The political thought of F.A. Bland

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WILLIAM MALEY

SEPTEMBER 1 9 8 4

A TH ESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF ARTS

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W h i l e p r e p a r i n g t h i s s t u d y , I h a v e b e n e f i t e d f r o m t h e a s s i s t a n c e , a d v i c e , a n d c o m m e n t s o f many p e o p l e . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k Dr D . C . B a n d , S i r J o h n B u n t i n g , P r o f e s s o r t h e R e v e r e n d A . L . B u r n s , Dr G . R . C u r n o w , Mr T . H . K e w l e y , Mr A . B . L o d g e , Mr M . C . M a l e y , P r o f e s s o r J . D . B . M i l l e r , Mr P . H . M o r t o n , a n d Dr A . S a i k a l f o r t h e i r a i d .

To f i v e p e o p l e I owe s p e c i a l d e b t s . The A r c h i v i s t o f S y d n e y U n i v e r s i t y , Mr K e n n e t h S m i t h , g u i d e d me t h r o u g h t h e B l a n d P a p e r s a n d w e n t o u t o f h i s way t o a r r a n g e f o r t h e c o p y i n g o f u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l .

S i r H e n r y a n d L a d y B l a n d , a n d S e n a t o r S i r J o h n C a r r i c k , g a v e g e n e r o u s l y o f t h e i r t i m e t o a n s w e r my q u e r i e s , a n d v o i c e d c a n d i d v i e w s o f F . A . B l a n d w h i c h w e r e o f g r e a t v a l u e t o me. I p a r t i c u l a r l y w i s h t o r e c o r d my t h a n k s f o r t h e i r k i n d n e s s .

F i n a l l y , I w a n t t o t h a n k my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr L . J . H u m e , who n o t o n l y e n r i c h e d me w i t h h i s own r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f F . A . B l a n d , b u t a l s o c o m me n t e d w i t h g r e a t c a r e on t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d s u b s t a n c e o f a n i l l e g i b l e d r a f t .

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C h a p t e r One - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r One 11

C h a p t e r Two - B l a n d ' s L i f e a n d W ork 14 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r Two 34

C h a p t e r T h r e e - C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d t h e I d e a l P o l i t y 42 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r T h r e e 64

C h a p t e r F o u r - F r e e d o m f r o m S t a t e C o e r c i o n 73 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r F o u r 96

C h a p t e r F i v e - D e m o c r a c y a n d i t s I n s t i t u t i o n s 101 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r F i v e 126

C h a p t e r S i x - P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 133 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r S i x 164

C h a p t e r S e v e n - The P u b l i c S e r v i c e 173 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r S e v e n 211

C h a p t e r E i g h t - C o n c l u s i o n 222 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r E i g h t 230

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If the discipline of public administration has a forgotten man in Australia, that man must surely be Francis Armand Bland. Professor of Public Administration at the University of Sydney from 1935 until his retirement in 1948, Bland was a prolific writer and a well-known commentator on public policy and affairs, as the bibliography of his writings published in the June 1948 edition of Public Administration (Sydney) clearly attests .(1) Yet with the exception of a short article by E.N.Gladden published in 1975 (2), little has been written about Bland since the obituary in Public Administration (Sydney) in September 1967, noting his death in April of that year. (3) Volume 7 of the Australian Dictionary of Biography, that in which Bland's life and work could appropriately have been recorded, contains no article about him; and such scattered references to him as one does encounter relate most often not to his scholarly work, but to his activities as Chairman from 1952 to 1960 of the Joint Committee of Public Accounts of the Commonwealth Parliament. As a personality in Australian intellectual life in the 1930s, Bland has recently received some attention in an unpublished doctoral dissertation (4), but his political thought has been subjected to virtually no sustained critical attention .(5)

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o f g r e a t n e s s " . ( 6 ) An i n s p i r i n g t e a c h e r - to J . D . B . M i l l e r "an i r r e p r e s s i b l e w i z a r d " ( 7) he i n t r o d u c e d to t h e s t u d y o f p o l i t i c s many who went on to d i s t i n g u i s h e d c a r e e r s i n s c h o l a r s h i p o r i n p u b l i c l i f e , and managed h i m s e l f to a c h i e v e d i s t i n c t i o n i n b o t h s p h e r e s . He was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n many g r o u p s which s e t o u t t o e n c o u r a g e t h e s p r e a d o f l i b e r a l i d e a s w i t h i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n community. But most o f a l l , he was a t h o u g h t f u l a n a l y s t o f p o l i t i c s and p u b l i c l i f e , who i d e n t i f i e d a number o f v a l u e s which d e s e r v e d to be c h e r i s h e d by an e n l i g h t e n e d c i t i z e n r y , a n d , t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n most p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s , s o u g h t to i d e n t i f y a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and forms o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n t h r o u g h which t h o s e v a l u e s c o u l d be p r e s e r v e d , p r o t e c t e d , and f o s t e r e d - t h r o u g h which h i s h o p es f o r a b e t t e r s o c i a l o r d e r c o u l d be r e a l i s e d .

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Bland i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t , and w o r t h y o f s t u d y , b e c a u s e he was a man o f i n f l u e n c e , and t he f a c t t h a t h i s works have now b ee n l a r g e l y f o r g o t t e n d e e s n o t mean t h a t t h e y made a n e g l i g i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e i n A u s t r a l i a . Bland was n o t s i m p l y an A u s t r a l i a n " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P i o n e e r " ; he a l s o augmented the t h i t h e r t o l a r g e l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t u d y o f p o l i t i c s i n A u s t r a l i a w i t h a n a s c e n t b e h a v i o u r a l i s m , and t h e r e b y e n r i c h e d h i s s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f p o l i t i c s . He was a s o u r c e o f many i d e a s which have been t a k e n up by s u b s e q u e n t w r i t e r s , e ve n t h o u g h t h e y may n e t h a v e b een aware o f him as t h e s o u r c e . He a l s o made h i s m a rk , t h r o u g h h i s t e a c h i n g , on p u b l i c s e c t o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A t r i v i a l example i s p r o v i d e d by Ross C u r ao w ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " s e n i o r s t a t e p u b l i c s e r v a n t s p l a c e g r e a t e r e m p h as is on t h e n o r m a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i t i c s / a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i s t i n c t i o n t h a n do, s a y , commonwealth p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . A f t e r a l l , many were t a u g h t o r i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l a t e F . A . B l a n d . "(1 5)

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p a p e r s were d e s t r o y e d by h i s s o n , S i r Henry B l a n d , f o l l o w i n g h i s d e a t h ( 1 6 ) , t h o s e which s u r v i v e c o n s t i t u t e a m a s s i v e c o l l e c t i o n , hous ed i n 290 box es and o c c u p y i n g 48 s h e l f m e t r e s . ( 17) A l t h o u g h t h e c o l l e c t i o n h a s n e t been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c a t a l o g u e d , e a c h box c a r r i e s a l a b e l s t a t i n g i n v e r y b r o a d t e r m s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p a p e r s e n c l o s e d , and i t h a s t h u s pr ov ed p o s s i b l e to e x t r a c t from t h e c o l l e c t i o n a number o f r e v e a l i n g i t e m s , i n c l u d i n g memoranda and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , u n p u b l i s h e d l e c t u r e s and a d d r e s s e s i n which Bland s e t o u t h i s i d e a s i n some d e t a i l , and o t h e r m a t e r i a l w hi ch t h r o w s l i g h t on h i s l i f e , o r h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l b a c k g r o u n d and d e v e l o p m e n t . No d o u b t t h e r e i s more t o be l e a r n e d from t h i s s o u r c e , b u t i t h a s a l r e a d y p r ov ed a u s e f u l s u p p l e m e n t t o B l a n d ' s p u b l i s h e d w o rk s.

