Three studies in forest ecology

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ost oo-oporntiva nnd hoio!\11.

This thoeis ttas p±"oparucl uncer ·tho auparv:tsion

or .Dr.w. Jaer~son of' tho Univors1ty of' 'Ia01aania whom :t w:te

to i:haru: t"or .hi.a oonatruetivo ori 'tiicism and one

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ose tuos1e farn;.s the ·ocolo.g'ioa.l

I bnvo at teu1Pted to build• and to 1>1"'. 'f •N.. CunninQ;ham

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:f. th. whoiF evor;"' uov :tdon vas nrcucd out and lihooe resoarol

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-(b) Vet cl rophyll Un~v1_s_t~o~r~e~"-.;;:;.i,;;..~~~

1. ~ciL. __ !:_ oxylon. This is i pontc....nt ti1,b r tre i

other re , but is h re ·nerally found to be efectiv • It

i prob bly the t~llest of the w t $Clerophyll und r to ey

so trees surviv for c....t 1 ~..,t 13 -ar...,

p~cie to 150 ) un

f ter the r v ner· t in fire. It is not found in nse starnls in thi n rea "1d it i nlow rowi u cor1 "'re to _._eulb t_.

r t evdv fro _. __ ! _ _£~lon ~ e i tributed in 0 ce by bircs

t:..nd po ..,i bly by i ls wid i11 ti

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by long ter round stor~ , • con t 11 Lt of tl wet

sclerophyl l understorey p cies nd one of the ost bundunt.

It's ti ber is light n tough but i of no o erci 1 v~lue

ut pr ..,ent, re<..~t ... otenti· 1 for pulpwood

if cert~in technic 1 dif i iculti s c· be overco e. Thi.., species

7rows ·s fcst ~s ~.regn·nd for tl e first

t

ye rs · r1· · l·y live for or than 80 ye r • t is &ubj et to s ~·ious d foli· tio by

insects on so e sites.

Gilbert ( 1958) u .... e ted t u.t th ·r in tion

A. ~lbutu n sit es not burnt for 350 y LIS r viously

f ter fire of

c....l t

=-

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ye rs. He doubted if transport tion o seed by birds could

ccount for thi bl ck j y w s

pheno n • How ver on

found to cont in 9 Cc:;.Ci

reguro-i t"'"tion fro l

ueedo. lthou h no

further study w s ~de of thi c ubject it ~ee s re·son~ble to

suppose th t 10 such re.:,ur ...,i t'-.tions er er per yeLr, co bined

wit vity of,s y, 50 year would provide .... tor of 500 "spot sowin,.. " of perhc..ps &6 0 seeds p r er rec y to

ger in te hen ol forest is burnt . In t i way th rke

r~tion follo i the difierence in den~it of ~~!bat

burnin,..,. of old nd youn.o- rc.:,infore t c

the young r· infor s t has ·-roui1

e sily be expl in u~

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both ~ecd-! 11 urnl re ur it--tions even tl...ou h tl e l G t tree

y l ve died 20 ye~ru b for , 1 il" t old r i fore..,t

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Plate 21 SUCCESSION CAUSED BY LOGGING AND BURNING

This picture shows the good pomaderris regener-ation occurring on a site that previously carried an understorey dominated by Nothofagus.

The effect is produced only on certain types of rainforest which have had a high proportion of wet sclerophyll in the mixture that regenerated after the previous fire. The wet sclerophyll plants have for the most part died out but the stock of ground stored seed ensures its reappearance after the next fire.

When this next fire occurs after logging and after the felling of the rainforest seed trees the

pomaderris regeneration ~s no rainforest shade, no rainforest seed, little "wet fern". In other words there is a definite succession from rainforest to wet sclerophyll understorey.

I t is quite false to reverse two observations in time and conclude that dense pomaderris regeneration

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Plate 22 TUE S.18 WE SCL1 ROPllYLL PATCH

This is a s 11 aroa

0£ E.obliqua, E.recnans

£ore t with a wet

scloro-phyll understoroy in a sea of E.regnans forest with n

rain forest un erstor y.

This patch has been burnt at least one every

50 years while th

surround-ing fore t has not b en

burnt for .350 years.

