Legal education and training in tomorrow's Europe. France

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Drafted by

Jean-Claude MASCLET

Dean of the Faculty of Law Jean Monnet, University of Paris XI

President of the C.E.D.E.C.E.


Nathalie REHBY


in Political Sciences

With the assistance of

Daniel LUDET, Magistrate

Director of

Ecole Nationale de Ia Magistrature


Xavier DELCROS, Advocate

Director of

lnstitut de Formation Continue du Barreau,





Some figures 1 to introduce the report ...

Out of a total number of 2 million students passing


1 out of.3 go to university, 600'000 in

premier cycle (baccalaureat


2 years), 400'000 in

second cycle (baccalaureat


4 years)et 190'000 in

troisieme cycle (baccalaureat



years and doctorates). There are 77 universities in France. 300'000 students are studying law and economics, including 180'000 in

premier cycle,

45'000 in

second cycle,

35'000 in

troisieme cycle.

Law students are 72'000 as first-year students in the

premier cycle

of law studies and 52 % of them have access to

second cycle


Total number of degrees awarded :

-out of 80'000

licences (baccalaureat


3 years), 13'000 are awarded in law - out of 60'000

maftrises (baccalaureat


4 years), 11'000 are awarded in law - out of 40'000

troisieme cycle (baccalaureat



years) degrees, 6'500 are in law - out of 8'000 doctorates, some 500 are in law

Contrary to other disciplines with a similarly strong professional orientation, law as a discipline is readily accessible. There is in medicine or in pharmacy a so-called

numerus clausus,

i.e. a limitation of places available to train future doctors or pharmacists. In other areas, it is only necessary to have the


in the right category to have access to a faculty in a university; this applies, for instance, to the Faculties of Science. There are no such restrictions related to numbers or diplomas when applying to enter a Law Faculty.

The proportion of law students is therefore quite high in academic institutions and numbers are still increasing in law as they are in other faculties. The enrollment grows even more rapidly for law students as the attractiveness of law studies is enhanced by the fact that this discipline is supposed to have a vocational dimension as a preparation for legal and juridical professions and the civil service, or even corporations.

Legal studies, as most areas of third-level education, is therefore open to all. However this university programme is designed so as to have an increasing degree of difficulty. Selection is not performed before entering, but rather in the course of studies. The professional orientation is so clear that its legitimacy to train students is acknowledged by all, which is an idea that does not apply to many other university programmes accused of training people who are destined ... to be on the dole. Law as a discipline trains students to become professionals in law and numerous other areas.



Legal studies are structured in a two-year

premier cycle ,

and a two-year

second cycle ,

the latter including a one-year programme for


and a another one-year programme for



premier cycle

is designed as a consistent and unified programme and, together with the


is meant to provide basic education to law students. The


is conceived as the first stage of specialisation. }he

troisieme cycle

offers two types of education and training : either

D .E.A. (Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies )

which is meant to prepare stqdents to the writing of a doctoral thesis and to teaching and research; or

D.E.S.S. (Diplome d'Etudes

Superieures Specialisees),

which corresponds to a form of professional specialisation with a precise definition of objectives.


General outline of legal studies :

Baccalaurial 2 years




third year


fourth year


fifth year

D.E.A. -> doctoral thesis (3 years or more) or


Passing the baccalaureat gives access to university. Law faculties will therefore enroll students

having a wide range of educational backgrounds. Legal education is characterized by the variety of disciplines and openings, with a high degree of intermingling between theory and practice.

, Basic education consists first in the set of the first two years, leading to DEUG (DiplOme d'Etudes Universitaires Generales) in law, followed by licence obtained at the end of the third

year. DEUG is therefore meant as a preparatory period to collect information and acquire some

competence, licence to capitalise on the two preceding years and bridge the way towards legal

specialisation. There is only one type of DEUG and licence, and the curriculum gives pride of

place to the common core disciplines, whereas maftrise has some forms of specialisation. All

the same, the diploma awarded is the same for all French universities, thus promoting mobility between the various institutions. There are some specialties for maftrise.

Legal education in the premier cycle and deuxieme cycle is currently being reformed

(Decrees of May 26, 1992; Feb. 19, 1993; July 12, 1993 and Apr. 24, 1994). Its imple-mentation should be completed by the beginning of the 1996 academic year.

Parallel to this, there is also another type of course offered to those students who did not pass baccalaureat : it is called capacite en droit. and is a two-year programme. The course

provides basic education in all areas of law. The first year of studies is very selective and only very few students have access to the second year.

Students having passed capacite en droit can then have access to third-level education,

notably legal studies. This corresponds to one of the few possibilities offered in France to students who did not pass baccalaureat but willing to enter an academic institution; it is similar

to offering them another chance. This idea is still very popular, even if it has recently been an object of debate. Capacite en droit is also important from the point of view of

professionalisation. It should noted that making a good score in this course gives direct access to the second year of the DEUG (premier cycle) programme.



DEUG is designed to provide general education and all basic legal subjects are taught.


The reform which is currently under way2 makes provisions for a compulsory course on the European institutions.



is conceived as an introduction into new fields of legal studies: Civil law, Judiciary law and Administrative law are examined in greater detail, while Basic rights, Fiscal law, Corporate law, Social law, International public law, and European and Community Law are new subjects introduced into the syllabus. Courses on the History of Law and Economics are also offered, with the idea of taking the social, economic and political environment of law into account. Course Structure


is obtained in two years, with only one possibility of repeating a year's programme.


can be obtained in one year after


with a possibility of repeating once. The consequence is that many students do obtain


in 3 years years and


in 4 years.

Courses are otherwise organised on a yearly basis, with an examination at the end of each year of studies. Passing this exam gives access to the following year.

Courses should be reorganised into


according to the reform currently implemented. Each


represents a subject or a set of subjects belonging to the same discipline. If the student does not obtain all the


required, he/she may keep the credits corresponding to those which he/she passed.

The idea is to facilitate things to obtain the


and reduce the number of fist-year repeaters, considering that the rate of success from first to second year is about 30 %.

Tuition for




is provided in the form of lectures and

TDs (travaux diriges

= 'practical work') for which the number of students should not exceed a specific limit.


represent at least 1/5 of all courses in the




programmes. Studying a foreign language is compulsory in


are a major ingredient in the curriculum, as they are more oriented toward practice. As a consequence, they are duly taken into account when grading final exams, though weighting is not unified in all universities. There are two sessions for exams, one in June and another one generally in September, so that all students are offered a second chance to pass. Impact of European Programmes

The teaching of Community law is still limited. It was introduced into traditional curri-cula : Business law and International law courses in particular have taken up some elements of Community law and this tendency is gradually gaining momentum and encroaching on new areas, such as Administrative law and Constitutional law. Some specifically "European" law courses have even been created. But few faculties offer European law in

premier cycle.