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i n t e l l e c t u a l e n t e r p r i s e c o n s i s t e d n o t so much i n s e e k i n g to r e s o l v e t e n s i o n s which m i g ht e x i s t bet wee n t h e s e c l u s t e r s a s i n a t t e m p t i n g to i d e n t i f y mechanisms by which t h e s e v a l u e s c o u l d be r e a l i s e d . N a t u r a l l y , i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s e n t e r p r i s e , he t o u c h e d on many c e n t r a l p r o b le m s o f p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y , b u t o f t e n o n l y p e r i p h e r a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e c h a p t e r s a r e s t r u c t u r e d to t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e s e m a j o r c l u s t e r s o f v a l u e s b r o a d l y p u t , t h e v a l u e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , f r e e d o m , de moc ra cy and e f f i c i e n c y i n g o v er n me n t - and o f t h e p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n which t h e y were r e f l e c t e d . In t h e s e c h a p t e r s , B l a n d ' s v a l u e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , and t he p r o b le m s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n to which t h e y g av e r i s e a r e h i g h l i g h t e d , a f t e r which h i s p r o p o se d s o l u t i o n s to t h o s e p r o b l e m s a r e o u t l i n e d , and a p p r a i s e d . T h i s form o f c h a p t e r o r g a n i s a t i o n h i g h l i g h t s b o t h t h e c o n s i s t e n t and s y s t e m a t i c n a t u r e o f B l a n d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l e n t e r p r i s e , and t he u l t i m a t e i n c o h e r e n c e o f t h e p r o p o s a l s which r e s u l t e d from t h a t e n t e r p r i s e - a p o i n t which becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r , which l o c k s b a c k e v e r t h e d i f f e r e n t c l u s t e r s o f v a l u e s which Bland h e l d and c o n f i r m s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f seme deep and f u n d a m e n t a l t e n s i o n s b et wee n them.

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t he i d e a l p o l i t y . These vi ews i n f l u e n c e d h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o p e r t y , and a l o n g w i t h J . S . M i l l ' s a r g u m e n t s i n C o n s i d e r a t i o n s on R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government made him a l i f e l o n g e n t h u s i a s t f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f l o c a l g over nme nt - an e n t h u s i a s m which i s e x p l o r e d i n t h e c h a p t e r i n some d e t a i l , a s i t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o a c h which Bland a s a p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c a l t h i n k e r was t o t a k e when a d d r e s s i n g many e t h e r p r o b l e m s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . B l a n d ' s C h r i s t i a n views a l s o p r o v i d e d t h e p r e m i s s e s f o r one kind o f a t t i t u d e a b o u t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e form and e x t e n t o f s t a t e a c t i o n - an a t t i t u d e which s t r e s s e d t h e need to p r o t e c t t h e p o s i t i v e l i b e r t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .

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a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e w a r t i m e and p o s t w a r Labor g ov e r n m e n t s i n A u s t r a l i a , and i n p a m p h l e t s s u c h a s h i s 1948 work T o t a l i t a r i a n i s m : A u s t r a l i a ' s P e r i l e x p r e s s e d f e a r s f o r t h e l i b e r t y o f t h e s u b j e c t which r a i s e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t w h e t h e r h i s n e g a t i v e l i b e r a l v a l u e s c o u l d be w h o l l y r e c o n c i l e d w i t h e i t h e r h i s C h r i s t i a n o r h i s d e m o c r a t i c v i e w s .

I t i s h i s d e m o c r a t i c vi e ws which form t h e c e n t r e p i e c e o f C h a p t e r F i v e . Like S c h u m p e t e r , he t o o k an i n s t r u m e n t a l v i e w o f d em o c r a cy , b u t h i s v i e w s changed o v e r t i m e , and he came t o view de moc ra cy i n h i s l a t e r y ^ a r s a s much more c i r c u m s c r i b e d by l i m i t a t i o n s , by c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s , t h a n i n h i s e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s he had been p r e p a r e d to do. P a r l i a m e n t , an i n s t i t u t i o n he s o u g h t c o n s t a n t l y to s t r e n g t h e n , he saw i n t h i s l i g h t a s an i n s t i t u t i o n to p r o t e c t t h e c i t i z e n r y a g a i n s t a b u s e s o f power . He a l s o r e c o g n i s e d t he c r i t i c a l power which P a r l i a m e n t p o s s e s s e d b e c a u s e o f i t s r o l e i n a u t h o r i s i n g g ove rn me nt e x p e n d i t u r e , and d e p l o r e d t h e way i n which t h e u b i q u i t o u s p a r t y s ys te m had l a r g e l y e m p t i e d t h i s h i s t o r i c and f u n d a m e n t a l f u n c t i o n o f c o n t e n t .

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i n c r e a s e C a b i n e t e f f i c i e n c y . However, Bland drew a s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n bet wee n p o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and w h i l e he g e n e r a l l y wis hed to e n h a n c e m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what he saw a s p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , h i s aim was t o e x c l u d e m i n i s t e r s a s much a s p o s s i b l e from what he saw a s d a y - t o - d a y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n o r d e r to f o s t e r i t s e f f i c i e n c y . T h i s b r o u g h t c l e a r l y t o t he s u r f a c e t h e p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t bet ween r e s p o n s i b l e , d e m o c r a t i c g o v er n me n t a s a good to be v a l u e d , and e f f i c i e n t g ove rnme nt a s a n o t h e r good to be v a l u e d - a t e n s i o n most c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n B l a n d ’ s w r i t i n g s a b o u t t h e s t a t u t o r y c o r p o r a t i o n .

F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h Bland d i d n e t a c c e p t P o p e ' s v i e w t h a t " w h a t e ' e r i s b e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d i s b e s t " , he a t t a c h e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i m p o r t a n c e to e f f i c i e n t e x e c u t i o n o f p o l i c y , which was why he r e s e n t e d t h e i n t r u s i o n o f " p o l i t i c a l " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " . C h a p t e r Seven c o n t i n u e s t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r Six w i t h a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f B l a n d ' s v i e ws on t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e , which were d i r e c t e d to e n s u r i n g f o r t h e p u b l i c an e f f i c i e n t m a c h i n e r y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , b u t one n o t t a i n t e d by t h e f l a w s o f " b u r e a u c r a c y " .

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FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER ONE

1 . " B i b l i o g r a p h y o f W r i t i n g s o f F . A . B l a n d " , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( S y d n e y ) , v c l . 7 , n o . 2 , J une 194 8, p p 9 3 - 1 2 0 .

2. E . N . G l a d d e n , " F r a n c i s Armand B l a n d : A u s t r a l i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P i o n e e r - A B i o g r a p h i c a l S n a p s h o t " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Re vi ew o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e s , v c l . 4 1 , n o . 2, 1 975, p p 1 0 3 - 1 0 8 .

3 . [ T . H . K e w l e y and R . N . S p a n n ] , " F . A . B l a n d : I n Me mor ia m" , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( S y d n e y ) , v c l . 2 6 , n o . 3, S e p t e m b e r 19 6 7, p p 2 8 3 - 2 8 6 .

4 . S t e p h e n A lc m e s , " ' R e a s o n a b l e m e n ’ : m i d d l e c l a s s r e f o r m i s m i n A u s t r a l i a , 1 9 2 8 - 1 9 3 9 " , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . t h e s i s , A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1979*

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6 . I n t e r v i e w w i t h S e n a t o r t h e Hen. S i r John C a r r i e k , 14 June 1984.

7. J . D . B . M i l l e r , "A T r a c e r y o f I n f l u e n c e s " , Government and O p p o s i t i o n , v c l . 1 5 , n o s . 3 - 4 , Summer-Autumn 1980, pp446-456 a t p447. I w is h to t h a n k P r o f e s s o r M i l l e r f o r s e n d i n g me a copy o f t h i s a r t i c l e .

