Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
FI F T H
ED I T I O N
Fundamentals of Materials
Science and Engineering
Te x t
William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering The University of Utah
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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DEDICATED TO THEMEMORY OF
MY ADVISOR, A COLLEAGUE, AND FRIEND AT
Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering is an alternate version of
my text, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, Fifth Edition. The contents of both are the same, but the order of presentation differs and
Fundamen-tals utilizes newer technologies to enhance teaching and learning.
With regard to the order of presentation, there are two common approaches to teaching materials science and engineering—one that I call the ‘‘traditional’’ approach, the other which most refer to as the ‘‘integrated’’ approach. With the traditional approach, structures/characteristics/properties of metals are presented first, followed by an analogous discussion of ceramic materials and polymers.
Intro-duction, Fifth Edition is organized in this manner, which is preferred by many
materials science and engineering instructors. With the integrated approach, one particular structure, characteristic, or property for all three material types is pre-sented before moving on to the discussion of another structure/characteristic/prop-erty. This is the order of presentation in Fundamentals.
Probably the most common criticism of college textbooks is that they are too long. With most popular texts, the number of pages often increases with each new edition. This leads instructors and students to complain that it is impossible to cover all the topics in the text in a single term. After struggling with this concern (trying to decide what to delete without limiting the value of the text), we decided to divide the text into two components. The first is a set of ‘‘core’’ topics—sections of the text that are most commonly covered in an introductory materials course, and second, ‘‘supplementary’’ topics—sections of the text covered less frequently. Fur-thermore, we chose to provide only the core topics in print, but the entire text (both core and supplementary topics) is available on the CD-ROM that is included with the print component of Fundamentals. Decisions as to which topics to include in print and which to include only on the CD-ROM were based on the results of a recent survey of instructors and confirmed in developmental reviews. The result is a printed text of approximately 525 pages and an Interactive eText on the
CD-ROM, which consists of, in addition to the complete text, a wealth of additional resources including interactive software modules, as discussed below.
The text on the CD-ROM with all its various links is navigated using Adobe Acrobat. These links within the Interactive eText include the following: (1) from
the Table of Contents to selected eText sections; (2) from the index to selected topics within the eText; (3) from reference to a figure, table, or equation in one section to the actual figure/table/equation in another section (all figures can be enlarged and printed); (4) from end-of-chapter Important Terms and Concepts to their definitions within the chapter; (5) from in-text boldfaced terms to their corresponding glossary definitions/explanations; (6) from in-text references to the corresponding appendices; (7) from some end-of-chapter problems to their answers; (8) from some answers to their solutions; (9) from software icons to the correspond-ing interactive modules; and (10) from the opencorrespond-ing splash screen to the supportcorrespond-ing web site.
The interactive software included on the CD-ROM and noted above is the same that accompanies Introduction, Fifth Edition. This software, Interactive Materials Science and Engineering, Third Edition consists of interactive simulations and
ani-mations that enhance the learning of key concepts in materials science and engi-neering, a materials selection database, and E-Z Solve: The Engineer’s Equation Solving and Analysis Tool. Software components are executed when the user clicks
on the icons in the margins of the Interactive eText; icons for these several
compo-nents are as follows:
Crystallography and Unit Cells Tensile Tests
Ceramic Structures Diffusion and Design Problem
Polymer Structures Solid Solution Strengthening
Dislocations Phase Diagrams
E-Z Solve Database
My primary objective in Fundamentals as in Introduction, Fifth Edition is to present the basic fundamentals of materials science and engineering on a level appropriate for university/college students who are well grounded in the fundamen-tals of calculus, chemistry, and physics. In order to achieve this goal, I have endeav-ored to use terminology that is familiar to the student who is encountering the discipline of materials science and engineering for the first time, and also to define and explain all unfamiliar terms.
The second objective is to present the subject matter in a logical order, from the simple to the more complex. Each chapter builds on the content of previous ones. The third objective, or philosophy, that I strive to maintain throughout the text is that if a topic or concept is worth treating, then it is worth treating in sufficient detail and to the extent that students have the opportunity to fully understand it without having to consult other sources. In most cases, some practical relevance is provided. Discussions are intended to be clear and concise and to begin at appro-priate levels of understanding.
The fourth objective is to include features in the book that will expedite the learning process. These learning aids include numerous illustrations and photo-graphs to help visualize what is being presented, learning objectives, ‘‘Why Study . . .’’ items that provide relevance to topic discussions, end-of-chapter ques-tions and problems, answers to selected problems, and some problem soluques-tions to help in self-assessment, a glossary, list of symbols, and references to facilitate understanding the subject matter.
The fifth objective, specific to Fundamentals, is to enhance the teaching and learning process using the newer technologies that are available to most instructors and students of engineering today.
Most of the problems in Fundamentals require computations leading to numeri-cal solutions; in some cases, the student is required to render a judgment on the basis of the solution. Furthermore, many of the concepts within the discipline of
Preface ● ix
materials science and engineering are descriptive in nature. Thus, questions have also been included that require written, descriptive answers; having to provide a written answer helps the student to better comprehend the associated concept. The questions are of two types: with one type, the student needs only to restate in his/ her own words an explanation provided in the text material; other questions require the student to reason through and/or synthesize before coming to a conclusion or solution.
The same engineering design instructional components found in Introduction,
Fifth Edition are incorporated in Fundamentals. Many of these are in Chapter 20,
‘‘Materials Selection and Design Considerations,’’ that is on the CD-ROM. This chapter includes five different case studies (a cantilever beam, an automobile valve spring, the artificial hip, the thermal protection system for the Space Shuttle, and packaging for integrated circuits) relative to the materials employed and the ratio-nale behind their use. In addition, a number of design-type (i.e., open-ended) questions/problems are found at the end of this chapter.
Other important materials selection/design features are Appendix B, ‘‘Proper-ties of Selected Engineering Materials,’’ and Appendix C, ‘‘Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials.’’ The former contains values of eleven properties (e.g., density, strength, electrical resistivity, etc.) for a set of approxi-mately one hundred materials. Appendix C contains prices for this same set of materials. The materials selection database on the CD-ROM is comprised of these data.
The web site that supports Fundamentals can be found at www.wiley.com/ college/callister. It contains student and instructor’s resources which consist of a more extensive set of learning objectives for all chapters, an index of learning styles (an electronic questionnaire that accesses preferences on ways to learn), a glossary (identical to the one in the text), and links to other web resources. Also included with the Instructor’s Resources are suggested classroom demonstrations and lab experiments. Visit the web site often for new resources that we will make available to help teachers teach and students learn materials science and engineering.