In the


programme, the general European law course generally deals with institutional and juridical issues. All law faculties offer such a course. Other courses have also been organised at the maitrise level on various aspects of substantive European law.

But the status of these courses is not satisfactory. They are generally not mandatory. Most of the public law students take the general Community law course, whereas the private law students - who are more numerous - generally do not. As a consequence, it is possible to complete law studies without having taken the specialised course on Community law. Students then only know some bits and pieces of it that they have collected from other courses. There is therefore a need to change this situation in this respect.


The reform which is currently implemented leads to the emergence of teachings on European law as early as the

premier cycle

and a greater diversification of courses in



Making a course on Europe mandatory in


is one of the essential points of the current reform. Likewise, it has become mandatory to take a module on Community and European law at


level, without exempting students from courses in this area as an option at





Specialisation and professionalisation generally start only after


All types of specialisation should therefore be reviewed here. The standard way for the acquisition of a specialty is


but there are also other ways to specialise, including at



Real diversification starts with


The great majority of


graduates (this also applies to graduates in economics or in science) go on with their studies with a


In fact, this degree is necessary to have access to the competitive exams to become a civil servant, a magistrate or an advocate. It is also required to seek a position on the labour market. Finally, it is indispensable for

troisieme cycle

studies, be it oriented toward research and a doctorate, or toward the professions.

Specialisation can also be started earlier. However, this is exceptional as the Ministry authorities are not keen on having specialised courses too early in the curriculum. But there exists a


in Public Administration which is strongly oriented toward Public law and the preparation of competitive exams to gain access to the Civil service. Though taken by numerous law students, this programme is destined mostly to arts and science students willing to change their course of studies toward the civil service. Contents

Next to

maftrise en droit

without much specialisation, there also exist


programmes with specialised curricula. The subjects taught vary according to the line selected and universities have created many new


programmes with various specialties. The current tendency is to narrow down the range of possibilities which had become excessively broad; the specialties maintained by the reform are : Private law; Business law; Public law; Comparative law; International law; Notary law; Social law; Judicial careers; Criminal Science; and European law. It can be noticed that European law appears among these specialties.



have also been created in the Law Faculties3. Course Structure


is a one-year programme after


The courses are offered in the form of lectures and TD. and this has not been modified by the reform, except that it demanded that 150 out of 500 course hours be devoted to the area selected as an option.

The maitrise programme sometimes includes an internship or research work; most students prefer to perform the former rather than the latter. The structuring of the study year concerning exams and the various forms of assessment has been maintained. But the current reform makes a study or research paper compulsory, to promote a training of reasoning skills beside the acquisition of theoretical knowledge.

(7) Impact of Community programmes

As for premier cycle and licence, courses on European law were initiated a long time ago, but

they were not mandatory and were rarely supported by TD work. But the principle of

specialisation at maftrise level makes it easier to introduce European law at this stage. The

number of "specialised" courses offered by the various universities has increased dramatically in this respect : European Competition law, European business law, The Policy of the European Communities, etc.

The current reform, parallel to a reduction of the number of maftrises , has also instituted

'European law' as one of the possible specialties. This development should provide additional support to those universities which have done pioneering work in this direction and be an encouragement to those which have not yet struck this course.

There also exist some DEUG and licence programmes implying bi-national

studies-between France and Italy; France and Spain; France and Germany; France and the United Kingdom- as well as programmes combining Law and Language studies.

For instance, the University of Paris XI has created a diplomajuriste international including

5 years of study of which 2 should be spent abroad. The University of Paris XII has a "Jean-Monnet Programme" for which the standard premier cycle programme is combined with 3

semesters of language studies and 4 semesters on Europe (Law, History; and Institutions). At the University of Paris I, students can spent two years in France and 2 years in Britain. Finally, it should mentioned that there exist licence programmes on Europe and some DE U G

progrimunes - as is the case at the University of Paris V - on the European organisations. Concerning the European courses, it can be observed that economics and management courses have adapted more rapidly to the new situation than premier cycle legal programmes have.

The Erasmus programme has greatly contributed to the development of such actions. The most popular initiative consisted in spending one year or one semester at the university of another EC member state, at the level of licence or maftrise, all credits obtained being given full

recognition by the home institution.



An increasing number of students completing the maftrise programme are willing to join some troisieme cycle programme. Such programmes are designed to develop specialisation toward

either research or the professions. Troisieme cycle is synonymous with diversity as such

programmes are indeed available in all law areas.

D.E.A. or DiplOme d'Etudes Approfondies is oriented rather toward research and the

writing of a doctoral thesis. The D.E.S.S. has rather a professional orientation4. But this

distinction is clear cut only in theory; it does not really apply in practice. There should be a direct link between D.E.A., research and the recruitment of students writing a doctoral thesis

(including teachers and researchers). But the role of D.E.A. in relation to that of D.E.S.S. is

often ambiguous, as it is often considered as an end-of-programme diploma, just before entering the labour market, rather than as a preparation to writing a dissertation. For instance, the D.E.A. on Contracts is a way to have access to some law ftrm rather than starting a thesis. D.E.A. andD.E.S.S. are diplomas recognised at the national level as they are accredited by

the French Ministry of Education and Research. .

4 Similar to DU (DiplOme d'IUJiversill) or DES UP, which are diplomas awarded by the university with the corresponding

label, and which have not been accedited by national authorities. However, the mode of instruction is comparable to that used for D.E.A and D.E.S.S.

(8) Course Structure

Courses vary in relation to the area covered by the diploma. In all cases there are lectures and seminars. but the criteria used for the rating of the work done are rather an evaluation of research and the quality to reflection. Personal work has therefore pride of place. D.EA. and

D.E.S.S. are one-year programmes. The D.E.S.S. programme generally includes a training period in a profession related to the specialty of the diploma.