8. R . S . P a r k e r , " F . A . B l a n d ' s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a " , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n

( S y d n e y ) , v c l . 7 , n o . 3, Se pt e mb er 1948, p p l 6 5 - 1 8 2 , a t pl67*

9. For e xa mp le , A . J . B a k e r , A n d e r s o n ' s S o c i a l P h i l o s o p h y : The S o c i a l Thought and P o l i t i c a l L i f e o f P r o f e s s o r J oh n A n d e r s o n ( 1 s t e d . , Angus and R o b e r t s o n , Sydney, 1979) makes no r e f e r e n c e a t a l l to Bland i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s o f t h a t p e r i o d .

10. G . V . P o r t u s , " Bland and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( S y d n e y ) , v c l . 7 , n o . 3, Sept ember 1948, p p135- 140 a t p

139-11. L e t t e r to Lloyd Ross d a t e d 25 O c t o b e r 1933, Bland P a p e r s , Sydney U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s , G e n e r a l c o l l e c t i o n no. P 9 2 ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Bland P a p e r s ) .

12. Note to T.H.Kewley d a t e d 8 August 1961, Bla nd P a p e r s .

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14. See R o b e r t E . Go od i n, P o l i t i c a l T h e o r y and P u b l i c P c l i c y ( 1 s t e d . U n i v e r s i t y o f Chi cag o P r e s s , C hi c a g o , 1 9 8 2 ) , p a s s i m .

15« Ross Cumow, "The New So ut h Wales Ma chi ne r y o f Government Review" , i n R . F . I . S m i t h and P a t r i c k W e l l e r ( e d s . ) , P u b l i c S e r v i c e I n q u i r i e s i n A u s t r a l i a ( 1s t e d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f Q u e e n s l a n d P r e s s , St L u c i a , 1978) p p 111—128 a t p126.

16. I n t e r v i e w w i t h S i r Henr y B la n d , 12 O c t o b e r 1983*

17. As s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r from t h e Sydney U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v i s t d a t e d 9 March 1982.

18. Quoted i n F . A . Hayek, The Road t o S e r f d o m ( P a p e r b a c k e d . , R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , London, 1976) p i i i .

19* Quoted i n P a r k e r , o p . c i t . , p 1 66.

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CHAPTER TWO BLAND'S LIFE AND WORK

F r a n c i s Armand Bland was b o r n on August 24, 1882 a t Macdonald town in New South W ales. He s u b s e q u e n t l y w r o te : "My g r a n d f a t h e r came to A u s t r a l i a i n 1849 and h i s name was H e n ry Stam per B la n d . We t r a c e o u r d e c e n t [ s i c ] th r o u g h th e I r i s h f a m i l y and in t h a t c a s e t h r o u g h th e son o f D orothy Bland and Henry Crump. He went to Kent and assumed th e name o f Bland and t o o k o u t h i s c o a t o f a rm s , and a s f a r a s I knew he m a r r i e d i n t o th e Stam per f a m i l y , who were B an k ers i n th e C i t y ,and my g r a n d f a t h e r comes from t h a t m a r r i a g e . " ( l ) A rm an d 's f a t h e r , C .E .B l a n d , had m a r r i e d a German, whose f a t h e r , a German s u r g e o n , had l e f t Europe to e s c a p e s e r v i c e i n th e F r a n c o - P r u s s i a n War. She was a most p r o p e r woman, an a d h e r e n t to High Church d o c t r i n e who d e t e s t e d Roman C a t h o l i c s . ( 2 ) As h i s f a t h e r had gene on to th e l a n d , Armand r e c e i v e d h i s i n i t i a l e d u c a t i o n a t a s m a l l c o u n t r y s c h o o l a t G r e i g ' s F l a t ( 3 ) , where h i s f a m i l y l i v e d from 1883 to 1 8 8 8 . ( 4 )

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t o Mr G.H.Bosch ( 8 ) o f Bosch B a r t h e l and Company o f Sydney, a p o s i t i o n he h e l d u n t i l 1899 when he t r a n s f e r r e d to t h e s t a f f o f N . F . G i b l i n , O f f i c i a l A s s i g n e e . ( 9 ) On O c t o b e r 1, 1901, he j o i n e d t he New So ut h Wales D e pa r t m e n t o f T a x a t i o n a s a J u n i o r C l e r k , and i n 1903 he t r a n s f e r r e d to t h e New S o u t h Wales P u b l i c S e r v i c e Board a s S e c r e t a r y to R . F . I r v i n e ( 1 0 ) (who had i n J u l y 1900 been a p p o i n t e d s e c r e t a r y t o the b e a r d o f e x a m i n e r s f o r t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e , " w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e v i s i n g means o f g e t t i n g t he p e r s o n n e l and g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e q u a l i t y . "(11 )) Bland had n o t m a t r i c u l a t e d a t t h e t i m e he j o i n e d I r v i n e , b u t he made a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n on h i s s u p e r i o r , who l a t e r w r o t e : "As to h i s c h a r a c t e r , l o y a l t y and z e a l , I c a n n o t s p e a k too h i g h l y . " ( 1 2 ) I n t u r n , G.V. P o r t u s was a b l e t o w r i t e t h a t Bland " t h o u g h t t h e wor ld c f R . F . I r v i n e and s t u c k to him t h r o u g h t h i c k and t h i n . " ( 1 3 )

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w r o t e : " I had m e n t i o n i n E n g l i s h , H i s t o r y and P h i l o s o p h y 16) He s t u d i e d t he h i s t o r y o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n u n d e r A c t i n g P r o f e s s o r C o l l i e r . ( 1 7 ) He a t t e n d e d l e c t u r e s on e c o n o m i c s , and p r e p a r e d e s s a y s f o r Modern H i s t o r y on t h e American " D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e and how a f f e c t e d by c o n d i t i o n s i n E n g l a n d " , f o r P h i l o s o p h y on " G r e e k and Modern C o n c e p t i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n " , and f o r S o c i o l o g y on "The R e l a t i o n bet wee n t h e Temporal and S p i r i t u a l P o w e r s " . I n 1909, Bland a t t e n d e d l e c t u r e s on t h e " E l e m e n t s o f P o l i t i c s " , g i v e n by W i l l i a m P i t t C c b b e t t ( l 8 ) , C h a l l i s P r o f e s s o r o f Law a t Sydney U n i v e r s i t y , who from 1890 had b e e n t e a c h i n g J u r i s p r u d e n c e , Reman Law, C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Law and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law a t t h e Law S c h o o l . These l e c t u r e s c o v e r e d a v e r y wide f i e l d : " T h e o r e t i c a l P o l i t i c s " , "Methods o f S c i e n c e o f P o l i t i c s " , t h e n a t u r e o f law and o f m o r a l i t y , t h e o r g a n s and f u n c t i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t , " L i b e r t y " , " J u s t i c e " , "Democr acy", " E q u a l i t y " , " P r o g r e s s " , " U t i l i t a r i a n i s m " , B e n t h a m ' s " C i v i l Code", " L a i s s e r - f a i r e " , " I n d i v i d u a l i s m " , " S o c i a l i s m " , t h e " Debt o f S o c i a l i s m to B e n t h a m " , " P r i v a t e P r o p e r t y " , " C o n t r a c t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s " , and " S u c c e s s i o n and I n h e r i t a n c e " .