The presence 0£ the stringy barko E.obligua

probably accounts £or the

local conversion of sparks

into spot fire • llowevor

th f aot that these fires

wer regularly l i ited to

the sam area can only b

attributed to well defined dif£orences in the pattern

of

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-

4

1 ir y (J 0 i i • 0

:I. e 1 t

r 0 0

1

n

t i

0

(l

i

t

VO 0 t -OU

y .l

7.

ic 0

'

c 1. e

"

e 0

to !f. 0 :1 0 l:

c

10

t

t oi

0 r ] !Y

,

e r

0 0

..

1'i

tJ

so

1

19. renc t i.ly

r

b. a

-

... 1"

8 0

-

.... ()

t

(126)

-

'

-ol eli .ion.

l i t ly

ro

y

21. n

i

pa

8

r

(127)
(128)

'

(129)

are particularly valuable in this way. "<~

Al

l

1ogging 1s now done

within a pre-marked boundary and

~

only one or two

short

per

iods of

log

g

ing

proauc

.

clear

coup,.,.

T

he findings

from

these r

e

cords are

summarised

low#-The

P,I. types (strata) can b

~roduce

the follo'Wing

pulpwood

volumes (

uper feet

HoppuspP<a.c.M).

eeted to

l figures in

**

*

*

IA,

EIA,

E

IA

(a)

110,000

on

mudstone

and

other

Ylet

~ .... et.

o

'

(130)

..

(131)
(132)

-•

i rol

lo•

(133)
(134)
(135)
(136)
(137)

(138)

--

'

-(

la i

0

or

l . - 0 0

2.

1n~

(139)

Av

.

-

s--o

MAx.

F~GU~E.1.

I

I

I

7

.

r

-

I

-_

--· - - - -

- - -·

1

1

-l

-- 11

SPR1tU~~1

I

I

I

- -

--- -

--.

-i

I_

I

I •

I

6

7

I

~

9

to

II \2

2

3

4

s-

(,

7

I

8

~

1956

-

57

SE~IE"S

9

\0

I~

tl

I

\

I

I

Fi~

9f.;s"

I

I

955·5' ~€lt16>

MON

H

OF

SOWIN~ I

I

2

1

3

I

j

I

. ,_

I

I

l

1 ·

(140)
(141)

-I I I I I

I

(142)

-

1

.

2

.

o

7

1

(143)

FIGURE.3

:. - - -I--

-SERIES

Il

°"

l[

-

EXPERlMENT

3+

PERCENTA-GE

of

SPOT5

STOCKED

. I

_

_,.$

_O

~

D

.

J £

J1

.

A

ft1

I

J

A

~

Q

ti.}}

I

£

M A

r,1

.

J

J

A S {

.D

1

£ ][

_

-r\956~

'

195~ lf5~ ~959,

I\ L ( I • I

I

I 1

1 ---;, ~-~L-

l

--~ I

i

• - - - - . . _

I

I

' I

"-

:i

~-

-r-:

---

-

·~

!

,.

....-

..

- - J

rrfft..AMJTAS

NDI.F

t

I~­ j

(144)

-•

2

.:>

7

2.

r

!)

(145)

-

4<>

--

4o

10 - I - I l

I

-__ I

I

__

~E~134

~--- ~

t

~--

S-EfD

!

BED

~

-

s~"-5

\728

po-n,

9.kM,

~.~

.

SEPff~~'

St,_

MA"f

.

'

S1

I I

l-

r .

I

-I

'

-

I

(146)

2

.

:>2

07

,

.

J.

o

.

""

·

'

'

2

!)

'

.

1

f

o

.

-

a

4

..

,,

27

.

1

(147)

r

1

r

A

s

lASt$0W1 s

~G'-tiS to<lt I I

\

I

l

-t \

\

b

t/S

9

(148)

v

v

(149)

-

lOJ.

.2

J1

-

-

.

-.

'

-

...

.,.,

'l

,0

lO

2'

ao

l;'

aG

l

J)

,9

!Jtl

57

'G

'' '"

,,

52

"

'!

'4

'

' "

~52

_,a

,42

'···~1

~

a'

.,o

;

..

a

;

ibos-l",

(150)

l.>ssu

(151)

0 n'l"'t•!'l""r~n

(152)
(153)
(154)

(155)
(156)
(157)
(158)

(

)

(159)

t

6 t

8 t

f' nc 1 no

or tr

( b) :1 9 y

brow i w t ly d

• i

initi t of' 1

nic 1 OU

t 0

(160)

s

0

(Ti)

'1t t.

it••

• '-.:<lb

Ye

a

•tat1

·-rowai

.C&J.y

'

T

l l b.Y.P•·

r

t

1

ar

e au. ...