Concerning the doctoral dissertation, it is supposed to be written within three years of completing D.EA. But this is just an guideline and only a very few dissertations are completed within this time span. It should be borne in mind that a subject for a thesis entered into the

Fichier National des Theses

(='National File for Dissertation Subjects') is protected for only


years. The doctoral thesis has in principle both a theoretical and a practical dimension (the result of "field work" as an application of theoretical hypotheses). Obtaining the title is submitted to a session in which candidates defend the results of the research they have carried out and that all

5 members of the thesis jury have read with attention. A doctor's title is necessary to apply for a position as a member of the academic staff. When the title has been awarded, the successful candidate can start a career as an academic or a researcher, and take competitive exams to have access to higher titles and positions (e.g.

Maitre de conference). Impact of European Programmes

The increasing number of

troisierne cycle

programmes has also affected the area of Community law and numerous

troisieme cycle

diplomas related to European law issues have been created. Over 20 D.E.A. and D.E.S.S. programmes are currently in existence. Moreover, numerous

troisieme cycle

programmes have had to introduce elements of Community law into their curricula, either by creating European law modules, or by integrating European law into other course subjects. For instance, a D.EA. programme on the Policy applicable to criminal cases and Human Rights will include a course on the European Convention on Human Rights and a seminar on the impact of European law on Criminal law.

A list of troisieme cycle programmes specialising in Community law or including modules on European law has been appended. It is the result of an survey covering all French universities and conducted in May 1994. The creations recorded are not so much the result of Community programmes but rather an initiative taken by universities to respond to what they now consider to be a need.



ADVOCATES Basic Education

The condition for access to the profession after taking the corresponding exam is to have a

maitrise en droit

degree. The exam has both written and oral tests. A rather complex system of equivalence and exemption for the holders of specific

troisieme cycle

diplomas is then applied. The rate of success is 25 to 30 %.

Basic training for advocates is provided on a centralised basis. Each regional centre of professional training for advocates is attached to either a Bar Association or a

Cour d'Appel (

= 'Appellate Court'); there are 33 of them in France. Each centre has full autonomy for the organisation of exams and the structuring of courses. It is the task of universities to provide legal education to would-be advocates, and it is up to


to provide the professional training. An initial one-year training course is offered in such

Centres ;

it is conceived as an updating of some areas of knowledge (complementary information, mostly in relation with the latest developments), and offering certain professional courses to acquire specific skills. Two training periods with a total duration of 3 months can be completed in a court or a


d'avocats (

= 'lawyers' office') during that time.


Students obtaining the Certificat d'Aptitude


Ia Profession d'Avocat (CAPA) after

completing this one-year programme at the Centre must complete a two-year training period in a lawyer's office, in alternation with theoretical courses. After these 3 years of training, the advocate can either work as such, or decide to prepare some specialty that he/she can validate by performing practical work (research activities, publications or a 4-year training period in the area selected), and by taking an exam to assess the competence acquired. The latest reform has founded the Conseil National des Barreaux (CNB) whose task is to make sure that the training provided to all advocates in France does not differ from place to place and that "training programmes are improved and consistent"5. Continued Education

Continued education is offered to professionals while performing their activities, with a view to improving, enlarging and updating their information and knowledge. Most Bar Associations organise continued education courses in the form of symposia, conferences with debating sessions, and seminars relating to areas of the law affected by reforms or changes or to issues in connection with exercising the advocate profession (management of a law firm; pleading, etc). Europe is naturally one of the topics treated, either with a view to updating information (Customs regulations, Competition law, European business law), or to discovering and understanding Europe (Institutional Community law, results of the Single Market, free circulation of goods and services, etc), or procedural problems (access to the European Court for Human Rights, access to the jurisdictions of the European Union, etc). Practice and theory are intermingling. Training courses are offered to advocates by several organisations other than the universities or Sciences Po which also provide training periods. Such organisations are

IFC (lnstitut de Formation Continue au Barreau); IHEJ (lnstitut des Hautes Etudes de Ia Justice), Institut du Droit penal, Institut de Formation des Droits de l'Homme, associations and

advocate unions, and the Centres regionaux de formation professionnelle for advocates in the various regions of France. We should also make a note of the action conducted by I nstitut de Ia

Delegation des Barreaux de France in Brussels, which is in charge of coordinating continued

education programmes.


JUDGES Basic Education

Magistrates are trained in a professional high school called ENM (Ecole Nationale de Ia

Magistrature). The French State has a monopoly on the training of magistrates and there is only

the above school for that purpose. Access is determined by passing a very selective competitive exam. To have full right to enroll to take the exam, candidates just have to hold a maftrise



4 years of study) in any discipline. In other terms, it is not necessary to have a legal degree to become a magistrate t But the subjects in the competitive exam are obviously predominantly of a legal nature: Civil law, Criminal law, Public law, and some tests in foreign languages and general culture. There is therefore little chance of success for candidates if they have not attained a sufficient level of competence in law. The successful candidates are therefore holders of law degrees and the graduates from IEP in Paris (the famous Sciences Po) which offer a special and efficient programme as a preparation to take the competitive exam.

After entering the ENM, auditeurs (='listeners/auditors')- as they are called- receive professional training. There is no course in a core subject in law as students are supposed to have acquired all the elements of knowledge in this respect to be able to take the competitive exam. The programme is therefore more oriented toward applications in practice. ENM offers a preparation to the enforcement of law, not an acquisition of legal knowledge. Theoretical teaching is limited in the programme to information on reforms and follow-up of legislative work. Training is complemented by internships.

5 Staluts of CNB


Entry to ENM is a sought-after goal and there is only 1 place for every 16 candidates. The level of legal knowledge is considered as satisfactory, whereas some would say that candidates are insufficiently trained in Criminal law and Community law. Continued education

Its purpose is mostly to provide information about the latest developments of law and the reform implemented. It assumes the form of an updating oriented toward practice, and the direct consequences of reforms and new regulations. For instance the reformation of the Criminal code made several training sessions necessary. They have been organised, not only by ENM, but also IHEJ (lnstitut des Hautes Etudes de Ia Justice}, and the service in charge of the continued education of magistrates in Paris. Training periods are organised on a regular basis on European law, even if they are not considered as essential in the general programme offered.

An interesting initiative was launched this year for the fmt time : the organisation of seminars on the theme of "The Judicial Cultures of Europe" by ENM, IEP in Paris (Sciences Po}, IHEJ and foreign partners. The idea is to try to understand how the judicial systems in the other members states work in terms of training, recruitment, professional practice, code of good conduct, etc. For advocates and judges alike

Most universities have established Instituts d'Etudes Judiciaires (IEJ) with a view to offering preparation to the students willing to take the competitive exam for entry into ENM and other exams to enter the advocate profession. This assistance provided to students who have registered for this type of preparation may be offered during or after mattrise studies.