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and a p p r e c i a t e s a p o i n t q u i c k l y , and can e x p r e s s h i m s e l f s i m p l y and w e l l . " He c o n t i n u e d : "At t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e E x a m i n a t i o n he was awarded P r o f e s s o r P i t t C o b b e t t ' s p r i z e f o r P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ( i n c l u d i n g , a s t r e a t e d i n t h e Law S c h o o l , some s t u d y o f l o c a l l e g i s l a t i o n on s o c i a l and economic m a t t e r s ) ; and i n t h e P i n a l E x a m i n a t i o n , which e mb r a c e s t h e s t r i c t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l s u b j e c t s , he o b t a i n e d Second C l a s s H o n o u r s . " ( 1 9 )

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S e r v i c e " , he went on, " I had e v e r f i v e y e a r s ' commer ci al e x p e r i e n c e and am a q u a l i f i e d a c c o u n t a n t ( 22)

I n J a n u a r y 1914, he s u b m i t t e d h i s t h e s i s , by t h e n a s i n g l e 80 p a g e s t u d y e n t i t l e d "An E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n o f P r i v a t e P r o p e r t y " , which he had w r i t t e n " i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e e x a m i n a t i o n f o r t h e d e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e Scho ol o f P h i l o s o p h y , D e pa r t m e n t o f Economics , Sydney U n i v e r s i t y " . I t was h i g h l y commended(23) by

P r o f e s s o r R . F . I r v i n e , by t h e n P r o f e s s o r o f Econo mics , and by P r o f e s s o r F r a n c i s A n d e r s e n , C h a l l i s P r o f e s s o r o f Logic and

M e n t a l P h i l o s o p h y . ( 2 4 )

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t r a n s m i t t e d to h i s s t u d e n t s G r e e n ' s e t h i c a l t h e o r y o f th e S t a t e i n u n d i l u t e d form . The i n f l u e n c e o f th e i d e a s which A nderson p u b l i c i s e d i s v e r y c l e a r i n B l a n d 's w r i t i n g s .

I n 1914, t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Sydney a p p o i n t e d Bland to a p a r t - t i m e l e c t u r e s h i p i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i c n ( 2 5 ) , and t h e r e were a l r e a d y s i g n s t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t i n p u r s u i n g an aca d em ic r a t h e r th a n p u b l i c s e r v i c e o r l e g a l c a r e e r was d e v e l o p i n g . He t a u g h t a t H e le n s b u r g h and W o llo n g o n g .(2 6 ) H ow ever, w ith th e o n s e t o f t h e F i r s t World War, he fa c e d h e a v y p u b l i c s e r v i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e no s u r p r i s e t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l 1918 t h a t he p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t s c h o l a r l y p a p e r . He a l s o had t h e d o m e s tic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a w if e and c h i l d r e n , who accom panied him when, w ith h i s m o th e r as w e l l , he o b t a i n e d l e a v e from th e p u b l i c s e r v i c e and i n 1916 w ent to England to u n d e r t a k e a p o s t g r a d u a t e c o u r s e a t th e London Sch o o l o f Economics and

P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e .

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P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , and bet wee n 1914 and h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1923, he was t h e f i r s t h o l d e r o f t h e S c h o o l ' s c h a i r o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . ( 3 0 ) The a u t h o r o f a m a j o r s t u d y o f W a l l a s ' s t h o u g h t h a s c o n c l u d e d : " I n t h e s t u d y o f p o l i t i c s , W a l l a s was a p i o n e e r . H is a t t e m p t t o ch an g e t h e o b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y from f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r i n c i p l e s t o human b e i n g s and t h e i r a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r was b o t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y and i n f l u e n t i a l . "( 31 ) David B u t l e r h a s a r g u e d t h a t W a l l a s ' s 1908 b ook Human N a t u r e i n P o l i t i c s " s t i l l s t a n d s a f t e r f i f t y y e a r s a s t h e c l a s s i c a p p e a l f o r a r e a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f p o l i t i c s ( 32) B l a n d ' s own c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s c o u l d be no b e t t e r t h a n t h e p e o p l e wor king w i t h i n them i s one e xampl e o f a c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n o f W a l l a s ' s i n s i g h t s , b u t t h e r e were o t h e r r e s p e c t s , t o o , i n w hi ch Bland t o o k a p a t h v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e one p ur s u e d by h i s m e n t o r . B l a n d , l i k e W a l l a s ( 3 3 ) , combined t he f o c u s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t w i t h t h e z e a l o f t h e m o r a l r e f o r m e r . N o n e t h e l e s s , Bland was c a p a b l e o f v i e w i n g W a l l a s w i t h a c r i t i c a l e y e . W a l l a s was no f r i e n d o f E n g l i s h I d e a l i s m ( 3 4 ) , y e t Bland was p r e p a r e d to p r o f i t from t h e i n s i g h t s o f an I d e a l i s t s u c h a s Green a s w e l l a s o f a v e r y d i f f e r e n t t h i n k e r s uch a s W a l l a s .

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number o f s t a l w a r t s o f t h e W o r k e r s ' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g G . D . H . C o l e , R.H.Tawney and A l b e r t M a n s b r i d g e ( 3 6 ) , t h e l a s t o f whom was s e c r e t a r y and f o u n d e r o f t h e E n g l i s h W . E. A . ( 3 7 ) I n J u l y and August 1917, Bland was a p p o i n t e d a L e c t u r e r i n H i s t o r y and R e s i d e n t T u t o r a t t h e Oxford Summer S c h o o l by A . L . S m i t h , who was b o t h M a s t e r o f B a l l i c l C o l l e g e and Chairman o f t h e Oxford T u t o r i a l C l a s s e s . From t h i s p o i n t o nw a r d s , Bland showed an e n t h u s i a s m f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n which he n e v e r a b a n d o n e d . Thus , h i s s t a y i n E ng lan d p l a y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i n s h a p i n g b o t h t h e c o n c e r n s and the a t t i t u d e s which were s u b s e q u e n t l y to s u r f a c e i n h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s . T h i s i s c l e a r from R . S . P a r k e r ' s a s s e s s m e n t o f B l a n d ' s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y : " F i r m l y b a s e d i n E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t , i t i s an u n c om pr om is in g v e r s i o n o f John S t u a r t M i l l , a s i n t e r p r e t e d and a p p l i e d by t h e London s a g e s , Webb and W a l l a s , and b r o u g h t up to d a t e by t h e p r o m i n e n t t h i n k e r s o f t h e B r i t i s h L i b e r a l P a r t y . B l a n d ' s w r i t i n g s a r e s t u d d e d w i t h t h e b r i g h t e r a p h o r i s m s o f men l i k e James B r y c e , Ramsay Muir , I v o r Brown, D i c e y , Lord H e w a r t , B a r k e r and B e v e r i d g e , t h o u g h he s u p p l e m e n t s t h e s e w i t h much o f t h e wisdom o f t h e e a r l i e r and g r e a t e r F a b i a n s . " ( 3 8 )

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A u s t r a l i a a t t h e end o f 1917 t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t he was n e t a " r e t u r n i n g p r o d i g a l son was made c l e a r t o him a t l e a s t by t h e e n t i r e a b s e n c e o f a n y t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g a f a t t e d c a l f . " ( 40 ) However, t h i n g s soon i m p r o v e d . At t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f G . V . P o r t u s , who had j u s t become A c t i n g D i r e c t o r o f T u t o r i a l C l a s s e s a t Sydney U n i v e r s i t y , Bland was o f f e r e d an a p p o i n t m e n t f o r one y e a r a s A c t i n g A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ( 4 1 ) , and r e s i g n e d from t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e t o t a k e up t h e p o s i t i o n . At t h e end o f 1918, he was a p p o i n t e d A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , and E d i t o r o f The A u s t r a l i a n H i g h w a y , a ma g az in e pr od uced e a c h month and n o t a b l e b o t h f o r t h e b r e a d t h o f i s s u e s which i t c o v e r e d and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l which i t c a r r i e d . He was t o h o l d b o t h p o s i t i o n s u n t i l 1 9 3 5 . ( 4 2 ) From 1918 to 1933, he a l s o s e r v e d as p a r t - t i m e L e c t u r e r i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y , and from 1 933 t o 1 935, f u l l - t i m e . But h i s d u t i e s i n t h e D e p ar t m en t o f T u t o r i a l C l a s s e s r ema ined h i s m a j o r f o r m a l o c c u p a t i o n .