(161)

* 1

-•

·

n

• 0

(162)

- .13

-0

0

i

• T

0

i 0 d v

n o._

toe

r

• iv

d

11: •

l l

(163)

1 4

-( r

{

))

)(

IUHb '

t

..

0

-11

,.. :I. ~r

:very r

t id t

tion b o!'

ot

0

r 0 e

(164)

"

, e

" 1.

1)

2)

1

1

y

0

,_

(

- 115

-r

..

n-•

0 1 ( )

(165)

-

1

-t

t

;

'

(166)

- l.17 ...

ilaore Fr quency (no. of :tn bracket )

Type Ar a

Unburnt standing

rain-fore t understor y

re ant • Tractor.

2626· acr s.

Unburnt wet- clerophyl

understor

y

,

so

1934

advanc rowth. Trac tor

1702 acres.

Unburnt.. IIighl ad

453 acr e

TOTAL 6151 ac

Corr et d ~r qu noi

(a e t xt)

th

Y ar

1

11.0

(146)

25.0 (16)

-sine f'ire( or since lo c:Lng i:f

Ul\~untt).

2 '

4

5

4

.

8

(185)

0

(29)

19.7

(66)

l0.7

(448)

17

.

4

(119)

.0

(29)

27

.

3

(66}

25.0 (12)

11.0

(4,56)

11~

:,J.2

(154)

19.0

(21)

21.4

(21)

41

.

7

( 12)

11.4

(264)

.1 ... 4

.

s

.

9

(68)

16

.

7

(12)

20 0

(5)

1 .)

(93)

16

.

7

(204)

12.4

The purpose 0£ thi analy is i s to s wh

t

tr tmonts

avour d r generation an to s i:f th reg n ration position

improv d d. th tim • The f'ir t part show th t all area wt th st ding rainf"ore t remnant did not r g-en rat unl. s burnt,

0nd th t unburnt hi 1 ad ar s eh h d h d r n:f rest und

r-tor y di t r g nerate. As a r ult o:f thi analy is coup s

of' neither typ woro urv ycd until tr at d to obtain r gon rat~

Th sw r to th con qu tion was ao hat biass d.

The alysis 1 dicated that th r a an i prov mont in

stock-ing of' n ar1y 1 , ov r th t'our y ar pario Year 1 to Year 5 ·

(167)

y 6

~y

r

r

t

l. ) l c

to

t

0£ "

0

1 11 r 2 ot"

24'.."b ' 11 l

7 11 0£

0 b r

-•

i

c

r

-•

• • • • • •

o,

2 .. r 0

(168)

t

o a

t; on 0

ri

-run

9

OU

v n t li 0

on

ap o ..

(169)

o ... eh

urv Y

surv

ye

lo

-nt of' th

re

ot'

or mar

0 a.l.1

1

the

by 1ch re ucing

the 4ch by loh

or

th

t

ea

ple ,

trips

to 201 by lch rv Y

i

'

c

A tl er

on

in a un toe e

f

in und in <

i a ection of

i 1

fl •

t

0.

i r t

i

er

0 00 i l g

Ji.1

-t i

poction o

lot co c n rio

th 4_- mil er pro

to

milacr

oat v lu bl

o t st

t 4ob by lch

t1l nt~:rmntt:t.. tri

to

to b r " not

tl or in 1 ru: th

l

The

ai.v urv

tail c

vey

:Cn J

tion of' tl

y f'ol!Ol ·

n t h

n by t;

ry 1959

tw n s ocko and und

re

run

0 0

Th t t co

1

mi

r

a.lt

st

v

r

tn Il: s rue :ton

uthor in 1961 (

in tl1e

ck th

r e

or l t

ea

iel .. e

ape UCP- y

t :l:n of'

r r

ar a

J:n on 0 0

out to cl,.

l i nt

ow r

.

t l.

a

ton-• t is

ration

ur-i ).

junc-an th erwon t burnt :f'i.erc ly o h

om xc 11 t !::..!.~~~~ d

oor r ... ....,..._

:ln i ery

i l l E.i;iegnans

(170)

- 12

-•

0

l

in

r

'

e

....

r

r

n

(171)

0 0 0

(172)

-- 1 3

co

t t

a

i 8

w l

hr

ny c

1 h i c y

I" cy.