The training programme includes a review of legal subjects for the exams - for which basic knowledge has already been acquired during studies - and a preparation specifically for the exam tests.


Training for the other professions is characterised by the amount of practical "on-the-job" work. All candidates to the notary, bailiff, or receiver professions must complete a rather long professional training period. Specifically oriented continued education programmes are offered by professional organisations.

Candidates must at least be licencie(e)s en droit. They must then find a mattre de stage (=

'traineeship supervisor'), i.e. a bailiff who will guide him/her for 2 years and provide training. At the same time, he/she should register at Chambre nationale des huissiers where he/she can take courses which are essentially practical-oriented. After these two years, he/she can take an exam giving fmal access to the profession. Notaries

There are 4 ways to become a notary; 2 requiring a mattrise en droit and 2 related to professional training.

For the former two, students can take either the university way or a path that is closer to professional practice.


- the university way can be selected after passing


students having taken then a


in notary law can then be matriculated in a

Centre deformation

and complete a 2-year training period in an office. A short dissertation should be submitted together with a report at the end of the one-year study period. Candidates are then awarded the

Dip/Ome su.perieur du


- the professional way also implies that students have passed a


they can then take a competitive exam to gain access to a

centre de formation

for this specific profession. They are awarded the

diplOme d'aptitude aux fonctions de notaire

after one years of studies, followed by a 2-year training period in a notary's office and the submission of a report. As above, successful candidates then receive the

dip/Ome su.perieur



- the "internal" way, proper to the profession : holders of a


degree in law can become

clercs de notaire

and, after 9 years of experience and an exam to provide evidence of acquired knowledge, candidates are awarded a diploma and become notaries

-the "external" way by which experienced lawyers such as magistrates, senior civil servants, legal advisors may become notaires.

However, just like bailiffs, would-be notaries have to buy a


'office') or rather they purchase from the Ministry a so-called

droit de presentation

(='right of submission') and the location of the office. This is actually a way to restrict the number of positions made available. This situation is motivated by the willingness of the trades administration to have a form of control on such professions : notaries and bailiffs are considered, not only as professions, but also as public officers.

Administrateurs and Liquidateurs de justice

(= 'receivers') The diploma required is a


degree in law, followed buy a 3 year training period sanctioned by a final exam (which is a mere formality). When his/her skills have been fully recognised, the


has full freedom to have his/her office where he/she likes, which stands in contrast to the above two situations.

Other professions

The task of the


(=auctioneer) is to auction the real property of private or judicial entities. He/she should be the holder of a


degree in law or in the history of art, and complete a training period during which time he/she will have to take course to update his/her knowledge in specific areas. When he/she has acquired the necessary skill, the candidate also has to buy a

charge (

= 'office'). The profession is characterised by

numerus clausus (

= limitation of available places) and the status of

officer ministeriel

(='state service officers'), similar to that of notaries and bailiffs.


marchands de biens

(='real estate dealers') also have to be holders of a


degree in law. This profession is considered as a competitor to notaries for all business relating to the management and sales transactions on real property.


These lawyers are trained by the universities, mostly among such students who specialised in

business law. Corporate lawyers may however have activities in other areas than those directed linked to the requirements of the company : patents, taxation, social rights, contracts. Continued education is essential for these lawyers who are in direct contact with economic problems. The universities also contribute to their training.




Civil servants are recruited after taking competitive exams organised in various areas. However, they all have something in common : having a maftrise degree is a basic requirement, as legal subjects play an important part in the tests.

Most civil servants have been educated in law faculties (holding a licence degree in Public administration, a maftrise degree in Public law, etc.), or in I.E.Ps.6 which train a sizeable

number of civil servants, in particular hauts fonctionnaires (= 'civil servants in higher positions'). The creation of the Ecole des Sciences Politiques in Paris was linked to a willingness to train the political and administrative elite of France ... This l.E.P. enjoys a special status, making it one of the Grandes Ecoles having a very restrictive and selective educational and recruitment policy, with a competitive exam to have access to the school; intensive courses during the 2 or


years of study (according to the level of education when joining the school); and difficulty of the final exams. Moreover, the School has created preparatory courses for competitive exams to gain access to civil service high schools (and to ENM), which enjoy excellent reputation. The teaching of law focuses on Public law and Public finance, being tailored to meet the needs of of would-be civil servants or students willing to join preparatory courses for competitive exams. Students wishing to make a career in the private sector in the specialty 'economics and fmance' can also take courses in Private law.

When holding a licence, maftrise or I.E.P. degree, candidates to the civil service can take various competitive exams. We will focus here on higher level exams. The most prestigious of all is the exam giving access to Ecole Nationale d'Administration (E.N.A.) for which there is approximately 12 candidates for each place. E.N.A. recruits servants for all administrative sectors, independent of specialty. Students trained in this School can be found later in Ministries, Conseil d'Etat, Cour des Comptes and in Prefectures. They can make a career in both the central administration or de-localised administrative departments or in the foreign service.

The policy of de-centralisation has led to the establishment of Instituts regionaux d'Administration (l.RA)) for the training of civil servants destined to working for regional authorities. After passing the competitive exam, the same educational principle apples throughout : many trainings, i.e. practical application of the elements of knowledge acquired in basic education courses. Assemblee nationale (='Lower House') and Senat (='Upper House of the Parliament') hire their administrateurs from among graduates of such Schools, in a very selective manner, by organising competitive exams called concours generaux , or from among senior officers. Other competitive exams are designed to select officers who will then work for the Social Security, in hospitals, for the Police. for instance, in the case of the Police, the

licence degree gives the possibility of taking the competitive exam as inspecteur and maftrise as

commissaire. Such competitive exams are designed for direct recruitment and the training offered after the exam is mostly practice-oriented, in a professional environment.

The introduction of courses related to Europe has been started in relatively recent times and implemented progressively. Courses on European law (structural funds; Community policies; Community institutions, Single Act; Developments of the European law) have been introduced by ENA. since the late 80s and by IRA. since the 1987 reform.

Continued education is provided by the same schools which generally have a department for continued education, or by universities, or again by the Institut international d'administration publique. These courses are, as a rule, considered as insufficient, particularly for what concerns Community law. Yet, as this training on Europe is recent and restricted as a part of basic education in schools, it is highly necessary. The Civil service is probably the area where greatest efforts should be displayed, as was underlined in the report established by the Conseil d'Etat in 1992.