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l e a n i n g s " . (4 6) He had been a member o f t h e Synod o f t he D i o c e s e o f Sydney s i n c e 1912, was l i c e n s e d as a l o c a l l a y R e a d e r i n 1913, and s e r v e d as l a y s e c r e t a r y o f t h e Sydney D i o c e s a n Synod from 1921 t o 1927 ( 4 7 ) , a l t h o u g h P o r t u s a s s e r t e d t h a t he was " q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y n o t t h e o l o g i c a l l y m i n d e d ( 4 8 ) . Both Bland and P o r t u s were a s s o c i a t e d w i th The Morpeth R e v i e w , a n a t i o n a l q u a r t e r l y m a gazi ne f ounded by E . H . Burgmann i n 1927 w h i c h p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s o f a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e , g e n e r a l l y somewhat r a d i c a l i n t o n e , u n t i l i n 1934, w i t h Bu r g ma n n ' s e l e c t i o n a s B is h o p o f C a n b e r r a and G c u l b u r n , i t a b r u p t l y d i s a p p e a r e d . ( 4 9 ) The d e p a r t u r e o f Burgmann c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e d e p a r t u r e o f P o r t u s , who e a r l y i n 1934 became P r o f e s s o r o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and H i s t o r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A d e l a i d e . A f o r m e r s t u d e n t o f B l a n d ' s , J . D . B . M i l l e r , h a s p r o v i d e d an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f P o r t u s ' s p r e s e n c e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f B l a n d ' s t h i n k i n g : "My g u e s s i s t h a t , up t o t he t i m e when P o r t u s l e f t Sydney f o r A d e l a i d e . . . , he would h av e had a m i l d l y l e f t w a r d i n f l u e n c e on B l a n d . A f t e r he l e f t , t h e r e was n o - c n e to e x e r t s u c h an i n f l u e n c e , and Bland f e l l more and more i n t o t h e company o f h i s UAP f r i e n d s . " ( 5 0 )

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G ov e r n m e n t, i n 1923, a s p a r t o f a s e r i e s o f works on economic , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a f f a i r s p r o d u ce d by t h e W.E.A. u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l e d i t o r s h i p o f P o r t u s . I t was d e d i c a t e d to R . F . I r v i n e , and c o n t a i n e d a b i b l i o g r a p h y o f works by w r i t e r s s u ch as B e v e r i d g e , Herman F i n e r , Gcodnow, L a s k i , W a l l a s and t he Webbs. The v e r y t i t l e e x p r e s s e d t he n ee d i d e n t i f i e d by W a l l a s to l o o k beyond t he f a c a d e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n o r d e r to g r a s p t h e way i n which g ove rn me nt w o r k s . Bland w r o t e i n t h e p r e f a c e : " T h i s e s s a y was d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r s t u d e n t s a t t h e T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e , b u t i t i s hoped t h a t i t w i l l make seme a p p e a l to t h a t w i d e n i n g c i r c l e w hi ch, i n e v e r y d e m o c r a t i c c o u n t r y , i s i n t e r e s t i n g i t s e l f i n t h e e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c a f f a i r s . " ( 5 2 ) T h i s work was n o t r e v i s e d , b u t i t was f o l l o w e d by a number o f o t h e r b o c k s , e a c h o f which a p p e a r e d i n mere t h a n one e d i t i o n . ( 53 )

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"Principles of Public Administration in their application to specific problems in this State and the Commonwealth."(55) In his other half course he covered "Municipal Administration from the social and political point of view."(56) From 1925 he taught an expanded single full course entitled "Public Administration", which amalgamated the two courses which until then he had been teaching. With the introduction of a course for a Diploma in Public Administration in 1930, this full course was augmented by a further half course, "Public Administration II", concerned initially with three special topics: "(a) the administration of ameliorative legislation covering a survey of the measures, the agencies involved, and the difficulties encountered; (b) the financial administration of New South Wales, covering the Budget, its preparation, discussion, execution and examination; (c) the administration of transport, rail, road and ocean."(57) Mills and Butlin put the view that:

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Bland meant i t when he s a i d t h a t t h e ' s y n o p s i s ' was meant to o b v i a t e n o t e - t a k i n g , b u t t h a t , u n l i k e s i m i l a r s y s t e m s us ed i n some o t h e r U n i v e r s i t y d e p a r t m e n t s , t h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e l e c t u r e s was a l r e a d y i n t h e t y p e s c r i p t . I n a s e n s e n o t h i n g i n one was i n t h e o t h e r ; t h e l e c t u r e was comment o n , e x t e n s i o n o f , d i g r e s s i o n fr om t h e con d en s ed m a t e r i a l o f t h e t y p s e c r i p t , t o w hi ch one c o u l d l i s t e n w i t h c l o s e a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t ( 58)

Bland was l a t e r i m p l i c i t l y t o n o t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h i s London y e a r s upon h i s own s t y l e o f t e a c h i n g : " I t i s n o t g e n e r a l l y known t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Sydney c on f or ms mere to t h e l i n e s l a i d down by Graham W a l l a s and Sydney Webb r a t h e r t h a n t o t he l i n e s f o l l o w e d by W i l l o u g h b y and Munro i n A m e r i c a . " ( 5 9 )

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The P r e m ie r o f New South W ales, B e rtra m S t e v e n s , had s e c u r e d t h e p a s s a g e th r o u g h P a r l i a m e n t o f a Vote f o r U n i v e r s i t y f i n a n c e s s u f f i c i e n t l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d to p e r m it t h e c r e a t i o n o f s u c h a C h a ir i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E conom ics. The S e n a te o f th e U n i v e r s i t y r e s o l v e d in F e b r u a r y 1935 b o th t o c r e a t e th e C h a ir and to o f f e r i t to B la n d . As th e U n i v e r s i t y ' s 1935 R e p o r t p u t i t : " I t was f e l t t h a t no good p u r p o s e would be s e r v e d by a d v e r t i s i n g t h e p o s i t i o n th r o u g h o u t A u s t r a l i a o r G r e a t B r i t a i n s i n c e t h e S e n a te was c o n v in c e d t h a t th e b e s t c a n d i d a t e was Mr B l a n d . . . " ( 6 2 ) Bland was to h o ld th e C h a ir u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n June 1948 ( 6 3 ) , a t w hich tim e he was a c o r d e d th e d i g n i t y o f an E m e r itu s P r o f e s s o r o f th e U n i v e r s i t y .

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gauge h i s immense e n e r g y . As w e l l as i n t h e I n s t i t u t e , he was an o f f i c e h o l d e r a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s i n t h e Wor ker s' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e Sydney U n i v e r s i t y S e t t l e m e n t and t he New So ut h Wales C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Lea gue, and a member o f b o d i e s a s d i v e r s e a s Moore C o l l e g e , t h e Round T a b l e Gr oup, t h e New South Wales T a x a t i o n I n s t i t u t e , and t h e New S o u t h Wales B u r s a r y Endowment Fund. He was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , a n d , from t he end o f t h e 194 0s , w i t h movements s u p p o r t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new A u s t r a l i a n s t a t e s . ( 66 )

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h a s been most f a m i l i a r to t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n h i s c am p a i g n s a g a i n s t i n c r e a s i n g t he powers o f t h e F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t - Chairman o f t h e N.S.W. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l League (1944) , o f t h e Referendum ' No' Committee ( 1 9 4 6) and o f t h e N.S.W. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l L e a g u e ( l 9 4 7 ) . " ( 6 9 ) A n ot he r c o n t e m p o r a r y w r ot e t h a t a s Chairman o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l League "he h a s w r i t t e n i n n u m e r a b l e p a m p h l e t s , a n d , t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s , r a d i o , and on t h e p l a t f o r m ( i n c l u d i n g an o p e n - a i r m e e t i n g a t K i n g ' s C r o s s ) he h a s c o n d u c t e d a v i g o r o u s cam pa ig n a g a i n s t t h e Commonwealth's r e c e n t r e q u e s t s f o r a d d i t i o n a l powers by r e f e r e n d u m . " ( 7 0 ) He oppos ed w i t h g r e a t f e r o c i t y t h e b a n k n a t i o n a l i s a t i o n p l a n s o f t h e C h i f l e y Go ver nment , and denounced t h e i d e a b e f o r e a l a r g e a u d i e n c e . ( 7 1 )

