like lighting and actually a form of emitted gas (Killing.R, 2001). In arc welding process, the source of heat is received from electrical energy. The arc is generated between the tip of electrode and the work piece (Kalpakjian.S, 2001). The types of welding categorized in this section are Shielded Metal Arc (SMAW), Gas Metal Arc (GMAW), Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)(Figure 2.1).

2.2.1.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

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Figure 2.2: Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process. Source: American Metallurgical Consultants (1999)

2.2.1.2 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

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Figure 2.3 Gas Metal Arc Welding Process. Source: American Metallurgical Consultants (1999)

Figure 2.4: GMAW Welding.

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2.2.1.3 Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

FCAW is an arc welding using a continuous hollow electrode filled with a flux which provides shielding gases, deoxieders, alloy additions and slag formers as shown in Figure 2.5. Some cored electrodes are designed to use with an additional gas shield, which is usually carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide rich gas mixture. An argon based gas shield is always used with metal-cored wires. This welding is normally non-automated. The advantage of flux wired is having high deposition rates and give deep penetration. Preference to choose the type of solid wires depends on economic considerations. The process is widely used in structural engineering, earth moving plant, shipyard and offshore fabrications. It is frequently used for welding stainless steels and widely employed for hard surfacing. The equipment can be operated by robot (Houldcroft.P, 1990).

Figure 2.5 FCAW Welding Process. Source: Johnson.C (2003).

2.2.1.4 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

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do not require filler metal. GTAW welds are high quality, therefore certain metals and alloys cannot be used. GTAW results in good penetration and deposition rate. However both penetration and deposition rate is much less than MIG. GTAW is commonly used in automobile, aerospace power generation, process plant and electrical and domestic equipment manufacture (Houldcroft .P, 1990).

Figure 2.6: GTAW Welding Process.

Source: American Metallurgical Consultants (1999)

2.2.2 Brazing

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braze materials perform well in abrasive, corrosive and high temperature conditions. Brazing has become popular and effective in a variety of industrial uses as well as gas turbine applications (Sermatech International, 2008). An example of application is also in joining carbide to tool bit as shown in Figure 2.8.

Figure

Table in Design View

Table in.

Design View. View in document p.11
Figure 2.1: Master Chart of Welding and Allied Process (AWS).
Figure 2 1 Master Chart of Welding and Allied Process AWS . View in document p.18
Figure 2.2: Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process.
Figure 2 2 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process . View in document p.20
Figure 2.3 Gas Metal Arc Welding Process.
Figure 2 3 Gas Metal Arc Welding Process . View in document p.21
Figure 2.4: GMAW Welding.
Figure 2 4 GMAW Welding . View in document p.21
Figure 2.5 FCAW Welding Process.
Figure 2 5 FCAW Welding Process . View in document p.22
Figure 2.6: GTAW Welding Process.
Figure 2 6 GTAW Welding Process . View in document p.23
Figure 2.7: Brazing a Butt Joint.
Figure 2 7 Brazing a Butt Joint . View in document p.24

References

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