6 lnstitUls d'Etudes Politiques. The Paris I.E.P. is often referred to as "Sciences Po".




The evolution of legal studies is characterised by an increasing complexity of judicial regulations and the need to comprehend new issues that have appeared in the wake of changes in society and in morals, and the emergence of new technologies (bioethics, communication), as well as the intemationalisation of trade and cultural exchange. This dual movement toward an extension and an increasing complexity of the judiciary leads to the creation of new study programmes that universities have to offer. This causes in turn the multiplication of optional courses. As a consequence, the consistency of legal studies is jeopardised.

On the other hand, legal studies increasingly assume the form of just transferring elements of knowledge which are more and more numerous - a form of instruction which is to some extent necessary - than reasoning or speculation. But the development of law can make these elements of knowledge obsolete in the short term.

It seems necessary to implement a re-orientation so that the future lawyer be fJISt and foremost a person having a wide culture and also some skills and well equipped to face the current developments in a self-assured manner.

The condition for a reinforcement of legal culture is a rehabilitation of the basic legal disciplines (among which Community law should have a place), and this refers to the structuring of programmes.

The condition to the reinforcement of skills is a development of instruction in smaller groups, involving students and calling on their sense of initiative.

But it is also obvious that the teaching of law is impaired by the great number of students, which is detrimental to the quality of the education and training provided Giving students free access to legal studies and accepting large crowds of students in the fJISt-year


courses are an obstacle to any form of progress and improvement of educational methods.

The rapid evolution of law also raises the problem of continued training for lawyers. Numerous organisations - including professional institutions -offer various programmes, but without any sense of cooperation. The universities are not sufficiently involved in such programmes. The response to challenges is not adequate and educational structures are no match to meet requirements that have been clearly identified The problems should be examined as a whole, in a consistent way, by the responsible members of the professions, the representatives of universities and the public authorities.

Finally, we should raise the question of research in law. The support provided for research in this area is dramatically weak, thus eliminating any form of large-scale team research work. Subsidies are also very low in the case of individual research work, for students writing doctoral theses and willing to start a teaching career. As compared to science, we can claim that the situation of law is disastrous.



The knowledge of the law that has emerged out of the building of Europe is neither uniform nor sufficient.

As mentioned above, the courses on European issues are not mandatory in all universities and in all lines of study. National programmes for the preparation of the


degree just mention that Community law is a possible option.

In the case of the


degree, some courses are indeed offered by some universities which have made use of their autonomy. Elements of Community law (International public law,


Business law, etc.) are sometimes included in traditional curricula, but without full recognition of the specificity of this law.

We should also point out another shortcoming concerning the teaching of foreign languages. This teaching is indeed mandatory in DEUG programmes, but instruction is not provided in satisfactory conditions because of a lack of resources. Licence and maftrise

programmes do not say a word about foreign languages.

Another shortcoming lies in the modesty of courses on Comparative law (especially in reference to the EC member states). The situation in this respect is an object of great concern, at a time when education in Community law entails some understanding - even if it remains elementary - of the judicial systems and judicial and administrative organisation of the other member states.

We described the situation of continued education in the above section.

2. 2.


2.2.1. FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE CHANGES IN LAW Two points should be raised :

Basic legal education remains essential. It is necessary to be a "general practitioner", with an appropriate knowledge of basic principles to be able to adapt to the changes of law, and also to be a "technician of law" conversant with the modes of legal analysis and reasoning.

The rapid development of legal disciplines demands first-rate continued education. In this respect, the role played by universities is clearly insufficient whereas academics are in the best of positions to keep up with the evolution oflaw, in particular Community law.


Three points should be mentioned here :

Education in Community law should be reinforce and the enforcement of the Decrees of Feb. 19 and July 12, 1993 will undoubtedly contribute to this development. There is indeed an urgent need for the reform to be carried out. It will lead to a general recognition of the specificity of such courses and improve the status that they have in curricula. Moreover, the share of Community law in basic course programmes should be increased, a point that many members of the faculty have now fully understood. This progress can take two different paths: the development of specific courses, and the integration of the European dimension into traditional programmes.

Finally, we should promote the creation of specialised course programmes : the creation of the European law specialty course (and the Comparative law specialty course) by the above-mentioned Decrees might be a step forward in this direction if universities are able to take the necessary steps. The creation of specialised troisieme cycle courses could also be promoted by a targeted policy to be carried out by the French Ministry of Education and research.

The teaching of Comparative law is still insufficient. Great efforts should be displayed to give a new impetus to a discipline which is in great danger, at a time when good knowledge of the judicial, administrative, judiciary systems in the EC member states has become indispensable for many law practitioners.

The teaching of foreign languages should be reinforced, which entails new resources in material and staff.


and substantive Community law, and a short-term policy, with a view to bridging the gaps created by an insufficient training provided to advocates, magistrates, and above all state servants.


Full freedom for the installation and the provision of services has become a reality : the french Bar counts 236 advocates from other EC member states and 135 from the United States (as per

Apr. 26, 1994) out of 10'482 members.

This cannot apply to judgeships and the upper civil service. The position of legal professions cannot be identical in relation to the emergence of Europe.

The goal of achieving uniformity for legal - especially judiciary - professions is neither realistic, nor to be sought after, at least in the short term. But it should be clearly stated that mutual knowledge should be promoted and professional institutions have an essential role to play in the development of exchanges.




The measures to be implemented in universities are related to two factors :

• official regulations, considering that the awarding of diplomas and the certification procedure are regulated by the State government7

• the autonomy of universities, considering that legislative documents grant them certain degree of freedom for the management of their courses, limited for premier cycle programmes, higher for licence, wide-ranging for mattrise and troisieme cycle.



First, that the reform of programmes, as laid down in the Decrees of Feb. 19 and July 12, 1993, be rapidly implemented;

Second, that measures be taken for the creation of maitrise programmes with Community law or Comparative law as a specialty and also specialised troisieme cycle (D.E.A. and D.E.S.S.) programmes;

Third, that effective efforts be made for the tuition of foreign languages, if necessary by using modern technology (distance teaching).

And finally a more resolute commitment to continued education.



More attention for the European dimension of the disciplines that they teach (when they do not offer courses on Community law).


For education

A positive response when examining the applications for the accreditation of



troisi~me cycle courses in European law and Comparative law that are likely to promote such initiatives;

Additional resources granted for the teaching of foreign languages. A well-thought reform of programmes for access to the Bar and the Bench would be decisive for the students when they make a choice.