Resources are available on another CD-ROM specifically for instructors who have adopted Fundamentals. These include the following: 1) detailed solutions of all end-of-chapter questions and problems; 2) a list (with brief descriptions) of possible classroom demonstrations and laboratory experiments that portray phe-nomena and/or illustrate principles that are discussed in the book (also found on the web site); references are also provided that give more detailed accounts of these demonstrations; and 3) suggested course syllabi for several engineering disciplines. Also available for instructors who have adopted Fundamentals as well as
Intro-duction, Fifth Edition is an online assessment program entitled eGrade. It is a
Tutorial and Mastery modes provide the student with hints integrated within each problem/question or a tailored study session that recognizes the student’s demon-strated learning needs. For more information, visitwww.wiley.com/college/egrade.
Appreciation is expressed to those who have reviewed and/or made contribu-tions to this alternate version of my text. I am especially indebted to the following individuals: Carl Wood of Utah State University, Rishikesh K. Bharadwaj of Systran Federal Corporation, Martin Searcy of the Agilent Technologies, John H. Weaver of The University of Minnesota, John B. Hudson of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Alan Wolfenden of Texas A & M University, and T. W. Coyle of the University of Toronto.
I am also indebted to Wayne Anderson, Sponsoring Editor, to Monique Calello, Senior Production Editor, Justin Nisbet, Electronic Publishing Analyst at Wiley, and Lilian N. Brady, my proofreader, for their assistance and guidance in developing and producing this work. In addition, I thank Professor Saskia Duyvesteyn, Depart-ment of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, for generating the e-Grade bank of questions/problems/solutions.
Since I undertook the task of writing my first text on this subject in the early 1980’s, instructors and students, too numerous to mention, have shared their input and contributions on how to make this work more effective as a teaching and learning tool. To all those who have helped, I express my sincere thanks!
Last, but certainly not least, the continual encouragement and support of my family and friends is deeply and sincerely appreciated.
WILLIAMD. CALLISTER, JR.
Salt Lake City, Utah August 2000
Chapters 1 through 13 discuss core topics (found in both print and on
the CD-ROM) and supplementary topics (in the eText only)
LIST OFSYMBOLS xix
1. Introduction 1
Learning Objectives 2 1.1 Historical Perspective 2
1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 2
1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 4 1.4 Classification of Materials 5
1.5 Advanced Materials 6 1.6 Modern Materials’ Needs 6
2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 9
Learning Objectives 10 2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Fundamental Concepts 10 2.3 Electrons in Atoms 11 2.4 The Periodic Table 17
ATOMICBONDING INSOLIDS 18
2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 18 2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 20
2.7 Secondary Bonding or Van der Waals Bonding 24
2.8 Molecules 26
Important Terms and Concepts 27 References 28
Questions and Problems 28
3. Structures of Metals and Ceramics 30
Learning Objectives 31 3.1 Introduction 31
3.2 Fundamental Concepts 31 3.3 Unit Cells 32
xii ● Contents
3.5 Density Computations—Metals 37 3.6 Ceramic Crystal Structures 38 3.7 Density Computations—Ceramics 45 3.8 Silicate Ceramics 46
• The Silicates (CD-ROM) S-1
3.9 Carbon 47
• Fullerenes (CD-ROM) S-3
3.10 Polymorphism and Allotropy 49 3.11 Crystal Systems 49
CRYSTALLOGRAPHICDIRECTIONS AND PLANES51
3.12 Crystallographic Directions 51 3.13 Crystallographic Planes 54
3.14 Linear and Planar Atomic Densities (CD-ROM) S-4
3.15 Close-Packed Crystal Structures 58
CRYSTALLINE ANDNONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 62
3.16 Single Crystals 62
3.17 Polycrystalline Materials 62 3.18 Anisotropy 63
3.19 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures (CD-ROM) S-6 •
3.20 Noncrystalline Solids 64 Summary 66
Important Terms and Concepts 67 References 67
Questions and Problems 68
4. Polymer Structures 76
Learning Objectives 77 4.1 Introduction 77
4.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 77 4.3 Polymer Molecules 79
4.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules 80 4.5 Molecular Weight 82
4.6 Molecular Shape 87 4.7 Molecular Structure 88
4.8 Molecular Configurations (CD-ROM) S-11
4.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers 90
4.10 Copolymers 91
4.11 Polymer Crystallinity 92 4.12 Polymer Crystals 95
Important Terms and Concepts 98 References 98
Questions and Problems 99
5. Imperfections in Solids 102
Learning Objectives 103 5.1 Introduction 103
5.2 Point Defects in Metals 103 5.3 Point Defects in Ceramics 105 5.4 Impurities in Solids 107 5.5 Point Defects in Polymers 110 5.6 Specification of Composition 110
• Composition Conversions (CD-ROM) S-14
5.7 Dislocations—Linear Defects 111 5.8 Interfacial Defects 115
5.9 Bulk or Volume Defects 118 5.10 Atomic Vibrations 118
5.11 General 118
5.12 Microscopic Techniques (CD-ROM) S-17 •
5.13 Grain Size Determination 119 Summary 120
Important Terms and Concepts 121 References 121
Questions and Problems 122
6. Diffusion 126
Learning Objectives 127 6.1 Introduction 127
6.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 127 6.3 Steady-State Diffusion 130 6.4 Nonsteady-State Diffusion 132 6.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion 136 6.6 Other Diffusion Paths 141
6.7 Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric Materials 141
Important Terms and Concepts 142 References 142
Questions and Problems 143
7. Mechanical Properties 147
Learning Objectives 148 7.1 Introduction 148
7.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 149
7.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 153 7.4 Anelasticity 157
Contents ● xiii
7.6 Tensile Properties 160 7.7 True Stress and Strain 167 7.8 Elastic Recovery During Plastic
7.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation 170
7.10 Flexural Strength 171 7.11 Elastic Behavior 173
7.12 Influence of Porosity on the Mechanical Properties of Ceramics (CD-ROM) S-22 •
7.13 Stress–Strain Behavior 173 7.14 Macroscopic Deformation 175
7.15 Viscoelasticity (CD-ROM) S-22 •
HARDNESS ANDOTHERMECHANICALPROPERTY CONSIDERATIONS 176
7.16 Hardness 176
7.17 Hardness of Ceramic Materials 181 7.18 Tear Strength and Hardness of