"

1 c

()

(173)

i •

v

r

0

r l 1

,l t t 0 r t

-r l· ti

( )

08 1

·-o/

c (1

)t-dr2

(174)

I

RAPH

.

1

I

I

1·6

F

EQU[N Y-DEN ITY

t

CURVES

ROM

FO~EST ~

j

R

GENERAt\ON

.SUR)/E'fS

d

·

1. NATURA

LLY

SOW

1

·

2

.

--I

(175)

t

t

ty :t

"

l 0 is (

t

-

1

-8 (1 5")

0

9.5 ) 0

0 i

r r

i is obv o a

bsoi

l. . ·

-co f'i

t

0

0

r

or 1 or ' Y

OOO t

0

1 •

0

a of'

or

1

en

t"

(176)

2

A

TlFlC

A

L

SOWINGS

I

f

l

B

E

E

R

S

DA

T

A

,952

·

:

---1-

..._

--

~~A·

--

c

14

..._

-

Potffl"

H6to I

$28

Mt

LACf<E~

T()TAL

OVER

15

1

000

M\LAC~ES

..

.

I

l

1

I

I

'

-I

i

i _ _ _

_J~:_~-

-

--·--1 l

!

l i

I

-

1

i l

j !

' '

I I

l !

i

. _ __.__~.~ . _ _ _ _ _ ....,.__ _ _ _ ,___ _ _ _ - - + - -

-j

i

I

2

I

-l

I

(177)

-1

;

19

/

~

I -·----.l.-.--- _ _ _

_._

-t

-~----

-·I-

._...

EM· 4 - - -- ·

I

b

· - -·-E '

~.1.~

Mlb

~

.

t

a:&L<:M.

.5

~

"

~

C

RRElATIO

CURVE

lS 1HE

M AN OFTH lWO REG

E5SION

,..._____

_ .

.0

IR

VES

cl

""1

_

f

___

-

~

-

.

-

~--1--

---1

... ...__

ra-t·

-

---UENCY

{f)

=>

(178)

-

1 6

i tri '£ 1 i i v

u

8 l

by rst 1. t 1 on ~ 0

bo 11 0 0

=

h ro UC

l l 0

0 i t

0 rs 1 I 2

(l}V r

.55

r (1 of'

0 u e

t d

i

('

t 0

·y- OI - u in 0

(

..

v 1

t t !'

c

I 0

c

r

53)

0 :i. lo

l

.5 )

r

i

n ( l er

i

,

_

2

.

.

2

to

t r

• 0 0

(179)

+

2

ID

0

lo

'

'

' - - - -- - I -- --

-I

F

REQUfNcY(f)~

2b%'

3b%

4b%

I ! j

I

l

I

I !

~0%

CV

,,

(180)

i .

-·ob2.

dy-

-

dm

___..

'

1 -

-

~3

da4

'

I

- -

!

-

·

-i---

I

-

~~ob.s-~

_

,

1

,

(not.i

i

seal~

f

un3es)

~--

---L

. - -

i

I

I

I

d

l

I

0

·

4

%

0·6

b0%

0·1

70%

80%

i

l

.

4

I

I

I

I .

I

I

GAAP~

·

s

1

<>k

I

I

I

I

THE

RtLAT\ONS~\P

BETWEEN

I

MIN\MUM

DENS\TY

-

!

drn

~

l

FREOlJENCY_,f,

AN~THE

l

RAN~M EXCE~S

DENS

!

l11-

di-dm.

; I I

I I

l

I

I

I .

~

not.t.

scat

eh

n<jQ.S

I

; i

I

I

'

dr -dtn--+

I

I

I

4

)

I

(181)

~-

r=;RA8H

,

I

I

l :

I :

~RT

QF

·

GRAPH 5 R

EDR/\

E

XTR~ME

FR[Q

UE

C

Y

I

dt--dm

~

.

. . ·--·· --_ ·--. .

l

_

_:_~

- -

~1-dm

1.

--

!

.

(182)

-

127

...

r

or

~CY•

0

v

1

l •

o ell

(183)

- 128

0

.

.

i h

vr

·

·

-(i)

I lo

.

7

-1

( )

( )

iw

r

on.

i b

c - a r.uo ·

cies.

1

1 h ...

b

t 1.

(184)

- 1

h4

>

h,

--

3

h4

h

t

I

1 I

• 1

I • I

I

l

- - -

I

I

I

·

j

.

l

I

I

I I • I

.

.

I •

. ·

l

.

.

.

. .

,

,.

