Joining Performance Of Aluminum T6063 Using GMAW Welding

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UNIVERSI TI TEKNIKAL MALAYS IA (UTeM)

Joining Performance of Aluminum

T6063

Using

GMAW Welding

Dissertation Submitted of the Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering in

Partial Fulfillment of the requirement for The Awards of the Degree of

Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing Design)

Mohd.Azme1 Bin Aziz

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UTeM Library (Pind.112007)

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UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

*%"

-

JUDUL JOINING PERFORMANCE OF ALUMINUM T6063 USING

GMAW WELDING

SESl PENGAJIAN : 2005

-

2008

a ~ a MOHDAZMEL BIN AZlZ

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSMISarjanalDoktor Falsafah) ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Tesis adalah hak milik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

.

2. Perpustakaan Universiti Tekni kal Malaysia Melaka di benarkan mem buat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.

3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

4. **%la tandakan

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SULK atau kepentingan Malaysia yang termaktub di dalam (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan AKTA RAHSIA RASMl 1972)

TERHAD (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan

oleh organisasilbadan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan) TlDAK TERHAD

M .

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

Alamat Tetap:

N0.185-A KG TIT1 BESI, 06200 KEPALA BATAS,

ALOR STAR, KEDAH DARUL AMAN.

Tarikh: 3 a \ 5 / ~ d ~ & Tarikh: >a

I $

/ J O ~ $

I '

" Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi ljazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).

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UECLAKA'I'IUN

"I hereby declare that thrs wrltlng IS my ortglnal work except tor quotatlons and summaries, each one of which I have clearly stated its source"

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AYJ'KUVAL

"1 hereby declare that 1 have read the content ot the thes~s and In my oplnlon, the

content of the thesis have fulfilled the scope and quality for the purpose of achieving

the Degree ot Bachelor ot Manutactunng Englneenng (Manutactunng Ueslgn)"

Signature

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Weldlng charactenstlcs ot Alumrnum '1'60b3 plate speclmen ot l Omm

thickness by a Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) were studied. Generally, the

composltron tor thls senes whrch are 0.9% Magnes~um and 0.6Y0 Silicon are the

highest alloying elementq. The type ol'joining was studied in this research is Butt

Jolnt and thls research are also to be studled about their performance and capablllty.

These specimens wcrc welded by certiticd and skillful bvcldcr from Nautical Line

(M) Sdn-Bhd. In thls research, there are 3 characterlstlcs 01 Alumlnum '1'6063 to be

studied; impact, hardness and the defects in the joining. To perform this research,

Impact 'l'estmg Machlne, Kockwell Hardness Mach~ne, and Ultrasonic 'I'estlng

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Mengkaji tentang sitat-sitat bahan Alum~nium '1'6063 setebal l0mm apabila

ianya dikimpal menerusi kimpalan arka gas lengai (GMAW). Secara umumnya,

komposlsi kimia yang terbesar bag1 bahan in1 adalah 0.YYo Magnesium and 0.6Y0

Silicon. Penyambungan jenis 'temu' adalah yg di gunakan untuk penyelidikan ini

bag1 mengkajl tentang prestasi dan juga kebolehupayaanya. Spesimen yang dl

gunakan untuk diujikaji telah disediakan oleh Nautical Line (M) Sdn.Rhd menerusi

pengimpal yang berkemahiran dan juga terlatlh. VI dalam penyelidikan ini, tiga (3)

sifkt-sifat Aluminuim T6063 akan di kenalpasti iaitu daripada segi kekuatan impak,

kekerasan, dan juga kecacatan pada bahagian tempat penyambungan. Untuk

mengaplikasikan ujikaji ini, mesin-mesin yang digunakan adalah seperti Mesin Ujian

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k'irst oj all, all the praises and thanks he to Allah S. W. 7'jor His Love,

This thesis is dedicated to my.family,

1 b my beloved parent, Aziz Bin Harun & Juriah Ut Ahmad

And my truely lovely person, Norita bt Md Nusir

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In the name of Allah, the most Gracious aud most Compassionate

Firstly, 1 want to to thank Allah Almlghty for blesslng me and glvlng me

strength to accomplish this thesis. I would like also to take this opportunity to gather

all my most slncere gratitude towards my gracious and benevolent supervisor, Mr.