PROPERTYVARIABILITY ANDDESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS 183
7.19 Variability of Material Properties 183
• Computation of Average and Standard Deviation Values (CD-ROM) S-28
7.20 Design/Safety Factors 183 Summary 185
Important Terms and Concepts 186 References 186
Questions and Problems 187
8. Deformation and Strengthening
Learning Objectives 198 8.1 Introduction 198
DEFORMATIONMECHANISMS FORMETALS 198
8.2 Historical 198
8.3 Basic Concepts of Dislocations 199 8.4 Characteristics of Dislocations 201 8.5 Slip Systems 203
8.6 Slip in Single Crystals (CD-ROM) S-31 •
8.7 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals 204
8.8 Deformation by Twinning (CD-ROM) S-34
MECHANISMS OFSTRENGTHENING IN METALS 206
8.9 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction 206
8.10 Solid-Solution Strengthening 208 8.11 Strain Hardening 210
RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION,ANDGRAIN GROWTH 213
8.12 Recovery 213 8.13 Recrystallization 213 8.14 Grain Growth 218
DEFORMATIONMECHANISMS FORCERAMIC MATERIALS 219
8.15 Crystalline Ceramics 220 8.16 Noncrystalline Ceramics 220
MECHANISMS OFDEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OFPOLYMERS 221
8.17 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers 221
8.18a Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers [Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-35 •
8.18b Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers (Concise Version) 223
8.19 Deformation of Elastomers 224 Summary 227
Important Terms and Concepts 228 References 228
Questions and Problems 228
9. Failure 234
Learning Objectives 235 9.1 Introduction 235
9.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 235 9.3 Ductile Fracture 236
• Fractographic Studies (CD-ROM) S-38
9.4 Brittle Fracture 238
9.5a Principles of Fracture Mechanics [Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-38 •
9.5b Principles of Fracture Mechanics (Concise Version) 238
9.6 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 248
• Static Fatigue (CD-ROM) S-53
xiv ● Contents
9.9 Cyclic Stresses 255 9.10 The S – N Curve 257
9.11 Fatigue in Polymeric Materials 260
9.12a Crack Initiation and Propagation [Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-54 •
9.12b Crack Initiation and Propagation (Concise Version) 260
9.13 Crack Propagation Rate (CD-ROM) S-57 •
9.14 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 263
9.15 Environmental Effects (CD-ROM) S-62 •
9.16 Generalized Creep Behavior 266
9.17a Stress and Temperature Effects [Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-63 •
9.17b Stress and Temperature Effects (Concise Version) 267
9.18 Data Extrapolation Methods (CD-ROM) S-65
9.19 Alloys for High-Temperature Use 268 9.20 Creep in Ceramic and Polymeric
Materials 269 Summary 269
Important Terms and Concepts 272 References 272
Questions and Problems 273
10 Phase Diagrams 281
Learning Objectives 282 10.1 Introduction 282
DEFINITIONS ANDBASICCONCEPTS 282
10.2 Solubility Limit 283 10.3 Phases 283
10.4 Microstructure 284 10.5 Phase Equilibria 284
10.6 Binary Isomorphous Systems 286 10.7 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams 288
10.8 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys (CD-ROM) S-67 •
10.9 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys 292
10.10 Binary Eutectic Systems 292
10.11 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys (CD-ROM) S-70 •
10.12 Equilibrium Diagrams Having
Intermediate Phases or Compounds 297 10.13 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions 298 10.14 Congruent Phase Transformations 301
10.15 Ceramic Phase Diagrams (CD-ROM)
10.16 Ternary Phase Diagrams 301
10.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule (CD-ROM) S-81 •
10.18 The Iron – Iron Carbide (Fe – Fe3C)
Phase Diagram 302
10.19 Development of Microstructures in Iron – Carbon Alloys 305
10.20 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements (CD-ROM) S-83 •
Important Terms and Concepts 314 References 314
Questions and Problems 315
11 Phase Transformations 323
Learning Objectives 324 11.1 Introduction 324
PHASETRANSFORMATIONS INMETALS 324
11.2 Basic Concepts 325 11.3 The Kinetics of Solid-State
11.4 Multiphase Transformations 327
MICROSTRUCTURAL ANDPROPERTYCHANGES IN IRON– CARBONALLOYS327
11.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams 328
11.6 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams (CD-ROM) S-85
11.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron – Carbon Alloys 339
11.8 Tempered Martensite 344
11.9 Review of Phase Transformations for Iron – Carbon Alloys 346
11.10 Heat Treatments 347
11.11 Mechanism of Hardening 349 11.12 Miscellaneous Considerations 351
CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING,ANDGLASS TRANSITIONPHENOMENA INPOLYMERS 352
11.13 Crystallization 353 11.14 Melting 354
11.15 The Glass Transition 354 11.16 Melting and Glass Transition
11.17 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures (CD-ROM) S-87
Contents ● xv
Important Terms and Concepts 357 References 357
Questions and Problems 358
12. Electrical Properties 365
Learning Objectives 366 12.1 Introduction 366
12.2 Ohm’s Law 366
12.3 Electrical Conductivity 367
12.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 368 12.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 368 12.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and
Atomic Bonding Models 371 12.7 Electron Mobility 372
12.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 373 12.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial
12.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 377 12.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 379 12.12 The Temperature Variation of
Conductivity and Carrier Concentration 383
12.13 The Hall Effect (CD-ROM) S-91 •
12.14 Semiconductor Devices (CD-ROM) S-93 •
ELECTRICALCONDUCTION INIONICCERAMICS AND INPOLYMERS 389
12.15 Conduction in Ionic Materials 389 12.16 Electrical Properties of Polymers 390
12.17 Capacitance (CD-ROM) S-99 •
12.18 Field Vectors and Polarization (CD-ROM) S-101
12.19 Types of Polarization (CD-ROM) S-105 •
12.20 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant (CD-ROM) S-106
12.21 Dielectric Strength (CD-ROM) S-107 •
12.22 Dielectric Materials (CD-ROM) S-107 •
OTHERELECTRICALCHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS 391
12.23 Ferroelectricity (CD-ROM) S-108 •
12.24 Piezoelectricity (CD-ROM) S-109 •
Important Terms and Concepts 393 References 393
Questions and Problems 394
13. Types and Applications
of Materials 401