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A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , he managed a t t h e a g e o f 68 to s e c u r e L i b e r a l P a r t y p r e s e l e c t i o n to s u c ce e d S i r P e r c y S p en de r a s Member o f t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r t h e s a f e Sydney s e a t o f W a r r i n g a h . T hi s d e c i s i v e s t e p , which opened a whole new c a r e e r f o r B l a n d , came a s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f h i s i n c r e a s i n g p a r t y - p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p . I n d e e d , i n an a l m o s t p r o p h e t i c l e t t e r i n 1946, p r o v i d i n g an a f f e c t i o n a t e y e t h i g h l y c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f B l a n d ' s p a p e r " F e d e r a l i s m i n A u s t r a l i a " , one o f h i s c l o s e f r i e n d s had w r i t t e n : " I s u p p o s e what I m a i n l y r e a c t from i s t h e s c a r e - m c n g e r i n g , e l e c t i o n campai gn t o n e o f t h e whole t h i n g . Ex ce p t f o r t h e o p e n i n g pag e o r s o , i t i s v e r y r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e ' S p e a k e r ' s N o t e s ' t h e p a r t i e s i s s u e d to t h e c a n d i d a t e s a t t h e New Z e a l a n d e l e c t i o n s which I s t u d i e d . " ( 7 3 )

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Chairman o f t h e r e c o n s t i t u t e d c o m m i t t e e , and he h e l d t h o s e p o s i t i o n s u n t i l March 10, I 9 6 0 , when t h e f i n a l i l l n e s s o f h i s t h i r d w i f e f o r c e d him to r e l i n q u i s h them. H i s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e Committee l e d him away from t h e p a r t y p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p which had c h a r a c t e r i s e d h i s a c t i v i t i e s f o r much o f t h e s ec on d h a l f o f t h e 1940s , and a l l o w e d him a s a p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n t o a c t v e r y much a s one fr om h i s e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s on p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e f o r m would have e x p e c t e d him to a c t .

The A . L . P . was i n i t i a l l y s k e p t i c a l a b o u t t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Comm it t ee. " T h i s i s n o t " , s t a t e d D eputy O p p o s i t i o n L e a de r A r t h u r Calwe11, "an h o n e s t a t t e m p t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s o f t h e n a t i o n ; i t i s a s o p to the c e r b e r u s from W a r r i n g a h . " ( 7 5 ) However , Bland was a b l e by h i s s k i l l e d and s e n s i t i v e c h a i r m a n s h i p to a l l a y t h e O p p o s i t i o n ' s f e a r s . I n h i s f i n a l s p e e c h a s Chai rman, Bland r e m a r k e d :

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r e l a t i o n s w ith members o f th e c o m m i t t e e ( 76)

The b e s t m e asu re o f B l a n d 's s u c c e s s can be found in th e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f h i s n o m in al p o l i t i c a l o p p o n e n t s . A.V.Thompson, member f o r P o r t A d e l a i d e , re m a r k e d : " I can s a y t h a t I h a v e n e v e r found a n o t h e r p e r s o n w ith whom i t was a g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e to w o r k " ( 7 7 ) , and Labor S e n a t o r A.M.Benn commented: "N ever h av e I b een a s s o c i a t e d w ith a g e n tle m a n who was so c o n s c i o u s o f h i s o b j e c t i v e when he u n d e r t o o k any t a s k . He was alw ay s c o n s c i o u s o f what he was a t t e m p t i n g to f i n d and he worked p o s i t i v e l y to w a r d s t h a t e n d . . . P r o f e s s o r B land h as been adm ired by n e a r l y e v e ry o n e f o r h i s work i n s i d e th e P a r l i a m e n t and o u t s i d e i t . I know t h a t a s c h a irm a n o f th e co m m ittee he had no p o l i t i c s a t a l l . " ( 7 8 ) The m e asu re o f B l a n d 's a c h i e v e m e n t , on th e o t h e r h a n d , i s b e s t p u t by C o sg ro v e, who c o n c lu d e d h i s 1966 s t u d y o f th e P u b l i c A ccounts Committee i n th e f o l l o w i n g way:

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The s u b s t a n t i v e r e c om m en da t i on s o f t h e Committ ee, made i n t h e 46 r e p o r t s i t pr od uced w h i l e Bland was Chai rman, l i e beyond t he s c o p e o f a s t u d y o f B l a n d ' s p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t , f o r even when Bland h i m s e l f wr ot e t h e r e p o r t s , h i s vi ews u n d e r w e n t t h e p r i s m a t i c d i s t o r t i o n o f h i s r o l e a s Chai rman, and t h e r e f o r e no p a r t i c u l a r r e p o r t can be t a k e n a s an embodiment o f B l a n d ' s v i e w on t h e m a t t e r i n p o i n t . R a t h e r , i n t h e way i n which Bland a c t e d as Chairman can be found e v i d e n c e which r e i n f o r c e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t i n u i t y i n h i s i d e a s which d e r i v e s from a d e t a i l e d a p p r a i s a l o f h i s w r i t i n g s .

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FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TWO

1. Letter to genealogist dated July 7, 1952, Bland Papers.

2. Interview with Sir Henry Bland, October 12, 1983*

3. [T.H.Kewley and R.N.Spann], "F.A.Bland: In Memoriam", Public Administration (Sydney), vol.26, no.3, September

1967, pp283-286 at p283.

4. S.J.Butlin, Introduction to "Bibliography of Writings of F.A.Bland", Public Administration (Sydney), vol.7, no.2,

June 1948, pp91-92 at p91 •

5. F.A.Bland, "Changes in Society", notes for an address to the Workers' Educational Association, March 14, 1951, Bland Papers. Lane (1861-1917) was a utopian journalist, instrumental in the establishment in Paraguay in 1893 of a short-lived utopian commune called "New Australia". See Gavin Souter, "William Lane", Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol.9, 1891-1939 (1st ed., Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1983) pp658-659.

6. Bland, op.cit.

7. Ibid.

8. Honi So i t , November 6, 1935.

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10. I b i d . , p 91 - See a l s o B . J . M c F a r l a n e , " R o b e r t F r a n c i s I r v i n e " , A u s t r a l i a n D i c t i o n a r y o f B i o g r a p h y , o p . c i t . , p p 4 3 8 - 4 3 9 .

11. F . E . B a r r a c l o u g h , " P r o f e s s o r Bland and t he New South Wales P u b l i c S e r v i c e " , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( S y d n e y ) , v o l . 7 , n o . 3» S e pt e mb er 1948, pp145-153 a t p145*

12. L e t t e r from R . F . I r v i n e d a t e d August 12, 1909, Bland P a p e r s .

13. G . V . P o r t u s , " Bland and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( S y d n e y ) , v c l . 7 , n o . 3, S eptember 1948, p p13 5- 1 40 a t p 139• T h i s i s p r e s u m a b l y a r e f e r e n c e to I r v i n e ' s r e s i g n a t i o n as P r o f e s s o r o f Economics a t Sydney U n i v e r s i t y i n 1922 a f t e r h i s a d u l t e r y was b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s . See M c F a r l a n e , o p . c i t . , p438.

14. [Kewl ey and S p a n n ] , o p . c i t . , p283.

15» B u t l i n , o p . c i t . , p91 •

16. L e t t e r d a t e d J u l y 16, 1913, Bla nd P a p e r s .

17. L e t t e r d a t e d December 27, 1917, Bla nd P a p e r s .

18. See F . C . H u t l e y , " W i l l i a m P i t t C o b b e t t " , A u s t r a l i a n D i c t i o n a r y o f B i o g r a p h y , v o l . 8 , 1891-1939 ( 1 s t e d . , Melbour ne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , M e l b o u r n e , 1981) pp40-41 .