Syahrul Aman bin Suandi for his proper guidance and generous assistance

throughout the accompl~shment of the work contarn In the thesis. 1 have benetltted

through his kind help, valucablc suggcstion and encouragcmcnt in completing my

work and complllng thts thesls.

1 would llke to express my earnest appreclatlon and thanks to Mr. Hadzley

bin Abu Bakar for providing helpful and significant information when i needed him

most. Many thank to all of the technlclans especially Mr. Azhar for their cooperation

and assisting me in the various laboratory tasks.

Last but not least, to those who contribute towards the accompl~shment of thls

thesis especially Apit Kacak, Mud4 Arin, Wak Din, Aman, Wan, and all my family

members, 1 ofler my deepest and genulne gratefulness for thew support, oplnlon and

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'I'ABLE UP' CVN'I'EN'I'S

9eclaration..

...

I

.

.

Approval

...

11

. . . Abstract..

...

IIB Abstrak

...

iv

Uedication

...

.v

Ackr~owlcdgement

...

vi

'I'able of Contents..

...

vii

List of Figures

...

xi

... List of 'l'ables

...

XIII List uf Symbols

...

xiv

List of Abbreviation

...

xv

List of Appcndiccs..

...

xvi

1.1 Background..

...

I 1.2 Problem Statement..

...

.,2

1.3 ObJectlves..

...

..-2

1.4 Scope

...

2

CHAYI'EK 2 : L1'l'k;KA'I'UKE KEVIEW 2.1 What IS Aluminum..

...

..3

2.1 - 1 Characteristics of Aluminum

...

..4

2.1.2 Mechanical Properties of Alumlnum

...

-3

2.1.3 Applicatiotls..

...

6

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2.3 Aluminum Boat

...

8

...

2.3.1 Introduction 8

...

2.3.2 Why Used Aluminum Y 2.4 Mechaitical PI-operties Background

...

10

2.4.1 General Uetinttton ot mechanical Yropertles

...

1 1 2.5 Welding

...

I2 2.3.1 Introductton

...

12

2.5.2 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

...

13

2.3.2.1 Yllnctple

...

-13

2.5.2.2 Ftquipments

...

14

2.3.2.3 CiMAW Weldtng Shleldtng Gas

...

I3 2.5.2.4 Advatltages and Disadvantages of GMAW

...

15

2.6 lest

...

16

2.6.1 Destructive 'l'est (NUI')

...

16

2.6.2 NonUestruct1ve'I'est(NU'1')

...

16

2.7 lirlpact Test

...

17

2.1. Advantages and Utsadvantages ot Impact 'l'est

...

1'1 2.7.2 Theory

...

18

2.8 U ltrasonlc 'I'est

...

1 Y 2.8.1 Introduction

...

19

2.8.2 'I'heory

...

I Y 2.8.3 Advantagcs and Disaclvantages of Ultrasonic Test

...

21

2.9 Hardness 'I 'est

...

ZL 2.9.1 Advantages of Hardriess Test

...

22

2.9.2 Factors Involve Yertormed Hardness 'l'est

...

ZZ 2.9.3 Types of Indcntcr

...

23

2.9.4 Hardness Scale

...

24

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CHAPTER 3 :

METHODOLOGY

...

3.1 lntroduction 27

...

3.2 Experimental Apparatus 28

...

3.2.1 GMAW Welding Machine 28

...

3.2.2 Band Saw Machine 30

...

3.2.3 Shielding Gas 31

...

3.2.4 Filler Rod 31

...

3.3 Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) 32

...

3.3.1 Shielding Mask 32

...

3.3.2 Leather Glove 33

3.3.3 Apron

...

33

...

3.4 Testing Machines 34

...

3.4.1 Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) of Hardness 34

...

3.4.2 Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) of Impact 36

...

3.5 Experimental Methods -37

...

3.5.1 Design of Experiment (DOE) 38

...

3.5.1.1 Specimens -38

...

3.5.2 Material Selection 39

...

3.5.2.1 Introduction 39

...

3.5.2.2 What is Aluminum T6063 39

...

3.5.2.3 The Composition of Aluminum T6063 40

...