Learning Objectives 402 13.1 Introduction 402
TYPES OFMETALALLOYS 402
13.2 Ferrous Alloys 402 13.3 Nonferrous Alloys 414
TYPES OFCERAMICS 422
13.4 Glasses 423
13.5 Glass–Ceramics 423 13.6 Clay Products 424 13.7 Refractories 424
• Fireclay, Silica, Basic, and Special Refractories
13.8 Abrasives 425 13.9 Cements 425
13.10 Advanced Ceramics (CD-ROM) S-111 •
13.11 Diamond and Graphite 427
TYPES OFPOLYMERS 428
13.12 Plastics 428 13.13 Elastomers 431 13.14 Fibers 432
13.15 Miscellaneous Applications 433
13.16 Advanced Polymeric Materials (CD-ROM) S-113
Important Terms and Concepts 435 References 435
Questions and Problems 436
Chapters 14 through 21 discuss just supplementary topics, and are
found only on the CD-ROM (and not in print)
14. Synthesis, Fabrication, and Processing
of Materials (CD-ROM) S-118
Learning Objectives S-119 14.1 Introduction S-119
FABRICATION OFMETALS S-119
14.2 Forming Operations S-119 14.3 Casting S-121
xvi ● Contents
THERMALPROCESSING OFMETALS S-124
14.5 Annealing Processes S-124 14.6 Heat Treatment of Steels S-126
FABRICATION OFCERAMICMATERIALS S-136
14.7 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses S-137
14.8 Fabrication of Clay Products S-142 14.9 Powder Pressing S-145
14.10 Tape Casting S-149
SYNTHESIS ANDFABRICATION OFPOLYMERS S-149
14.11 Polymerization S-150 14.12 Polymer Additives S-151
14.13 Forming Techniques for Plastics S-153 14.14 Fabrication of Elastomers S-155 14.15 Fabrication of Fibers and Films S-155
Important Terms and Concepts S-157 References S-158
Questions and Problems S-158
15. Composites (CD-ROM) S-162
Learning Objectives S-163 15.1 Introduction S-163
15.2 Large-Particle Composites S-165 15.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites
15.4 Influence of Fiber Length S-170 15.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and
Concentration S-171 15.6 The Fiber Phase S-180 15.7 The Matrix Phase S-180
15.8 Polymer–Matrix Composites S-182 15.9 Metal–Matrix Composites S-185 15.10 Ceramic–Matrix Composites S-186 15.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites S-188 15.12 Hybrid Composites S-189
15.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites S-189
15.14 Laminar Composites S-195 15.15 Sandwich Panels S-196
Important Terms and Concepts S-198 References S-198
Questions and Problems S-199
16. Corrosion and Degradation of
Materials (CD-ROM) S-204
Learning Objectives S-205 16.1 Introduction S-205
CORROSION OFMETALS S-205
16.2 Electrochemical Considerations S-206 16.3 Corrosion Rates S-212
16.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates S-214 16.5 Passivity S-221
16.6 Environmental Effects S-222 16.7 Forms of Corrosion S-223 16.8 Corrosion Environments S-231 16.9 Corrosion Prevention S-232 16.10 Oxidation S-234
CORROSION OFCERAMICMATERIALS S-237
DEGRADATION OFPOLYMERS S-237
16.11 Swelling and Dissolution S-238 16.12 Bond Rupture S-238
16.13 Weathering S-241 Summary S-241
Important Terms and Concepts S-242 References S-242
Questions and Problems S-243
17. Thermal Properties (CD-ROM) S-247
Learning Objectives S-248 17.1 Introduction S-248
17.2 Heat Capacity S-248 17.3 Thermal Expansion S-250 17.4 Thermal Conductivity S-253 17.5 Thermal Stresses S-256
Important Terms and Concepts S-259 References S-259
Questions and Problems S-259
18. Magnetic Properties (CD-ROM) S-263
Learning Objectives S-264 18.1 Introduction S-264
18.2 Basic Concepts S-264
18.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism S-268 18.4 Ferromagnetism S-270
18.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism S-272
18.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior S-276
Contents ● xvii
18.10 Magnetic Storage S-284 18.11 Superconductivity S-287
Important Terms and Concepts S-292 References S-292
Questions and Problems S-292
19. Optical Properties (CD-ROM) S-297
Learning Objectives S-298 19.1 Introduction S-298
19.2 Electromagnetic Radiation S-298 19.3 Light Interactions with Solids S-300 19.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions
OPTICALPROPERTIES OFMETALS S-302 OPTICALPROPERTIES OFNONMETALS S-303
19.5 Refraction S-303 19.6 Reflection S-304 19.7 Absorption S-305 19.8 Transmission S-308
19.9 Color S-309
19.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators S-310
19.11 Luminescence S-311 19.12 Photoconductivity S-312 19.13 Lasers S-313
19.14 Optical Fibers in Communications S-315 Summary S-320
Important Terms and Concepts S-321 References S-321
Questions and Problems S-322
20. Materials Selection and Design
Considerations (CD-ROM) S-324
Learning Objectives S-325 20.1 Introduction S-325
MATERIALSSELECTION FOR ATORSIONALLY STRESSEDCYLINDRICALSHAFT S-325
20.2 Strength S-326
20.3 Other Property Considerations and the Final Decision S-331
20.4 Introduction S-332
20.5 Automobile Valve Spring S-334
20.6 Anatomy of the Hip Joint S-339 20.7 Material Requirements S-341
20.8 Materials Employed S-343
THERMALPROTECTIONSYSTEM ON THESPACE SHUTTLEORBITERS-345
20.9 Introduction S-345
20.10 Thermal Protection System — Design Requirements S-345
20.11 Thermal Protection
System — Components S-347
MATERIALS FORINTEGRATEDCIRCUIT PACKAGES S-351
20.12 Introduction S-351
20.13 Leadframe Design and Materials S-353 20.14 Die Bonding S-354
20.15 Wire Bonding S-356
20.16 Package Encapsulation S-358 20.17 Tape Automated Bonding S-360
Summary S-362 References S-363
Questions and Problems S-364
21. Economic, Environmental, and
Societal Issues in Materials Science
and Engineering (CD-ROM) S-368
Learning Objectives S-369 21.1 Introduction S-369
21.2 Component Design S-370
21.3 Materials S-370
21.4 Manufacturing Techniques S-370
ENVIRONMENTAL ANDSOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS S-371
21.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering S-373
Summary S-376 References S-376
Appendix A The International System of
Units (SI) 439
Appendix B Properties of Selected
Engineering Materials 441
B.1 Density 441
B.2 Modulus of Elasticity 444 B.3 Poisson’s Ratio 448 B.4 Strength and Ductility 449
B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness 454 B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal
xviii ● Contents
B.8 Specific Heat 462 B.9 Electrical Resistivity 464 B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions 467
Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs
for Selected Engineering Materials 469
Appendix D Mer Structures for
Common Polymers 475
Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting
Temperatures for Common Polymeric
List of Symbols
The number of the section in which a symbol is introduced or explained is given in parentheses.