For research

A significant increase of the grants offered for research in law;

Some form of assistance for the creation of research teams prepared to develop collective programmes;

Subsidies for publications and specialised conferences, including assistance for the publication of a European Legal yearbook, for the promotion of research and the development of Community doctrine by providing an appropriate tool.



The EC actions to be maintained and reinforced are now well-known :

• facilitating the mobility of students and teachers in all European faculties. It would also be necessary to promote exchanges between professionals, in the wake of the freedom of establishment;

• granting prizes and scholarships for research carried out on Community law (for students, young academics, institutions or research centres). The creation of a "label" to be granted to institutions and research centres as a reward for their action in the area of European studies could also be envisaged;

• granting subsidies for conferences and specific research programmes;

• offering incentives for the creation of Europe-oriented courses, in particular at thetroisi~me



• providing support to national associations aiming at developing education and research on Community issues;

• promoting the circulation of information on education and research on Community issues.


The vocational training issue calls for a wide-ranging reflection on the requirements of professionals. This reflection has not yet taken place and should be conducted as a matter of urgency. A national conference with representatives of all institutions engaged in vocational training, the public authorities, and universities is likely to offer a positive contribution. The


idea would be to accurately identify the present and future needs and to make suggestions as to the ways and means to meet them, with due consideration for the existing material.


Selected literature



marche unique europeen

(3) 1992. "L'enseignement du droit europeen", Jacques Pertek, p 159-185.

Common market law review

30 (1) Feb. 1993. "Legal education in Europe", Henry G. Schermers, p 9-15.

Etudiants d'Europe,

Flory M.


I.I.A.P., 1993.

Les diplOmes en Europe,

Morard M. C.


Joguet C., 1990.

Universites : Ia recherche des equilibres

(rapport au President de la Republique), Comite national d'evaluation des etablissements publics


caractere scientifique, culture! et professionnel, Documentation fran~aise, 1993.

Les juristes


et l'horizon 1992 : formation initiale eJ perfectionnement

(Actes de la


joumee nationale du droit), Fondation nationale des Etudes de droit, 1989.

La formation juridique des fonctionnaires,

Conseil d'Etat, section du rapport et des etudes, 1988.

Rapport public,

Conseil d'Etat, section du rapport et des etudes, 1992. (A passage on Community law)

Rapport Terre sur Ia carriere des magistrats et sur Ia formation des magistrats et des avocats,

Ministere de la justice, 1986.

Le droit Commun de l'Europe et l'avenir de l'enseignement juridique !The common law of

Europe and the Future of Legal Education,

B. de Witte & C. Forder (ed.), Kluwer, 1992.


Arrete du 26 mai 1992 relatif au diplome d'etudes universitaires



Ia licence et


Ia maitrise.

NOR: MENZ9202416A

Le ministre d'Etat, ministre de l'education nationale et de Ia culture,

Vu Ia loi n° 84-52 du 26 janvier 1984 modifiee sur l'enseignement siperieur;

Vu le decret no 89-486 du 10 juillet 1989 d'orientation sur l'education;

Vu le decret n° 71-376 du 13 rnai 1971, modifie notamment par le decret n° 81-221 du 31 decembre 1981, relatif


}'inscription des etudiants dans les universites et les etablissements publics


caractere scientifique et culturel independants des universites;

Vu le decret n° 84-431 du 6 juin 1984 modifie portant statuts du corps des professeurs des universites et du corps des maitres de conferences;

Vu le decret n° 84-573 du 5 juillet 1984 relatif aux diplomes nationaux de l'enseignement superieur;

Vu le decret no 85-906 du 23 aout 1985 fisant les conditions de validation des etudes, experiences professionnelles ou acquis personnels en vue de l'acces aux differents niveaux de l'enseignement superieur;

Vu le decret n° 92-84 du 23 janvier 1992 portant creation du titre d"'ingenieur-maitre";

Vu le decret n° 92-85 du 23 janvier 1992 portant organisation dans les instituts universitaires professionnalises des etudes conduisant


Ia delivrance du titre d"'ingenieur-maitre";

Vu l'arrete du 25 aout 1969 modifie relatif


Ia liste des titres admis en dispense du baccalaureat de l'enseignement du second degre en vue de l'inscription dans les universites;

Vu l'arrete du 27 fvrier 1973 modifie relatif au diplome d'etudes universitaires generales;

Vu I'arrete du 16 janvier 1976 modifie relatif au deuxieme cycle des etudes universitaires;

Vu l'arrete du 27 janvier 1981 relatif aux memoires de maitrises;

Vu l'arrete du 1er octobre 1986 relatif


l'organisation des examens speciaux d'acces aux etudes universitaires;

Vu l'arrete du 31 mars 1992 relatif aux titres et diplomes delivres dans les etablissements d'enseignement superieur au titre des instituts universitaires professionnalises;

Vu }'arrete du Conseil national de l'enseignement superieur et de Ia recherche.




Art. 1 er. - Le premier cycle des etudes universitaires generales prolonge les formations sanctionnees par le baccalaureat et prepare les etudiants


une poursuite d'etudes en deuxieme cycle de l'enseignement superieur ou


une insertion professionnelle.

Art. 2. - Le deuxieme cycle des etudes universitaires prolonge et appronfondit les formations sanctionnees par le diplome d'etudes universitaires generales ou un diplome d'un niveau equivalent. II comporte une initiation


Ia recherche. II prepare les etudiants


Ia vie professionnelle ou


une poursuite d'etudes en troisieme cycle de l'enseignement superieur.

Art. 3. - Ces etudes de premier et deuxieme cycle sont chacune organisees sur une duree de deux ans. Elles sont sanctionnees en premier cycle par un diplome national, le diplome d'etudes universitaires generales (D.E.U.G.), et en deuxieme cycle notamment par deux diplomes nationaux, Ia licence et Ia maitrise. Les enseignements sont ouverts aux etudiants en formation initiate et en formation continue. Sous un intitule commun consacrant un niveau de connaissances et de competence& equivalent, ils donnent lieu


des pratiques pedagogiques adaptees


Ia diversite des formations et des publics.



Art. 4. - Le D.E.U.G., Ia licence et Ia maitrise portent des denominations nationales, arretees par le ministre charge de l'enseignement superieur. Chaque denomination peut etre assortie de mentions definies dans les memes conditions, associant, le cas echeant, plusieurs disciplines. Ces mentions figurent dans l'arrete d'habilitation


delivrer les diplomes.