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20 . L e t t e r d a t e d J u l y 25, 1912. B a r r a c l c u g h , o p . c i t . , p146 n o t e s t h a t F r e d e r i c k J o r d a n , " t h e n an E q u i t y b a r r i s t e r , was w i l l i n g to hav e Bland r e a d i n h i s c h a m b e r s . "

2 1 . L e t t e r d a t e d J u l y 16, 1913, Bla nd P a p e r s .

22. I b i d .

23* L e t t e r d a t e d December 27, 1917, B la nd P a p e r s .

24. For A n d e r s o n ' s b a c k g r o u n d , s e e W. M. O' Nei l , " S i r F r a n c i s A n d e r s o n " , A u s t r a l i a n D i c t i o n a r y o f B i o g r a p h y , v o l . 7 , 1891- 19 39 ( 1 s t e d . , Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , M el bo ur n e, 1979) pp 5 3 - 5 5 .

25» Bu t1 i n , o p . c i t . , p 9 2 .

26. R . C . M i l l s and S . J . B u t l i n , " Bland and t he U n i v e r s i t y " , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( S y d n e y ) , v c l . 7 , n o . 3, Sept ember 1948, p p 1 2 9 - 1 33 a t p129.

27. L e t t e r d a t e d December 27, 1917, Bla nd P a p e r s .

28. L e t t e r d a t e d August 14, 1919, Bland P a p e r s .

29- I b i d .

30. Sugwon Kang, "Graham W a l l a s and L i b e r a l Democracy", The Review o f P o l i t i c s , v o l . 4 1 , n o . 4, O c t o b e r 1979, pp536-560

a t p p 5 36 - 53 7.

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3 2 . David B u t l e r , The S t u d y c f P o l i t i c a l B e h a v i o u r , ( 1 s t e d . , H u t c h i n s o n , London, 1958) p36.

33* See T e r e n c e H . Q u a l t e r , Graham W a l l a s and The G r e a t S o c i e t y ( 1 s t e d . , M a c m i l l a n , London, 1980) p165.

34. See S t e f a n C o l l i n i , Donald Winch and John Burrow, T h a t N obl e S c i e n c e c f P o l i t i c s : A_ S t u d y i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y ( 1 s t e d . , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Camb ri dg e, 1983) p368.

35. L e t t e r d a t e d December 27, 1917, B la nd P a p e r s .

36 . P o r t u s , c p . c i t . , p 135- Fo r t h e b ac k g r o u n d o f t h e E n g l i s h W. E.A. , s e e R.H.Tawney, The R a d i c a l T r a d i t i o n ( 1 s t e d . , Geor ge A l l e n and Unwin, London, 1964) p p8 2 - 9 3 .

37. G . V . P o r t u s , Happy Highways ( 1 s t e d . , Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , M e lb ou r ne , 1953) p171.

38. R . S . P a r k e r , " F . A . B l a n d ' s C o n t r i b u t i o n to P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a " , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( S y d n e y ) , v o l . 7 , n o . 3» Se pt e mb er 1948, pp165-182 a t p167.

39. L e t t e r d a t e d December 27, 1917, B la nd P a p e r s .

40. B a r r a c l c u g h , o p . c i t . , p146.

41. P o r t u s , Happy H i g h w a y s , p175.

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43« P o r t u s , Happy H i g h w a y s , p178. For t h e b ac kg r ou nd to t h e T u t o r i a l C l a s s e s D e p a r t m e n t , s ee Fr ed A l e x a n d e r , "Sydney U n i v e r s i t y and t he ¥ . E . A . (1 91 3-1 9 1 9 ) " , The A u s t r a l i a n Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 7 , n o . 4, December 1 955, p p 3 4 - 5 6 .

44. P o r t u s , Happy H i g h w a y s , p178.

45. P o r t u s , " Bland and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " , p

139-46. I b i d . ’,

p139-47. Bu t1 i n , o p . c i t . , p92.

48. P o r t u s , " Bland and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " , p

139-49« See P . J . H e m p e n s t a l l , " ' T h i s T u r b u l e n t P r i e s t ' : E . H . Burgmann d u r i n g t he G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n " , The A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y , v c l . 2 7 , n o . 3, 1981, p p 330-343 a t p332.

50. J . D . B . M i l l e r , p r i v a t e c o m m un i ca t i on d a t e d August 6, 1982. Fo r a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Morpeth g r o u p and P o r t u s , s e e Tim Rowse, A u s t r a l i a n L i b e r a l i s m and N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r ( 1 s t e d . , K i b b l e Books, M e l b o u r n e , 1978) p p 147- 163.

51. I n t e r v i e w w i t h S i r Henry B l a n d , O c t o b e r 12,

1983-52. F . A . B l a n d , Shadows and R e a l i t i e s o f Government ( 1 s t e d . , W or k er s ' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f N. S. W. , Sydney, 1923)p i x .

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t h i s b o o k a "Second E d i t i o n " , p o s s i b l y t o e x p l o i t B l a n d ' s new s t a t u s a s t h e f i r s t P r o f e s s o r o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t an A u s t r a l i a n U n i v e r s i t y ; t h e t i t l e page was t h e o n l y one r e v i s e d ) ; Government i n A u s t r a l i a ( e d . ) : 1 s t e d . , 1939; 2nd e d . , 1944.

54. E . N . G l a d d e n , " F r a n c i s Armand B l a n d : A u s t r a l i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P i o n e e r - A B i o g r a p h i c a l S n a p s h o t " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e s , v o l . 4 1 , n o . 2, 1975, pp 10 3- 108 a t p107.

55. Quoted i n M i l l s and B u t l i n , o p . c i t . , p130.

56. I b i d . , p130.

57. I b i d . , p 131 .

58. I b i d . , p p 132- 133.

59. L e t t e r d a t e d May 25, 1953, Bland P a p e r s .

60. L e t t e r to Bland from t h e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , d a t e d November 20, 1929, Bland P a p e r s .

61. "Some i m p r e s s i o n s o f a s p e c t s o f American Gover nment ", S e p t e m b e r 19, 1930, Bl and P a p e r s .

62. Quoted i n M i l l s and B u t l i n , o p . c i t . , p129.

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64. G.C.Remington, "Foreword", Public Adminstration (Sydney), vol.7, no.3, September 1948, p127.

65. [Kewley and Spann], op.cit., p283.

66. As to Bland's interest in new states, see Ulrich Ellis, A. History of the Australian Country Party (1st ed., Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1963) p302.

67. [Kewley and Spann], op.cit., p284.

68. E.Hearnshaw, "F.A.Bland and Politics", Public Administration (Sydney), vol.7, no.3, September 1948, pp155—161 at p 161.

69. Butlin, op.cit., p92.

70. Hearnshaw, op.cit., p 156.

71. See A.L.May, The Battle for the Banks (1st ed., Sydney University Press, Sydney, 1968) p103.

72. Interview with Sir Henry Bland, October 12,

1983-73» Letter from "Robert" dated September 2, 1946, Bland Papers.

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75* Quoted i n C os g r o v e , c p . c i t . , p35«

76. Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ) March 10, I 9 6 0 , p p 1 0 1 - 1 0 2 .

77. I b i d . , p103.

78. Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y D e b a t e s March 10, 1960, p 8 5 .

79. C o s g r o v e , o p . c i t . , pp 23 8-

239-8 0 . [Kewley and S p a n n ] , o p . c i t . , p286.