A˚ ⫽ angstrom unit
Ai ⫽ atomic weight of element i (2.2)
APF ⫽ atomic packing factor (3.4) %RA ⫽ ductility, in percent reduction in
a ⫽ lattice parameter: unit cell
x-axial length (3.4)
a ⫽ crack length of a surface crack (9.5a, 9.5b)
at% ⫽ atom percent (5.6)
B ⫽ magnetic flux density (induction) (18.2)
Br ⫽ magnetic remanence (18.7)
BCC ⫽ body-centered cubic crystal structure (3.4)
b ⫽ lattice parameter: unit cell
y-axial length (3.11) b ⫽ Burgers vector (5.7)
C ⫽ capacitance (12.17)
Ci ⫽ concentration (composition) of
component i in wt%(5.6)
C⬘i ⫽ concentration (composition) of
component i in at%(5.6)
Cv, Cp⫽ heat capacity at constant
volume, pressure (17.2)
CPR⫽ corrosion penetration rate (16.3) CVN ⫽ Charpy V-notch (9.8)
%CW ⫽ percent cold work (8.11)
c⫽ lattice parameter: unit cell
z-axial length (3.11) c⫽ velocity of electromagnetic
radiation in a vacuum (19.2)
D ⫽ diffusion coefficient (6.3)
D ⫽ dielectric displacement (12.18)
d ⫽ diameter
d ⫽ average grain diameter (8.9)
dhkl⫽ interplanar spacing for planes of
Miller indices h, k, and l (3.19)
E⫽ energy (2.5)
E⫽ modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus (7.3)
E ⫽ electric field intensity (12.3)
Ef ⫽ Fermi energy (12.5) Eg⫽ band gap energy (12.6) Er(t)⫽ relaxation modulus (7.15)
%EL⫽ ductility, in percent elongation (7.6)
e⫽ electric charge per electron (12.7)
e⫺⫽ electron (16.2)
erf ⫽ Gaussian error function (6.4) exp ⫽ e, the base for natural
F ⫽ force, interatomic or mechanical (2.5, 7.2)
F ⫽ Faraday constant (16.2) FCC⫽ face-centered cubic crystal
G ⫽ shear modulus (7.3)
H ⫽ magnetic field strength (18.2)
Hc⫽ magnetic coercivity (18.7)
HB ⫽ Brinell hardness (7.16)
HCP ⫽ hexagonal close-packed crystal structure (3.4)
HK⫽ Knoop hardness (7.16) HRB, HRF⫽ Rockwell hardness: B and F
nn⫽ number-average degree of
nw ⫽ weight-average degree of
P⫽ dielectric polarization (12.18) P – B ratio⫽ Pilling – Bedworth ratio (16.10)
p ⫽ number of holes per cubic meter (12.10)
Q ⫽ activation energy
Q ⫽ magnitude of charge stored (12.17)
R⫽ atomic radius (3.4)
R⫽ gas constant
r⫽ interatomic distance (2.5)
r⫽ reaction rate (11.3, 16.3)
rA, rC ⫽ anion and cation ionic radii (3.6) S ⫽ fatigue stress amplitude (9.10) SEM⫽ scanning electron microscopy or
Tc⫽ Curie temperature (18.6) TC ⫽ superconducting critical
Tg⫽ glass transition temperature
Tm ⫽ melting temperature
TEM⫽ transmission electron microscopy or microscope
TS ⫽ tensile strength (7.6)
t ⫽ time
tr⫽ rupture lifetime (9.16) Ur⫽ modulus of resilience (7.6)
[uvw]⫽ indices for a crystallographic direction (3.12)
V⫽ electrical potential difference (voltage) (12.2)
VC ⫽ unit cell volume (3.4) VC ⫽ corrosion potential (16.4) VH ⫽ Hall voltage (12.13)
Vi⫽ volume fraction of phase i (10.7)
vol% ⫽ volume percent
Wi⫽ mass fraction of phase i (10.7)
wt% ⫽ weight percent (5.6)
xx ● List of Symbols
HR15N, HR45W⫽ superficial Rockwell hardness: 15N and 45W scales (7.16) HV ⫽ Vickers hardness (7.16)
h ⫽ Planck’s constant (19.2) (hkl ) ⫽ Miller indices for a
crystallographic plane (3.13)
I ⫽ electric current (12.2)
I ⫽ intensity of electromagnetic radiation (19.3)
i ⫽ current density (16.3)
iC ⫽ corrosion current density (16.4) J⫽ diffusion flux (6.3)
J⫽ electric current density (12.3)
K⫽ stress intensity factor (9.5a)
Kc⫽ fracture toughness (9.5a, 9.5b) KIc ⫽ plane strain fracture toughness
for mode I crack surface displacement (9.5a, 9.5b)
k ⫽ Boltzmann’s constant (5.2)
k ⫽ thermal conductivity (17.4)
l ⫽ length
lc⫽ critical fiber length (15.4)
ln ⫽ natural logarithm
log ⫽ logarithm taken to base 10
M ⫽ magnetization (18.2)
Mn⫽ polymer number-average
molecular weight (4.5)
Mw ⫽ polymer weight-average
molecular weight (4.5) mol% ⫽ mole percent
N⫽ number of fatigue cycles (9.10)
NA⫽ Avogadro’s number (3.5)
Nf ⫽ fatigue life (9.10)
n ⫽ principal quantum number (2.3)
n ⫽ number of atoms per unit cell (3.5)
n ⫽ strain-hardening exponent (7.7)
n ⫽ number of electrons in an electrochemical reaction (16.2)
n ⫽ number of conducting electrons per cubic meter (12.7)
n ⫽ index of refraction (19.5)
List of Symbols ● xxi
x ⫽ length
x ⫽ space coordinate
Y⫽ dimensionless parameter or function in fracture toughness expression (9.5a, 9.5b)
y ⫽ space coordinate
z ⫽ space coordinate
움⫽ lattice parameter: unit cell y – z interaxial angle (3.11)
움,웁,웂 ⫽ phase designations
움l⫽ linear coefficient of thermal
웁⫽ lattice parameter: unit cell x – z interaxial angle (3.11)
웂 ⫽ lattice parameter: unit cell x – y interaxial angle (3.11)
웂 ⫽ shear strain (7.2)
⌬ ⫽ finite change in a parameter the symbol of which it precedes
⑀ ⫽ engineering strain (7.2)
⑀ ⫽ dielectric permittivity (12.17)
⑀r⫽ dielectric constant or relative
⑀.s⫽ steady-state creep rate (9.16)
⑀T⫽ true strain (7.7)
⫽ viscosity (8.16) ⫽ overvoltage (16.4)
⫽ Bragg diffraction angle (3.19) D ⫽ Debye temperature (17.2)
⫽ wavelength of electromagnetic radiation (3.19)
애⫽ magnetic permeability (18.2)
애B ⫽ Bohr magneton (18.2)
애r⫽ relative magnetic permeability
애e⫽ electron mobility (12.7)
애h⫽ hole mobility (12.10)
⫽ Poisson’s ratio (7.5)
⫽ frequency of electromagnetic radiation (19.2)
⫽ density (3.5)
⫽ electrical resistivity (12.2)
t⫽ radius of curvature at the tip of
a crack (9.5a, 9.5b)
⫽ engineering stress, tensile or compressive (7.2)
⫽ electrical conductivity (12.3) * ⫽ longitudinal strength
(composite) (15.5) c⫽ critical stress for crack
propagation (9.5a, 9.5b) fs ⫽ flexural strength (7.10)
m ⫽ maximum stress (9.5a, 9.5b)
m ⫽ mean stress (9.9)
⬘m ⫽ stress in matrix at composite
failure (15.5) T⫽ true stress (7.7)
w ⫽ safe or working stress (7.20)
y⫽ yield strength (7.6)
⫽ shear stress (7.2)
c⫽ fiber – matrix bond strength/
matrix shear yield strength (15.4)
crss ⫽ critical resolved shear stress
m ⫽ magnetic susceptibility (18.2)
cd⫽ discontinuous fibrous composite
cl⫽ longitudinal direction (aligned fibrous composite)
ct⫽ transverse direction (aligned fibrous composite)
f⫽ at fracture
m ⫽ matrix
m, max ⫽ maximum
C h a p t e r
Afamiliar item that is fabricated from three different material types is the beverage container. Beverages are marketed in aluminum (metal) cans (top), glass (ceramic) bot-tles (center), and plastic (polymer) botbot-tles (bottom). (Permission to use these photo-graphs was granted by the Coca-Cola Company.)
