UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
Productivity Analysis of Table Top Fan Assembly
Process using Arena Simulation
Report submitted in accordance with the requirements of the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka for the Bachelor’s Degree in Manufacturing Engineering
Mohd Norhaffiz Bin Noor Aini
UTeM Library (Pind.1/2005)
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA (UTeM)
BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS*
JUDUL: PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF TABLE TOP FAN ASSEMBLY PROCESS USING ARENA SIMULATION.
SESI PENGAJIAN: 2008/2009
Saya MOHD NORHAFFIZ BIN NOOR AINI
mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/Sarjana/Doktor Falsafah) ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:
1. Tesis adalah hak milik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.
2. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka dibenarkan membuat salinan
untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.
3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran
antara institusi pengajian tinggi. 4. **Sila tandakan (√)
(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)
(Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)
NO 13B KG SELABAK LUAR,BATU 3 JLN CHANGKAT JONG,36000 TELUK INTAN,PERAK.
Tarikh: 11 MEI 2009
* Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM). ** Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD.
I hereby, declared this Bachelor’s Project entitled “Productivity Analysis of Table Top Fan Assembly Process using Arena Simulation” is the result of my own research except
as cited in references.
Author’s Name : Mohd Norhaffiz Bin Noor Aini
This Bachelor’s Project submitted to the senate of UTeM and has been accepted as fulfilment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing Process) with Honours. The member of the supervisory committee is as
……… Dr. Mohd Rizal Bin Salleh
For my beloved parents:
Noor Aini Bin Md Lajin Normah Bt Esha
For my cherish cousins and relatives
This thesis would not have been possible without the contribution of several important people. There are a number of people I want to thank for their help and support in writing this thesis.
A special word of thanks is due to the people closer to me. Friends and colleagues who gave me opportunity to develop my writing, all UTeM lecturers and staffs especially to my PSM Supervisor, Dr. Rizal Bin Salleh who have taught and relayed the techniques and knowledge. I believe his guidance and advice has made this a much better thesis. For my PA (Penasihat Akademik), Dr. Bagas Wardono who gave me idea on Arena simulation, thanks a lot.
Last, but not least, my gratitude to my family who have shown an extraordinary amount of patience and tolerate in supporting me writing this thesis. And with the blessing of Allah I could finish this thesis. My thanks and gratitude to you all.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Content vii
List of Figure xi
List of Table xiii
List of Abbreviations xiv
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Project Background 3
1.3 Problem Statement 3
1.4 Objectives 4
1.5 Scope of Project 4
1.6 Expected Result 4
1.7 Summary 5
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Productivity Improvement 6
2.3 Quality Control Techniques 7
2.4 Work Study 14
2.5 Introduction to Work Methods and Time Study 16
2.6 Process Flow Chart 20
2.8 Techniques of Work Measurement 24
2.9 Element Breakdown 24
2.10 Determining the Rating Factor 25
2.10.1 Systems of Rating 25
2.11 Allowances 29
2.12 Standard Time 32
2.13 Estimating the Number of Observations to Make 32
2.14 Principles of Motion Economy 35
2.15 Use of the Human Body 35
2.16 JIT 39
2.17 Bill of Material 41
2.18 Simulation 41
2.18.1 Advantages of Simulation 42
2.18.2 Types of Simulation 42
184.108.40.206 Arena 42
220.127.116.11 ProModel 44
18.104.22.168 eM-Plant 44
2.19 Summary 3.0
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 45
3.1.1 Project Selection 46
3.1.2 Discussion 46
3.2 Project Methodology 47
3.3 Overview of Methodology 49
3.3.1 Identify the problem 49
22.214.171.124 Stopwatch Time Study 49
126.96.36.199 Time Study Procedure 49
3.3.2 Investigate or Analyze the Problem 50
3.3.3 Perform Simulation 50
3.4 Simulation 51
3.4.1 Simulation Procedure 51
3.5 Summary 53
CHAPTER 4.0: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 54
4.1.1 Parts in Table Top Fan 55
4.2 Assembly Process Flowchart 56
4.2.1 Bill of Material (BOM) 57
4.3 Work Study (Before Improvement) 59
4.3.1 Standard Operation System 62