Art. 5. - Les enseignements sont organises sous forme de modules capitalisables.

Le module s'entend d'un groupe identifiable d'enseignements comportant entre eux une coherence scientifique et pedagogique.


des informations sur des debouches professionnels des etudes envisagees. A cet effet. des conventions peuvent etre concluesentre les universites et les organisations professionnelles ou interpro-fessionnelles.

Art. 14. - L'organisation du cursus de chaque D.E.U.G., tant dans Ia structure que dans l'architecture et Ia nature des matieres enseignees, doit favoriser le developpement des passerelles entre les differentes filieres d'enseignement superieur et les possibilites de reprise d'etudes.


Nombre d'inscriptions

Art. 1

s. -

Les etudiants peuvent prendre au total trois inscriptions annuelles en vue d'un D.E.U.G.; dans le cas d'une inscription simultanee dans des D.E.U.G. differents, il n'est pas compte qu'une seule inscription annuelle.

Une ou, exceptionnellement. deux inscriptions supplementaires peuvent etre accordees par le president de l'universite ou le chef de l'etablissement sur proposition de Ia commission pedagogique competente.

Les dispositions prewes au precedent alinea sont applicables notamment aux etudiants qui :

- ont une activite professionnelle; - se reorientent en cours de cycle;

- se sont inscrits simultanement dans des denominations nationales differentes de D.E.U.G., afin qu'ils puissent achever leurs etudes en we de l'obtention de l'autre denomination.

Les etudiants qui ont interrmpu leurs etudes depuis trois ans au moins beneficient de nouveau du droit aux inscriptions annuelles tel qu'il est prevu au premier alinea du present article.

Dans le cas oil un candidat, deja titulaire d'un D.E.U.G., prepare un autre D.E.U.G., les annees consacrees


}'obtention du premier diplome ne sont pas prises en compte dans le nombre d'inscriptions auxquelles a droit le candidat our preparer le second diplome.

Art. 16. - Le conseil d'ad.ministration, sur proposition du president et apres avis du C.E.V.U., fixe un regime special d'etudes au benefice notamment des etudiants deja engages dans Ia vie active des etudiants effectuant leur service national, des etudiants charge de famille, des handicapes et 1es sportifs de haut niveau.


Contr8le des connaissances et des aptitudes

Art. 17. -Tout candidat ayant entrepris des etudes dans le premier cycle d'enseignement superieur en France ou


l'etranger peut demander a beneficier de Ia dispense de l'un ou de plusieurs modules composant Ia formation qu'il postule. En ce cas, Ia decision est prise par le president de l'universite ou le chef de l'etablissement sur proposition de Ia commission pedagogique dont releve l'etudiant. De plus, les universites peuvent conclure, entre elles ou avec d'autres etablissements en France ou


l'etranger, des conventions de cooperation pour assurer aux etudiants des choix plus etendus.

Art. 18. - L'obtention du D.E.U.G., de Ia licence ou de Ia maitrise implique notamment des controles ecrits et des contrOles oraux.

Les modalites d'appreciation des aptitudes et des connaissances soot definies dans le respect des dispositions prewes


l'article 17 de Ia loi du 26 janvier 1984 susvisee par arrete du president de l'universite ou du chef de l'etablissement. pris apres avis du C.E.V.U .. Ces modalites doivent etre arretees et portees


Ia connaissance des etudiants au plus tard un mois apres le debut des enseignements. Biles ne peuvent etre modifiee ulterieurement en cours . d'annee. Tout etudiant a droit


deux cessions de contrOle des connaissances par an. Sous


de dispositions pedagogiques particulieres, l'intervalle entre ces deux cessions ne peut etre inferieur


deux mois.

La compensation au sein de chaque module se fait sans note eliminatoire. Les regles de compensation entre modules soot definies par chaque etablissement. Dans les deux cas, elles sont organisees seton Ia procedure prewe au precedent alinea.

Les modules obtenus par l'etudiant sont definitivement acquis.

Art. 19. - Le president de l'universite ou le chef de l'etablissement designe chaque annee les presidents et les membres des jwys. Chaque jwy comprend au moins trois membres; Ia composition de ce jwy est affiche sur les lieux d'examen.

Ce jwy siege


Ia fin de chaque periode d'enseignement. 11 effectue Ia synthese des resultats obtenus par chaque etudiant. en tenant compte des modalites de compensation et de capitalisation prewes au sein du regime de controle des aptitudes et des connaissances. L'acquisition des modules ainsi que Ia delivrance du diplome sont prononcees apres deliberation du jwy. Le bilan du contrOle des connaissances est publie chaque annee.


Arrete du 19 fevrier 1993

(Education nationale et Culture : Enseignements superieurs)

Vu L. no 84-52 du 26-1-1984 mod.; D. no 84-573 du 5-7-1984; D. no 85-906 du 23-8-1985 ; A. 28-8-1990; A. 26-5-1992; avis C.N.E.S.E.R.

Diplome d'etudes universitaires generales Droit et licences et maftrises du

secteur Droit et science politique.

NOR : MENZ9304487A

TITRE PREMIER : Dispositions generales.

Article premier. - Les denominations nationales de diplome d'etudes

universitai-res generales (D.E.U.G.) Droit, de licences et de maltrises du secteur Droit et science politique sont accordees aux formations qui repondent aux criteres fixes aux articles suivants.

Art. 2. - Les formations universitaires en droit citees


!'article premier sont

con-~ues et organisees pour :

Apporter aux etudiants, auteur d'un tronc commun, un ensemble diversifie de for-mations associant des connaissances theoriques et des enseignements professionnalises ;

Former les etudiants


des emplois relevant aussi bien du secteur public que du secteur prive avec, Ie cas echeant, des specialisations resultant des mentions dont peu-vent etre assorties certaines maltrises.

La formation :

Combine les approches theoriques et methodologiques. Elle met en valeur les appli-cations des disciplines constitutives du droit et des sciences politiques et leurs inter-actions avec d'autres champs de connaissances. Elle developpe progressivement une attitude et une pratique de recherche scientifique ;

Developpe le travail personnel (individuel et en equipe) et les capacites d'autono-mie et de communication ecrite et orale ainsi que !'utilisation de l'outil informatique. Les travaux proposes aux etudiants prennent des formes diversifiees adaptees aux dis-ciplines : cours, travaux diriges, travaux pratiques, enseignements integres, projets, travaux d'etude et de recherche, stages.