3.5.3 Welding Parameter 41

...

3 S.3.1 Welding Procedure 41

...

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CHAPTER 4 : RESULT

AND

DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Result of Impact Test

...

47

4.1.1 Charpy Impact Test

...

-48

4.1.2 Izod Impact Test

...

53

4.1.3 Summary

...

-57

4.2 Result of Rockwell Hardness Test

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58

4.3 Result of Non Destructive Test

...

65

4.4 Final Result

...

70

CHAPTER 5 : DISCUSSION

...

71

CHAPTER 6 : CONCLUSION

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76

...

CHAPTER 7 : SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION 78 REFERENCES

...

79

Appendix A : Figure and Table

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LIST OF FIGURES PAGES 8 12 13 14 17 17 18 20 20 2 1 28 3 0 32 32 3 3 3 3 3 5 36 37 38 4 1 42 42 43 43 44 NO 2.3.1 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.2.2 2.7 (a) 2.7 (b) 2.7.2

2.8.2 (a)

2.8.2 (b)

2.8.2 (c)

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.4 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4.1 3.4.4 3.5

3.5.1.1 (a)

3.5.3.1 (1)

3.5.3.1 (2)

3.5.3.1 (3)

3.5.3.1 (4)

3.5.3.1 (5)

3.5.3.1 (6)

ITEMS

Aluminum Boat

Welding Process

GMAW Welding Schematic Process

GMAW Welding Equipments

Izod Test

Charpy Test

Schematic Diagram of Impact Test

Incomplete of Fusion

Incomplete of Penetration

Porosity

GMAW Welding Machine

Band Saw Machine

Filler Rod

Shield Mask model S939

Leather Glove

Apron

Rockwell Machine

Impact Test Machine

Experimental Methods

Specimen for Impact Test

C02 Fire Extinguisher

Wire Installation

Setting the Roller Tensioner

Setting the Wire Reel Tensioner

Parameter Setup

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44 45 46 46 46 47 49 5 1 54 56 58 5 8 59 61 62 63 64 65 73 3.5.3.1 (7)

3.5.3.1 (8) 3.5.4 (ii)

3.5.4 (iii)

3.5.4 (iv)

4.1 4.11 (a)

4.11 )

4.1.2 (a)

4.1.2 (b)

4.2 (a)

4.2 (b)

4.2 (c)

4.2 (d)

4.2 (e)

4.2 ( f ) 4.2 (g)

4.3 (a)

5

Examine the Welds

Removing the Oxide Layer

Cut off Raw Material Using Band Saw

Tap Well Process

Finished Product

Specimen for Izod Impact Test

Graph of Impact Energy versus Specimen for Charpy Impact Test

Graph of Impact Strength versus Specimen for Charpy Impact Test

Graph of Impact Energy versus Specimen for Izod Impact Test

Graph of Impact Strength versus Specimen for Izod Impact Test

Specimen Tested

Ball Indenter 1/16

Graph Result of Rockwell Hardness Test

Graph of Average Hardness Value by Point of Specimen

Graph Specimen 1B

Graph Specimen 1C

Graph of Average Hardness Value by Specimen

Specimen

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LIST OF TABLES xiii PAGES 4 6 11 15 17 2 1 22 23 26 29 30