L e a r n i n g O b j e c t i v e s
After careful study of this chapter you should be able to do the following:
1. List six different property classifications of mate-rials that determine their applicability.
2. Cite the four components that are involved in the design, production, and utilization of materials, and briefly describe the interrelationships be-tween these components.
3. Cite three criteria that are important in the mate-rials selection process.
Materials are probably more deep-seated in our culture than most of us realize. Transportation, housing, clothing, communication, recreation, and food produc-tion—virtually every segment of our everyday lives is influenced to one degree or another by materials. Historically, the development and advancement of societies have been intimately tied to the members’ ability to produce and manipulate materi-als to fill their needs. In fact, early civilizations have been designated by the level of their materials development (i.e., Stone Age, Bronze Age).
The earliest humans had access to only a very limited number of materials, those that occur naturally: stone, wood, clay, skins, and so on. With time they discovered techniques for producing materials that had properties superior to those of the natural ones; these new materials included pottery and various metals. Fur-thermore, it was discovered that the properties of a material could be altered by heat treatments and by the addition of other substances. At this point, materials utilization was totally a selection process, that is, deciding from a given, rather limited set of materials the one that was best suited for an application by virtue of its characteristics. It was not until relatively recent times that scientists came to understand the relationships between the structural elements of materials and their properties. This knowledge, acquired in the past 60 years or so, has empowered them to fashion, to a large degree, the characteristics of materials. Thus, tens of thousands of different materials have evolved with rather specialized characteristics that meet the needs of our modern and complex society; these include metals, plastics, glasses, and fibers.
The development of many technologies that make our existence so comfortable has been intimately associated with the accessibility of suitable materials. An ad-vancement in the understanding of a material type is often the forerunner to the stepwise progression of a technology. For example, automobiles would not have been possible without the availability of inexpensive steel or some other comparable substitute. In our contemporary era, sophisticated electronic devices rely on compo-nents that are made from what are called semiconducting materials.
The discipline of materials science involves investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials. In contrast, materials engineering is, on the basis of these structure–property correlations, designing or engineering the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties. Throughout this text we draw attention to the relationships between material properties and structural elements.
4. (a) List the three primary classifications of solid materials, and then cite the distinctive chemi-cal feature of each.
1.2 Materials Science and Engineering ● 3
‘‘Structure’’ is at this point a nebulous term that deserves some explanation. In brief, the structure of a material usually relates to the arrangement of its internal components. Subatomic structure involves electrons within the individual atoms and interactions with their nuclei. On an atomic level, structure encompasses the organization of atoms or molecules relative to one another. The next larger struc-tural realm, which contains large groups of atoms that are normally agglomerated together, is termed ‘‘microscopic,’’ meaning that which is subject to direct observa-tion using some type of microscope. Finally, structural elements that may be viewed with the naked eye are termed ‘‘macroscopic.’’
The notion of ‘‘property’’ deserves elaboration. While in service use, all materi-als are exposed to external stimuli that evoke some type of response. For example, a specimen subjected to forces will experience deformation; or a polished metal surface will reflect light. Property is a material trait in terms of the kind and magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus. Generally, definitions of properties are made independent of material shape and size.
Virtually all important properties of solid materials may be grouped into six different categories: mechanical, electrical, thermal, magnetic, optical, and deterio-rative. For each there is a characteristic type of stimulus capable of provoking different responses. Mechanical properties relate deformation to an applied load or force; examples include elastic modulus and strength. For electrical properties, such as electrical conductivity and dielectric constant, the stimulus is an electric field. The thermal behavior of solids can be represented in terms of heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Magnetic properties demonstrate the response of a material to the application of a magnetic field. For optical properties, the stimulus is electromag-netic or light radiation; index of refraction and reflectivity are representative optical properties. Finally, deteriorative characteristics indicate the chemical reactivity of materials. The chapters that follow discuss properties that fall within each of these six classifications.
In addition to structure and properties, two other important components are involved in the science and engineering of materials, viz. ‘‘processing’’ and ‘‘perfor-mance.’’ With regard to the relationships of these four components, the structure of a material will depend on how it is processed. Furthermore, a material’s perfor-mance will be a function of its properties. Thus, the interrelationship between processing, structure, properties, and performance is linear, as depicted in the schematic illustration shown in Figure 1.1. Throughout this text we draw attention to the relationships among these four components in terms of the design, production, and utilization of materials.
We now present an example of these processing-structure-properties-perfor-mance principles with Figure 1.2, a photograph showing three thin disk specimens placed over some printed matter. It is obvious that the optical properties (i.e., the light transmittance) of each of the three materials are different; the one on the left is transparent (i.e., virtually all of the reflected light passes through it), whereas the disks in the center and on the right are, respectively, translucent and opaque. All of these specimens are of the same material, aluminum oxide, but the leftmost one is what we call a single crystal—that is, it is highly perfect—which gives rise to its transparency. The center one is composed of numerous and very small single
Processing Structure Properties Performance
crystals that are all connected; the boundaries between these small crystals scatter a portion of the light reflected from the printed page, which makes this material optically translucent. And finally, the specimen on the right is composed not only of many small, interconnected crystals, but also of a large number of very small pores or void spaces. These pores also effectively scatter the reflected light and render this material opaque.
Thus, the structures of these three specimens are different in terms of crystal boundaries and pores, which affect the optical transmittance properties. Further-more, each material was produced using a different processing technique. And, of course, if optical transmittance is an important parameter relative to the ultimate in-service application, the performance of each material will be different.
Why do we study materials? Many an applied scientist or engineer, whether mechan-ical, civil, chemmechan-ical, or electrmechan-ical, will at one time or another be exposed to a design problem involving materials. Examples might include a transmission gear, the superstructure for a building, an oil refinery component, or an integrated circuit chip. Of course, materials scientists and engineers are specialists who are totally involved in the investigation and design of materials.