4.4 Arena Flowchart 63
4.4.1 Simulation Flowchart 64
4.4.2 Simulation Current Condition 65
188.8.131.52 Operational Graph (Time) 66
184.108.40.206 Total Number Seized / Output 67
4.5 Work Study (After Improvement) 68
4.5.1 Simulation after Improvement (After Running) 69
220.127.116.11 Operational Graph (Time) 70
18.104.22.168 Total Number Seized / Output 71
4.6 Calculation of Productivity for Assembly Process 72
4.6.1 Operators’ Factor 74
4.6.2 Standard Operation Procedures 75
4.6.3 Minimize the Waste in the Process 76
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion 79
5.2 Recommendation 80
LIST OF FIGURE
2.1 Pareto chart 8
2.2 The cause and effect diagram 9
2.3 Example of Process Flow Chart 10
2.4 Check Sheet 11
2.5 Example of Histogram 13
2.6 Example of Scatter Diagram 14
2.7 The Techniques of Work Study 15
2.8 Example Parts of a Process Flow Chart 21
2.9 Time study of ten cycles of an operation 34
2.10 JIT “pull” system where requests from following work stations are used 41 for control
3.1 Flow Chart of PSM 1 & 2 47
3.2 Flow Chart of Methodology 48
3.3 Simulation Procedure 52
4.1 Table Top Fan 55
4.2 Flow Chart of Assembly Process 56
4.3 Arena Simulation Flowchart before Running 64
4.5 Operational Process Time 66
4.6 The Total Number Seized and the Output before Improvement 67 4.7 Arena Simulation Flowchart Result after Improvement. 69
4.8 Operational Process Time 70
LIST OF TABLE
2.1 The symbols that may be found in Process Flow Charts 22
2.2 Performance Rating Table 26
2.3 Number of Time Study Readings N’ required for ±5 % 33 Precision and 95 % Confidence Level
4.1 List of component in semi-finished parts 55
4.2 Bill of Material for Table Top 57
4.3 Work Study of Table Top Fan Assembly Process 59
4.4 Calculation of Standard Time 61
4.5 Standard Operation of Table Top Fan Assembly Process 62
4.6 Sign of Flowchart Modules 63
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
BOM - Bill of Material
JIT - Just-In-Time
NT - Normal Time
OT - Observed Time
QC - Quality Control
SOP - Standard Operation Procedure
ST - Standard Time
According to Barry (2008), Productivity is the ratio of outputs (goods and services) divided by the input (resources, such as labor and capital). The operations manager’s job is to enhance (improve) this ratio of outputs to inputs. Efficiency means doing the job well while effective means doing the job right. Improving productivity means improving efficiency.
Productivity = Output/Input
Improvement means the elimination of waste and the most essential precondition for improvement is the proper pursuit of goal. The four goals of improvement must be to make easier, better, faster and cheaper (Shingo, 1987). Opportunities for productivity improvement through improved labor efficiency and reduced production loss are critical to organizational survival and these efforts can be driven through a host of productivity improvement initiatives (Longenecker and Stansﬁeld, 2000; Longenecker et al., 1997). Goal setting and feedback have been proven to improve productivity (Locke and Latham, 2002) and in general, the following is true:
Kaydos (1991) described that productivity and subsequently performance measurement has become more important and has been regarded as a prerequisite for continuous improvement. Essentially, productivity is a ratio to measure how well an organization (or individual, industry, country) converts input resources (labor, materials, machines etc.) into goods and services. This is usually expressed in ratios of inputs to outputs. That is (input) cost per (output) good / service. It is not on its own a measure of how efficient the conversion process is.
Productivity also measures the effectiveness in which organization uses its resources in transforming inputs to output. In order to continuously improve as much as possible, organization needs align all their resources to their maximum capabilities. Work Study combines every scientific analysis, method and logical flow of process to generate and ensure that the whole process meets the level of productivity and quality required. For a manufacturing standpoint, productivity improvement is most often interpreted as: faster cycle time, lower cost, maximized machine utilization, and also maximized floor space utilization. Since the need to reduce assembly cost has become significant in the last few years, productivity must continue to improve in the assembly house. Simulation has become a popular design technique for developing production schedules and dispatch lists in a manufacturing environment.