I

..

. . .

I

·1

I

.

I

I

I

~

I

·--

1

---:

~-

1

- - - · ' +

-l

I

I

'

l

- -

~

-i

h.

>

h4

I I

I I

I

h,

+-

I_

- ..___ -

-! - !

!

-

I

L

I

I

I

I

tcJoc:re

#e

~c:.j

(185)

f

I

I

I

-=-

'

""

- - - -

I

~

i

-i

'

I

~

-

j

d

d~

_

i

-= l

I

I 0

Q

40

(186)

-

-Pott ( 1951) A

( 9

1) r uo

.t

-

1

v

"

.,,

\C 0

y

l.

£

0

ov

e

0

a

'b (

)

.

i

7

.

t

y

v

o;f h

4 i

t r

ry

0

oor

acl1

qu I" .... t

a.

c u

1

ent p e

hYP

iz i rt1 1 r

/\

0£ t ff.

ta 0 t cy or

,.

"

tw l

i.l.

....

!>

i alJl . t c r to 111 survey

(187)

- l:JO

-!ie also sub-di vi.decl each dmin into f'.i v~ li-1:1:ila.c1 .. e qlli:' .. '1ra:ts

·which he :insp,!eted £'or t .. 'l:"eqttcrncy ,~;;;ni)h IJ.bis r11oans th.i:;rt for

t1iie: .:ta:i:\'ior <j,'"<clatl:l'ats 6<.to'' ivt'l-a doZ"~v.o~\ from l/BOtI'l of' tho a1."ca

that 0

:r

0

was derivoo :rroo!\' F:t'"tHl! pcrll?o:nal o~orien.ce J: i'ind

i t :lmpossible

to

be.lioV'o thnt the £ive l~ ... !:il:ilocrt"s woro

inspectc\.1 ns closely an tl1.o ont!'1 riil.aci"-0 at tho end eo.oh

cila:.l.'11. l'.t :Ls liJG:.o:ty that he mi.Soli:!Q: seoitlG eoedl~.nG'o on about

10;5 of' the 1as:eor qu.adr~;ts thnt Wol.~1.~ netua11y etockod. !:£

such a eo:t":l1•oct:!on. '\taro appll,ed to 'iJolln(::t."i e c:lutn, a conetant

t111° of:

5

won!d. then am?lY to both !tls ud.lacrc w...d his 4~-::ci.l­

aer-a tl.stn ..

'i"ho da:~n provided by fi0v0r, L---,,-nns E"...lid Cain r~ Dvans

is oxtei::isive nml 1. t atronf)ly ou~;;rJiorte tha l'lypothosis of'

conata•·.wy o:f: 011et ovGr ~ ran.go o:!' qt.1ru:lrat sizes t at !co.et :fi<)~;r,1

l/ l6th to !}0 sq motroe • Pot"' ·th:ta roa.son I .fool ~~ti:Cic<l ill aiv.in.g l i tt1e t:reiebt to tho appo .. rently contra:t"'Y :pru:•t oi'

Wellner' s £>Vi0.orwt:h

ii'ln"thcr support for tho b:ypoth.osis oi'" conetan.cy of

111111 £'ox• a rm~ae oi' eiuofil"at i:d.!Qes cot:le0 from lelii:ilf'-ga.11 aata p:t."et.ientod b'i.J tfatore tS Ho:naon (1959 )41 'l'l.1.coa authoro succostad

tba.t tl1oro a11pcm.red to lJo

o.

lticl~ of hvalid t'1l<l !:l{m.ningi'l..11.

mcnEnu."oo 0£ nt;rcroaatioin.» whiet). ctn.il<l oir.:r..)lify that r. vor1::i;

'i'llay c:ou.ntod .(.'Ve~· lenf'-eall on .lC trooo n.m1 tho!I.r roauJts

U.."!t.."'C ~:n.tttnf.lclscd

b<:;llm11:-l"OT.M ... QuAHS' 1"' cl. 1l

·-Sine lo leaf'

52,5oh

8 • 6"~ j~ 0~21 :J2o3 Sine lo l.oeS bunch 12,270 .19 .. or~

o .. ss

'.33c.3

2 ... 1eaf" bunchos 6,~29 26~9'1-~

1.65

31.3

5 ... 1eru"' bunoheu

_,

2,851 ZQ.1 .. ~ :}.78 27.1

'.D1"'onCh

·7r;,7

57~;(:, lh!l>2:J 4,0.s

...