Many times, a materials problem is one of selecting the right material from the many thousands that are available. There are several criteria on which the final decision is normally based. First of all, the in-service conditions must be character-ized, for these will dictate the properties required of the material. On only rare occasions does a material possess the maximum or ideal combination of properties. Thus, it may be necessary to trade off one characteristic for another. The classic example involves strength and ductility; normally, a material having a high strength will have only a limited ductility. In such cases a reasonable compromise between two or more properties may be necessary.
A second selection consideration is any deterioration of material properties that may occur during service operation. For example, significant reductions in mechanical strength may result from exposure to elevated temperatures or corrosive environments.
Finally, probably the overriding consideration is that of economics: What will the finished product cost? A material may be found that has the ideal set of
4 ● Chapter 1 / Introduction
Photograph showing the light transmittance of three aluminum oxide specimens. From left to right: single-crystal material (sapphire), which is transparent; a polycrystalline and fully dense (nonporous) material, which is translucent; and a polycrystalline material that contains approximately 5%
1.4 Classification of Materials ● 5
properties but is prohibitively expensive. Here again, some compromise is inevitable. The cost of a finished piece also includes any expense incurred during fabrication to produce the desired shape.
The more familiar an engineer or scientist is with the various characteristics and structure–property relationships, as well as processing techniques of materials, the more proficient and confident he or she will be to make judicious materials choices based on these criteria.
1.4 CLASSIFICATION OF
Solid materials have been conveniently grouped into three basic classifications: metals, ceramics, and polymers. This scheme is based primarily on chemical makeup and atomic structure, and most materials fall into one distinct grouping or another, although there are some intermediates. In addition, there are three other groups of important engineering materials—composites, semiconductors, and biomaterials. Composites consist of combinations of two or more different materials, whereas semiconductors are utilized because of their unusual electrical characteristics; bio-materials are implanted into the human body. A brief explanation of the material types and representative characteristics is offered next.
Metallic materials are normally combinations of metallic elements. They have large numbers of nonlocalized electrons; that is, these electrons are not bound to particular atoms. Many properties of metals are directly attributable to these electrons. Metals are extremely good conductors of electricity and heat and are not transparent to visible light; a polished metal surface has a lustrous appearance. Furthermore, metals are quite strong, yet deformable, which accounts for their extensive use in structural applications.
Ceramics are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements; they are most frequently oxides, nitrides, and carbides. The wide range of materials that falls within this classification includes ceramics that are composed of clay minerals, cement, and glass. These materials are typically insulative to the passage of electricity and heat, and are more resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments than metals and polymers. With regard to mechanical behavior, ceramics are hard but very brittle.
Polymers include the familiar plastic and rubber materials. Many of them are organic compounds that are chemically based on carbon, hydrogen, and other nonmetallic elements; furthermore, they have very large molecular structures. These materials typically have low densities and may be extremely flexible.
Semiconductors have electrical properties that are intermediate between the electri-cal conductors and insulators. Furthermore, the electrielectri-cal characteristics of these materials are extremely sensitive to the presence of minute concentrations of impu-rity atoms, which concentrations may be controlled over very small spatial regions. The semiconductors have made possible the advent of integrated circuitry that has totally revolutionized the electronics and computer industries (not to mention our lives) over the past two decades.
Biomaterials are employed in components implanted into the human body for replacement of diseased or damaged body parts. These materials must not produce toxic substances and must be compatible with body tissues (i.e., must not cause adverse biological reactions). All of the above materials—metals, ceramics, poly-mers, composites, and semiconductors—may be used as biomaterials.兵For example, in Section 20.8 are discussed some of the biomaterials that are utilized in artificial hip replacements.其
Materials that are utilized in high-technology (or high-tech) applications are some-times termed advanced materials. By high technology we mean a device or product
that operates or functions using relatively intricate and sophisticated principles; examples include electronic equipment (VCRs, CD players, etc.), computers, fiber-optic systems, spacecraft, aircraft, and military rocketry. These advanced materials are typically either traditional materials whose properties have been enhanced or newly developed, high-performance materials. Furthermore, they may be of all material types (e.g., metals, ceramics, polymers), and are normally relatively expen-sive. In subsequent chapters are discussed the properties and applications of a number of advanced materials—for example, materials that are used for lasers, integrated circuits, magnetic information storage, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), fiber optics, and the thermal protection system for the Space Shuttle Orbiter.
In spite of the tremendous progress that has been made in the discipline of materials science and engineering within the past few years, there still remain technological challenges, including the development of even more sophisticated and specialized materials, as well as consideration of the environmental impact of materials produc-tion. Some comment is appropriate relative to these issues so as to round out this perspective.
Nuclear energy holds some promise, but the solutions to the many problems that remain will necessarily involve materials, from fuels to containment structures to facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste.
Significant quantities of energy are involved in transportation. Reducing the weight of transportation vehicles (automobiles, aircraft, trains, etc.), as well as increasing engine operating temperatures, will enhance fuel efficiency. New high-strength, low-density structural materials remain to be developed, as well as materi-als that have higher-temperature capabilities, for use in engine components.
References ● 7
Furthermore, there is a recognized need to find new, economical sources of energy, and to use the present resources more efficiently. Materials will undoub-tedly play a significant role in these developments. For example, the direct con-version of solar into electrical energy has been demonstrated. Solar cells employ some rather complex and expensive materials. To ensure a viable technology, materials that are highly efficient in this conversion process yet less costly must be developed.
Furthermore, environmental quality depends on our ability to control air and water pollution. Pollution control techniques employ various materials. In addition, materials processing and refinement methods need to be improved so that they produce less environmental degradation, that is, less pollution and less despoilage of the landscape from the mining of raw materials. Also, in some materials manufac-turing processes, toxic substances are produced, and the ecological impact of their disposal must be considered.
Many materials that we use are derived from resources that are nonrenewable, that is, not capable of being regenerated. These include polymers, for which the prime raw material is oil, and some metals. These nonrenewable resources are gradually becoming depleted, which necessitates: 1) the discovery of additional reserves, 2) the development of new materials having comparable properties with less adverse environmental impact, and/or 3) increased recycling efforts and the development of new recycling technologies. As a consequence of the economics of not only production but also environmental impact and ecological factors, it is becoming increasingly important to consider the ‘‘cradle-to-grave’’ life cycle of materials relative to the overall manufacturing process.
兵The roles that materials scientists and engineers play relative to these, as well as other environmental and societal issues, are discussed in more detail in Chapter 21.其
R E F E R E N C E S
The October 1986 issue of Scientific American, Vol. 255, No. 4, is devoted entirely to various advanced materials and their uses. Other references for Chapter 1 are textbooks that cover the basic funda-mentals of the field of materials science and engi-neering.