1.2 Project Background
This project mainly applies the simulation software Arena to simulate the assembly process of table top fan. This project is to develop an assembly processes flow simulation model to identify production bottlenecks and determine where productivity improvements can be made. The problems and wastes in the assembly processes of table top fan are also investigate. The simulation is performing to solve the productivity problem which is always occurred in the production floor. Actually, the productivity movement has been started around for 50 years. In that time, a number of techniques, methodologies and productivity strategies have been developed. Most organization would like to find the recipe for the ultimate productivity improvement. However with so many techniques used for productivity improvement still there are no definite techniques to be used. So, this project is focus on a productivity improvement on table top fan assembly process. This project will be focusing on studying the assembly processes and present time study for table top fan assembly. Then, the simulation system will simulate the assembly processes and the lead time improvement can be done as well as increase the efficiency and productivity in assembly the table top fan at production floor. The productivity of assembly processes will be investigates and analyzes the performance of the processes so that can enhance work quality.
1.3 Problem Statement
Objectives of this project are to:
i. To investigate the problems and wastes in the assembly process of table top fan. ii. To simulate the processes for higher productivity and efficiency in table top fan
assembly processes. iii. To enhance work quality.
1.5 Scopes of Project
This project will focus on the productivity improvement of table top fan assembly processes. To ensure the objective is achieved, some of the important elements must be considered. These are:
ii. Studying the assembly processes and present time study for table top fan assembly.
iii. Using Arena simulation software to simulate the assembly processes.
1.6 Expected Result
i. Minimize the wastes in the processes. ii. Propose better process.
This project is about the work study assessment for productivity improvement of table top fan assembly process using Arena simulation. This chapter introduced the project background and the objective of the project. In addition, the problem statements and expected results also being clarified in order to come out with the improvement plan later. The following chapter consists of the literature review and knowledge that required in conducting the whole study.
This chapter describes about the works that had been done on this topic. It is includes the literature review regarding productivity improvement and techniques. The simulation tools especially Arena is also includes in this chapter.
2.2 Productivity Improvement
Poor job match, poor work ethic, absenteeism, substance abuse, employee fraud and theft, weak managers, and employee turnover are some of the factors that contribute to substandard productivity. Today’s global business leaders depend on significant productivity increases to maximize the bottom line. Consequently, employees are asked to do more each day with less, resulting in a mismatch of resources and loss of productivity. Productivity is being better today than yesterday, and that tomorrow will be better than today. The concept of what is better and how to become better is changing.
sometimes expressed in term of output from labor, or from services, or from the capital invested.
Whereas traditionally, productivity is viewed mainly as an efficiency concept which is amount of outputs in relation to efforts or resources used, productivity is now viewed increasingly as an efficiency and effectiveness concept, effectiveness being how the company meets the dynamic needs and expectations of customers. Productivity is now seen to depend on the value of the products and services (utility, uniqueness, quality, convenience, availability, etc) and the efficiency with which they are produced and delivered to the customers.
Knodd, 1994 has identified some common, noncost ways of evaluating the productivity of various resources. Terms like efficiency, busyness and idleness, and utilization can be used loosely; they also have precise meanings and can be measured numerically. Examples follow, first for equipment and other nonhuman resources, then for people.
2.3 Productivity Techniques
Techniques are approaches to improving productivity. Techniques must not be regarded as the providers of improved productivity but as assisting agents in the process, a part of the overall approach. There are a number of approaches and techniques which have grown out of the productivity movement which are work study, organization and methods, and operational research. Below are the seven basic quality control tools:
(i) Pareto Analysis
process problem priorities. It separates the vital few problems from the trivial many. Another plus for the Pareto chart is its elimination of recentivity, the tendency to overestimate the importance of the most recent problem.
Figure 2.1: Pareto chart (Arnold, K.L., Holler, M., 1995)
(ii) Cause and Effect Diagram