D e b a t e s

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CHAPTER THREE CHRISTIANITY AND THE IDEAL POLITY

Bland’s Christian commitment, in the form of his lifelong membership of the Church of England, was a very important influence on his thought about social institutions. "Only if the whole of life be influenced by the example of Christ", he wrote, "shall we be able to realize in our institutions the essentials of a righteous system of life, the essentials of a just order."(1) One friend's judgment, that his religion was sincere but combative(2), finds some support in Bland's insistence on the need for a radical approach to the organisation of society: "...if the Christian is to seek Christ's way of life, he must challenge the existing assumptions, and must insist upon the unity of life."(3)

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participation of the eternal law in the rational creature(7), he did suggest that in the search for principles, "it is entirely contrary to Christ's teaching to rely upon the technique of prayer alone."(8) He also rejected the guidance of intuition: "If man is prone to create God in his own image, is it not likely that in the moral sphere the Highway which he tends to recognise as good may he the one which suits his own needs and hopes and habits?"(9) Bland looked for guidance to principles immanent in Christ's teaching. Nevertheless, the "patient, studious preparation for tasks ahead" which Bland explicitly commended to his audience could hardly be regarded without elaboration as a satisfactory method of identifying the principles underlying Christ's pronouncements - despite his earlier criticisms, it almost amounted to an invitation to intuitionism - and this left the foundations of Bland's exegesis not fully developed.(10)

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i n d i v i d u a l to God.

What, i n B l a n d 's v ie w , was t h e n a t u r e o f th e Kingdom o f God? C h r i s t had p r o c la im e d "The tim e i s f u l f i l l e d and th e Kingdom o f God i s a t h a n d " ( 13)» b u i l d i n g on th e Old T e s ta m e n t s t a t e m e n t t h a t "Thy Kingdom _is an e v e r l a s t i n g Kingdom, and t h y d o m in io n e n d u r e t h t h r o u g h o u t a l l g e n e r a t i o n s . " ( 1 4 ) To B la n d , i t had q u i t e a c o n c r e t e m e a n in g . I n an a d d r e s s i n 1932, he o b s e r v e d : " I am u s i n g th e term

'COMMUNITY' in th e s e n s e t h a t M a c lv e r h a s f a m i l i a r i s e d us w i t h , a s t h a t ty p e o f s o c i e t y i n w h ich a l l th e i n t e r e s t s o f man a r e i n t e g r a t e d , and in w hich e n e r g i e s a r e r e l e a s e d , and e f f o r t s a r e employed f o r common s e r v i c e . C h r i s t i a n s c a l l i t

'T he Kingdom o f God' . " ( 1 5 )

T h i s was n o t s o m e th in g r e n d e r e d u n a t t a i n a b l e i n p r i n c i p l e by th e F a l l o f Man, s o m e th in g e q u i v a l e n t to th e Second Coming o f which Mark w r i t e s " o f t h a t day and t h a t h o u r kncweth no man, n o , n o t th e a n g e l s which a r e i n h e a v e n , n e i t h e r th e Son, b u t th e F a t h e r . " ( 1 6 ) I n d e e d , i n 1936 Bland wro t e :

" T h ere was a tim e to w a r d s th e end o f th e G r e a t War when i t lo c k e d as i f we m ig h t a r r e s t t h e te n d e n c y t o d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , and t r a n s f o r m th e w o rld s o c i e t y i n t o a r e a l community i n w hich a l l i n t e r e s t s would be i n t e g r a t e d , a l l e n e r g i e s r e l e a s e d and a l l e f f o r t s employed in a common e n d e a v o u r : i n w h ich , i n s h o r t , we m ig h t r e a l i s e th e C h r i s t i a n i d e a l o f t h e Kingdom o f God on e a r t h . " (1 7 )

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s o c i a l o r d e r . " ( 1 8 ) "But God h i m s e l f " , Bland went o n, " d i d n o t , and w i l l n o t , impose i t upon us by f o r c e . He w a n ts men t o s e e k i t , and to s t r i v e t o a t t a i n i t . " ( l 9 ) T h i s i n s i g h t l e d Bland to c o n s i d e r on t h e one hand t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t a t e , a n d , on t h e o t h e r , t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s a c i t i z e n . "The c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e F a t h e r h o o d o f God and t h e b r o t h e r h o o d o f man", Bland w r o t e , " g i v e s s i g n i f i c a n c e to o u r r e l a t i o n s t o o u r f e l l o w s j u s t a s i t h a s g i v e n c o n t e n t to t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e S t a t e . " ( 2 0 )

I n h i s a p p r o a c h t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s , Bland was l o c a t e d in a t r a d i t i o n o f i d e a l i s t A n g l i c a n i s m , c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n d e b t e d to Thomas H i l l G r e en , whose " c o n c e p t o f ' p o s i t i v e f r e e d o m ' p r o v i d e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e newly e me r g i n g w e l f a r e - s t a t e p r o p o s a l s . . . " . ( 2 1 ) To G r ee n, a l l mo r al p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l l i f e was " t h e h i g h e s t form o f s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t , and to c r e a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s uc h p a r t i c i p a t i o n was t h e end o f a l i b e r a l s o c i e t y . " ( 2 2 ) Bland l e c t u r e d on G r e e n ' s t h e o r y o f t h e S t a t e i n h i s 1956 T u t o r i a l C l a s s e s D e p a r t m e n t c o u r s e "Running a L i b e r a l D e mo c r a t i c S t a t e " , b u t h i s own i d e a o f t h e s t a t e owed more t o E n g l i s h p l u r a l i s m t h a n t o t h e o r g a n i c t h e o r i e s o f t h e N e c - H e g e l i a n w r i t e r s . He w r o t e :

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so a r e o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n any c a s e t h e v a l u e o f f o r c e may be e x a g g e r a t e d , f o r t h e more h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d the community, t h e l e s s t h e need o f f o r c e . Men a c c e p t t h e commands o f t h e S t a t e b e c a u s e t h e y i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h them. And i n a r e a l l y d e m o c r a t i c community, t h e y a r e a b l e to i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w h o l e h e a r t e d l y w i t h them b e c a u s e t h e y t h e m s e l v e s h av e w i l l e d t he command. I n any c a s e , f o r c e can o n l y e n j o i n f o r m a l and e x t e r n a l o b e d i e n c e ; i t c a n n o t e n j o i n a s p i r i t or a b e l i e f . When t h e v a l u e o f an a c t d ep e n d s upon t h e s p i r i t i n w hi ch i t i s p e r f o r m e d , t h e n f o r c e i s v a i n , even i f i t i s w i e l d e d by t h e S t a t e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t power p o s s e s s e d by t h e S t a t e i s i t s a b i l i t y to r e n d e r j u s t i c e i m p a r t i a l l y and to c o - o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l t h e o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s . Beyond t h i s t h e S t a t e oug ht n e t to g o . ” ( 2 3 )

As David N i c h o l l s h a s w r i t t e n , " I d e a l i s t w r i t e r s , i n c l u d i n g T . H . G r e e n , F . H . B r a d l e y and B . B c s a n q u e t , i t i s t r u e , r e c o g n i s e d t he i m p o r t a n c e o f g r o u p s , b u t saw t h e s t a t e i n i t s i d e a - as e m b r a c i n g them i n an o r g a n i c u n i t y . " ( 2 4 ) Bland had no sympat hy w i t h t h i s a p p r o a c h ; he had been a t t h e London S chool o f Economics when L . T . H o b h o u s e , M a r t i n White P r o f e s s o r o f S o c i o l o g y a t London U n i v e r s i t y , d e l i v e r e d a s l e c t u r e s h i s d e m o l i t i o n o f B o s a n q u e t ' s I d e a l i s t t h e o r y o f t h e S t a t e . ( 2 5 ) He f o l l o w e d r a t h e r t h e l i n e o f t h o u g h t d e v e l o p e d by R. M. MacIver and H a r o l d L a s k i ( 2 6 ) , f o r whom t h e s t a t e was " m e r e l y a n o t h e r g r o u p , a l o n g s i d e eco no mi c, c u l t u r a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l g r o u p s " , and n o t , a s i t was f o r J . N . F i g g i s , " t h e community o f c o m m u n i t i e s " . ( 2 7 )

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References

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