Ashby, M. F. and D. R. H. Jones, Engineering
Mate-rials 1, An Introduction to Their Properties and Applications, 2nd edition, Pergamon Press,
Ashby, M. F. and D. R. H. Jones, Engineering
Mate-rials 2, An Introduction to Microstructures, Pro-cessing and Design, Pergamon Press, Oxford,
Askeland, D. R., The Science and Engineering of
Materials, 3rd edition, Brooks/Cole Publishing
Co., Pacific Grove, CA, 1994.
Barrett, C. R., W. D. Nix, and A. S. Tetelman, The
Principles of Engineering Materials, Prentice
Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1973.
Flinn, R. A. and P. K. Trojan, Engineering
Ma-terials and Their Applications, 4th edition, John
Wiley & Sons, New York, 1990.
Jacobs, J. A. and T. F. Kilduff, Engineering
Materi-als Technology, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall,
Up-per Saddle River, NJ, 1996.
McMahon, C. J., Jr. and C. D. Graham, Jr.,
Intro-duction to Engineering Materials: The Bicycle and the Walkman, Merion Books,
Murray, G. T., Introduction to Engineering
Materi-als—Behavior, Properties, and Selection,
Mar-cel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1993.
Ohring, M., Engineering Materials Science, Aca-demic Press, San Diego, CA, 1995.
Ralls, K. M., T. H. Courtney, and J. Wulff,
Intro-duction to Materials Science and Engineering,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1976.
Design of Engineering Materials, 2nd edition,
WCB/McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999.
Shackelford, J. F., Introduction to Materials Science
for Engineers, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2000.
Smith, W. F., Principles of Materials Science and
Engineering, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1995.
Van Vlack, L. H., Elements of Materials Science
and Engineering, 6th edition, Addison-Wesley
Publishing Co., Reading, MA, 1989.
C h a p t e r
/ Atomic Structure and
This micrograph, which represents the surface of a gold specimen, was taken with a sophisticated atomic force microscope (AFM). In-dividual atoms for this (111) crystallographic surface plane are resolved. Also note the dimensional scale (in the nanometer range) be-low the micrograph. (Image courtesy of Dr. Michael Green, TopoMetrix Corpo-ration.)
Why Study Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding?
An important reason to have an understanding of interatomic bonding in solids is that, in some instances, the type of bond allows us to explain a material’s properties. For example, consider car-bon, which may exist as both graphite and diamond. Whereas graphite is relatively soft and
L e a r n i n g O b j e c t i v e s
After careful study of this chapter you should be able to do the following:
1. Name the two atomic models cited, and note the differences between them.
2. Describe the important quantum-mechanical principle that relates to electron energies. 3. (a) Schematically plot attractive, repulsive, and
net energies versus interatomic separation for two atoms or ions.
(b) Note on this plot the equilibrium separation and the bonding energy.
4. (a) Briefly describe ionic, covalent, metallic, hy-drogen, and van der Waals bonds.
(b) Note what materials exhibit each of these bonding types.
Some of the important properties of solid materials depend on geometrical atomic arrangements, and also the interactions that exist among constituent atoms or molecules. This chapter, by way of preparation for subsequent discussions, considers several fundamental and important concepts, namely: atomic structure, electron configurations in atoms and the periodic table, and the various types of primary and secondary interatomic bonds that hold together the atoms comprising a solid. These topics are reviewed briefly, under the assumption that some of the material is familiar to the reader.
A T O M I C S T R U C T U R E
Each atom consists of a very small nucleus composed of protons and neutrons, which is encircled by moving electrons. Both electrons and protons are electrically charged, the charge magnitude being 1.60⫻10⫺19 C, which is negative in sign for
electrons and positive for protons; neutrons are electrically neutral. Masses for these subatomic particles are infinitesimally small; protons and neutrons have ap-proximately the same mass, 1.67⫻10⫺27kg, which is significantly larger than that
of an electron, 9.11⫻ 10⫺31kg.
Each chemical element is characterized by the number of protons in the nucleus, or the atomic number (Z).1For an electrically neutral or complete atom, the atomic
number also equals the number of electrons. This atomic number ranges in integral units from 1 for hydrogen to 92 for uranium, the highest of the naturally oc-curring elements.
The atomic mass (A) of a specific atom may be expressed as the sum of the masses of protons and neutrons within the nucleus. Although the number of protons is the same for all atoms of a given element, the number of neutrons (N ) may be variable. Thus atoms of some elements have two or more different atomic masses, which are called isotopes. The atomic weight of an element corresponds to the weighted average of the atomic masses of the atom’s naturally occurring isotopes.2
The atomic mass unit (amu) may be used for computations of atomic weight. A scale has been established whereby 1 amu is defined as of the atomic mass of
1Terms appearing in boldface type are defined in the Glossary, which follows Appendix E. 2The term ‘‘atomic mass’’ is really more accurate than ‘‘atomic weight’’ inasmuch as, in this
2.3 Electrons in Atoms ● 11
the most common isotope of carbon, carbon 12 (12C) (A⫽ 12.00000). Within this
scheme, the masses of protons and neutrons are slightly greater than unity, and
The atomic weight of an element or the molecular weight of a compound may be specified on the basis of amu per atom (molecule) or mass per mole of material. In one mole of a substance there are 6.023⫻1023(Avogadro’s number) atoms or
molecules. These two atomic weight schemes are related through the following equation:
1 amu/atom (or molecule)⫽1 g/mol
For example, the atomic weight of iron is 55.85 amu/atom, or 55.85 g/mol. Sometimes use of amu per atom or molecule is convenient; on other occasions g (or kg)/mol is preferred; the latter is used in this book.
2.3 ELECTRONS IN
During the latter part of the nineteenth century it was realized that many phenomena involving electrons in solids could not be explained in terms of classical mechanics. What followed was the establishment of a set of principles and laws that govern systems of atomic and subatomic entities that came to be known as quantum
mechanics. An understanding of the behavior of electrons in atoms and crystalline
solids necessarily involves the discussion of quantum-mechanical concepts. How-ever, a detailed exploration of these principles is beyond the scope of this book, and only a very superficial and simplified treatment is given.
One early outgrowth of quantum mechanics was the simplified Bohr atomic
model, in which electrons are assumed to revolve around the atomic nucleus in
discrete orbitals, and the position of any particular electron is more or less well defined in terms of its orbital. This model of the atom is represented in Figure 2.1. Another important quantum-mechanical principle stipulates that the energies of electrons are quantized; that is, electrons are permitted to have only specific values of energy. An electron may change energy, but in doing so it must make a quantum jump either to an allowed higher energy (with absorption of energy) or to a lower energy (with emission of energy). Often, it is convenient to think of these allowed electron energies as being associated with energy levels or states.
FIGURE2.1 Schematic representation of