3 1

40

4 1

48

50

53

5 5

5 8

59

6 1

69

7 1

73 75 76 TABLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 1

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

2 1

22 23 24 25 26 ITEMS

Characteristics of Aluminum

The Serial of Aluminum Alloys

Definition of Mechanical Properties

Advantages and Disadvantages of GMAW

Advantages and Disadvantages of Impact Test

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Test

Factors Involve Performed Hardness Test

Types of Indenter

Material and Standards

GMAW Machine Specification

Band Saw Machine Specification

Recommended Shielding Gas

The Composition of Aluminum T6063

Welding Parameter

Data Collection of Charpy Impact Test

Data to Calculate Impact Strength for Charpy Impact Test

Data to Calculate Impact Energy for Izod Impact Test

Data to Calculate Impact Strength for Izod Impact Test

Result for Impact Test

Parameter for Hardness Test

Result of Rockwell Hardness Test

Result of Non Destructive Test

Result of Mechanical Properties for Aluminum T6063

Result for Impact Test

Recommended Parameter Setting for Joining Aluminum Using GMAW

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

Yo

O

c

MPa

A l

> < C02 0 2 H 91 92 m

H

0 Percentage Degree Celsius Megapasal Aluminum Bigger Smaller Carbon Dioxide Oxygen

Height of Pendulum

Degree of Pendulum

Degree After Impact

Mass Gravity Height Degree Kilogram millimeter Voltage Ampere Hertz

Rotational Per Minute

Kilowatt

Diameter

Joule

Joule per Meter Square

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SPECIALIZED NOMENCLATURE GMAW DT NDT UTeM GTAW CPU MIG DC TIG SMAW AC NDE NDI

HB

HK HR HV UTS PPE SOP DOE SEM UTM ASME ASTM HAZ

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Destructive Test

Non Destructive Test

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Central Processing Unit

Metal Inert Gas

Direct Current

Tungsten Inert Gas

Stick Metal Arc Welding

Alternate Current

Non Destructive Evaluation

Non Destructive Inspection

Brinell Hardness Number

Knoop Hardness Number

Rockwell Hardness Number

Vickers Hardness Number

Ultimate Tensile Strength

Personal Protective Equipment

Standard Operation Procedure

Design of Experiment

Scanning Electron Microscope

Universal Testing Machine

American Society of Mechanical Engineering

American Society of Testing for Materials

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A : Figure and Table

Appendix B : Calculation For Impact Test

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

Nowadays, Aluminum is widely used in many sector or industries such as

automotive, aircraft, watercraft, and others. This research is to study about the welding

performance of specific parts in boat manufacturing. Beside that, it also focuses about

the joining in terms of hardness, impact, strength, and metallurgy. For the joining, Gas

Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is used to join the material before proceeds to the next

stage. The type of joining is focused to Butt join. It is because; this joining is mostly

used in boat manufacturing. Aluminum T6063 is used for this research because the

material is provided by the boat manufacturer, Nautical Line (M) Sdn.Bhd, Kedah.

Mechanical properties for materials are important to be tested in order to make

sure the products that to be produced have a good quality and good physical strength

which depend on the material used. The properties are referring to the ability of the

material to get through any stress or defection which can affect the product physically.

There are several testing involve in this research. For Destructive Test (DT), impact test

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1.2

Problem Statement

The Aluminum boat in Malaysia is still lacking in terms of the use of welding

techniques as well as joining performance testing. The present research will describe the

details information about welding performance of specifics parts in boat manufacturing.

Previously, there is no standard testing to evaluate the stability of boat especially in

materials effect of joined parts. Thus, the research will focus on the analysis of specific

joining parts in terms of hardness and impact strength. The materials Aluminum T6063

will be provided by the boat manufacturer, Nautical Line (M) Sdn. Bhd, Kedah and the testing evaluation will be held in UTeM.

1.3

Objectives

(a) To be able to analyze the characteristics of

Gas

Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of Aluminum T6063 in terms of hardness and impact.

(b) To be able to compare the welding performance between experimental

method and industrial practice.

1.4

Scope

(a) Details study on Aluminum T6063 in application for boat industries.

(b) Details study on material testing of joining products such as impact test, hardness test, and nondestructive test (NDT).

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CHAPTER

2

LITERITURE REVIEW

2.1

What is Aluminum?

Aluminum is the most common metallic element on earth. This material is

making up about 8% of the earth's crust and it's concentrated in the outer 16 km. Only

Oxygen and Silicon are more abundant. Evolution of life and human civilization has

developed Aluminum in rich environment. It is the most widely used non-ferrous metal today. Aluminum never occurs in its metallic form in nature. It occurs in various forms

in most rocks and soils and is also present in gemstones like topaz and garnet. It can be

found in vegetation and in all of the earth's water. Aluminum is also present in all clays,

so it has been a constituent of cooking vessels since earliest civilizations.

The naturally occurring forms of Aluminum are usually stable and do not interact

with the biological processes of living organisms. Under acidic conditions Aluminum

may be released from rocks and soils in a soluble form which is more available for

uptake by plants and animals. However, uptake of this soluble form is limited by the

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Figure

Updating...

References