~

...

... ~

'l'lle table shoue a :t."'ola:tiveJ.y constan:c

ttn

11

bo·tt-100.ti.

(188)

- 131

-l. !oat' to

5.

Thoro is a marl~od ztnc:r~moo :in n:n~1 wh~n the saGllflJ.a sizo

is inClrr.•am21d to :i:ir:.elucl.e th(!} whole r.n .... ancJl wh$.eh woul.d have

boon a. sCUtip!E~. si.z0 o:r an av<'l?a&~ oi" 70 .leaves.. :I·t \'JOUJ.d

ap,pcar that in tl:i.i.s c~.se 111111 has :t.."'e.?lk"lir~od constro:it ov@r q,uito

a wide l"Ot'lGe :tu sru:rplo sireo 'bu.t no·~ ono 01"" the o:rdor o:f·

70

t:tmos tho r.iIDnllost. l'.t is also po~H3ihle th.i:.yf; ·tl10 noc~esru:':lly

\iido vru:"iation :in actual :sample size (numbor of' 1.~avi1'a po:t~

br::meh) wi thrn t'hd.s o.1ass rA-ther. then t-he size o:fi.' tb.o aamplo

itself' has contri.b.Ut(!Jd to tho lli{rh vulue ot' ~111.t1

Althou@::l i t ·is consitl~:~:<e~J that most o.f '4;he evidence

nvailab1o supr:;.oJi .. t(;; 'th.c contention 'lt..'hat H.h.U is eonstt..~1 ·t over o..

rru."lgo oi' quad a;ir(.ea i t must vary if' the ~uadrat siz<) is

e~tremcly smal.1... :t:f tha qua.<l~"'at Z!.S onl)~ a l i ttl& J.alfGOr th.ru1

th(3 in.{.Uvidual t-h0n "dat1 must bo close to ~<i.'1" ~'lJ. tih!t :t·ead.

close to ~~ro 11ow'Glvo:r clumped tlt(3 :lndividtw,ls actually are.

This tloos uot met.:l...tl th~t tth0 cannot 'b0

00asu3:."£H3. at vor-.v low

i:""i"c!qucn.oiot:-s,.. As lo.n.s a.s tl1e q~adra1; !liz~ is c011sid0rab1.y

lru:"ga1 .... than the :i:nc1iv:tcluRl an osti.nmtc of'

ttn"'

can. b()- given

as soon ss .mo:i:~e than cn.o ;i.ndivldua.1. is £oit.nd ·w·:tth:I.n. on.€!

£1.UO.cl:t"at., Obv.i:ousJ.y, 1ac.:ouro:te measure$ of' n-h"1 at Vc!:T"J l<»W

f'roquminie,c;J o.ro 1:1.k<~l.y to 1.~oqi.d1•a ra"tho:t"' ino:t:<1"J ~J,u.ach:•ats t3:ran

usual,

At the ;:1tJ'!~:t> e.:'t.t::i:>oma au soon aa tuo :?rcqu1,3n,oy t:eiiaoh0s

lOt.f;~i 1.!ht: is a.g-o.:1.11 Uti-!!UJasi11"ablo-., lkmc-..iver trm .. tbl~a at b<:·th

~~t:romoo onn (\onern.lly 'br.; av·oidad. by a.djuat:mont of' tl'\c

qu,ad.s."a t Si.~ 0 «>

Stockin,..,. Stl.\'l .. nd.nrds ...,,.. Cl P9 . . ~ 4 J ,,,., d

The idea of' basine et.ocl::ing atnnda:t"ds on tho o.oacptal>.lo

nu1I:bcr oi' 1/lOOth no:ro 0aps is ful'ly ctiaous.s~d in the .AJ?I>!'i~A paper (i11 i\fi)p0mlh).

Ulu::.irc "hn :ls :round to be c.onstm t f'o:t"' a i.~an&o :Ln. quruh .. at

si~os :ti .. om c.:H:ztucl."'eo to milaorcs :it :lo possible to dori ve

(189)

..

32

Figure

TABLE 1.

TABLE 1.

p.213
TABLE 2. A COMPARISON OF "STOCK MAPPING" AND MILACRE SCORES FOR TIM SHEA LOGGINGS

TABLE 2.

A COMPARISON OF "STOCK MAPPING" AND MILACRE SCORES FOR TIM SHEA LOGGINGS p.214
Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. p.215
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. p.217

References

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