La formation comporte, dans les deux cycles, Ia pratique d'au moins une langue vivante etrangere, sous ses differents aspects ;

Permet aux etudiants de construire un projet de formation, en garantissant une bonne lisibilite des cursus proposes et de leurs debouches, en veillant


leur articula-tion avec les formaarticula-tions dispensees en amont et en a val et en mettant en place un suivi des etudes. Le dispositif des formations assure une diversification progressive des cursus sans specialisation prematuree. Ainsi, l'amenagement des enseignements du premier niveau du D.E.U.G. Droit offre aux etudiants,


l'issue de la premiere periode, des choix d'orientation ouvrant sur plusieurs D.E.U.G.

Le second niveau est con~u pour assurer une bonne articulation avec les licences.

Art. 3. - Dans le cadre de Ia reglementation nationale, l'etablissement precise et organise les differents cursus offerts aux etudiants. Pour chacun d'eux, il precise les enseignements constitutifs, leurs volumes horaires et leurs contenus, ainsi que leur agencement au sein de la formation consideree. L'etablissement definit aussi les moda-lites du controle des connaissances et, dans le cadre de la presente reglementation, les regles de compensation entre les modules. II assure, le cas echeant, !'organisation des stages et leur suivi pedagogique.


supe-Art. II.

-En ce qui concerne le premier niveau du D.E.U.G., 80


du volume

horaire portent sur les matieres suivantes :

Droit civil ;

Droit constitutionnel ;

Histoire du droit et histoire des institutions ;

Relations internationales et institutions europeennes ;

Science politique ;

Sciences economiques.

Art. 12. -



au moins de la duree des enseignements du D.E.U.G. portent

sur les matieres suivantes :

Droit civil ;

Droit constitutionnel ;

Droit administratif ;

Droit penal et sciences criminelles ;

Relations internationales ;

Institutions europeennes ;

Histoire du droit et histoire des institutions ;

Finances publiques ;

Science politique ;

Sciences economiques.

Art. 13. -Ala suite d'un controle des aptitudes et des connaissances pour chacun

des modules, la validation du premier niveau du D.E.U.G. est subordonnee d'une



!'obtention de Ia moyenne compensee entre les modules fondamentaux

cons-titues d'enseignements de droit civil et de droit constitutionnel, et d'autre part,



obten-tion de la moyenne generate compensee entre tous les modules.

En cas de redoublement du premier niveau, 1' etudiant conserve le benefice des

modu-les pour modu-lesquels


a obtenu Ia moyenne.



Les licences· et les maftrises du secteur Droit et science politique.

Art. 14.- Dans le secteur Droit et science politique, les denominations nationales

de licences .et de mattrises sont les suivantes :

Licence et mai'trise en droit ;

Licence d'administration publique ;

Licence et mai'trise en science politique.

! mai'trises peuvent, en outre, etre assorties d'une mention, dans les conditions

figurant en annexe du present arrete.

Art. 15. -La licence et la mai'trise en droit sont organisees chacune sous forme


.. Biles peuvent

~pendant etr~

mises en place sous.


modulaire, sur

deci-sion de l'etablissement, apres avis du ou des conseils



Art. 16.- La licence et la mai'trise comportent chacune cinq cents heures

d'ensei-gnement au moins, sous forme de cours, de travaux diriges, de travaux d'etude et

. de recherche ou de stage dans les conditions definies


annexe du present arrete.

La repartition entre ces differentes formes d'enseignement est definie par

l'etablis-sement en fonction des finalites de chaque cursus. Les travaux diriges representent

au moins 15


de Ia-duree totale des enseignements.


la maltrise est assortie d'une mention, cent cinquante de ces trois cent cinquante heu-res portent sur le domaine couvert par Ia mention.

La maltrise en droit comporte en principe un travail d'etude et de recherche, indi-viduel ou collectif, ou un stage en milieu professionnel faisant l'objet d'un rapport.

3. Acces de p/ein droit

Sont admis de plein droit


s'inscrire en vue de :

La licence en droit, les titulaires du D.E.U.G. Droit, ainsi que les titulaires du D.E.U.G. mention Droit, regi par !'arrete du lc' mars 1973 ;

La maltrise en droit, assortie ou non d'une mention, les titulaires de Ia licence en droit.

4. Habilitations anterieures

Sur la base d'arretes generaux :

D.E.U.G. mention Droit (arrete du ter mars 1973);

Licence et maitrise en droit, maltrise en droit prive et maltrise en droit public (arrete du 7 juillet 1977).

Sur la base d' arretes particuliers (1) :

Licence et malt rise de sciences juri diques et politiques (Paris- VIII) ; Licence et maltrise de droit canonique (Strasbourg-11).


1. Contenu de Ia licence

La licence d'administration publique comprend au moins cinq cents heures d'ensei-gnement dont trois cent cinquante heures au moins sous forme de cours et de travaux diriges, portant sur :

Le droit public ;

L'economie generale et la politique economique ; Les problemes politiques et sociaux contemporains ; Les finances publiques.

La licence comporte un travail d'etude et de recherche, qui prend Ia forme d'un travail personnel ou collectif, ou d'une participation


un travail administratif.

Les etudiants preparant Ia licence en droit peuvent simultanement preparer Ia licence d'administration publique en completant la formation de cinq cents heures de Ia licence en droit par des enseignements d'un volume minimum total de cent heures portant sur les disciplines suivantes :

Economie publique et politique economique ; Problemes politiques et sociaux contemporains ; Institutions sociales et politiques sociales.

2. Acces de plein droit

Sont admis de plein droit


s'inscrire en vue de Ia licence d'administration publi-que, les titulaires du D.E.U.G. Droit, ou du D.E.U.G. Economie et gestion, ou du D.E.U.G. Administration economique et sociale, ainsi que les titulaires des D.E.U.G. mention Droit, ou mention Sciences economiques, ou mention Administration eco-nomique et sociale, regis par les arretes du


mars 1973.

3. Acces conditionnel

Sont egalement admis


s'inscrire en vue de Ia licence d'administration publique, apres examen de leur dossier par une commission pedagogique composee d'enseignants-chercheurs relevant des sections juridiques, politiques, economiques et de sciences hurnaines du Conseil national des universites, les etudiants titulaires du D .E. U. G. ou qui en ont obtenu la dispense conformement aux dispositions de !'article 11 de