Contribution of Mountain Glacier Melting to Sea Level Changes: Recent Past and Future

40 

Full text

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Data set of Zuo and Oerlemans

(1997a)

Table A.1 lists details of 100 glaciated regions adopted from Zuo and Oerlemans (1997a) and used in this thesis. In particular, latitude and longitude of the centred locations, the areas (in km2), and the annual precipitation rates (in m w.e. year1) are given.

glaciated region lat long area prec

1 Ellesmere 80 -80 80,000 0.22

2 Axel Heiberg 79 -92 11,700 0.22

3 Devon Island 75 -82 16,200 0.225

4 N-Baffin Island 72 -78 18,500 0.312

5 S-Baffin Island 67 -66 18,500 0.5

6 Bylot Island 73 -78 5,000 0.22

7 Brooks Range 68 -150 722 0.375

8 Alaska Range 63 -151 13,900 0.875

9 Talkeetna Mts. 62 -149 800 0.875

10 Kilbuck Mts. 61 -160 230 0.75

11 Aleutian Island 54 -166 960 1.5

12 Alaska Peninsula 57 -157 1,250 1.25

13 Seward Peninsula 60 -149 100 3

14 Kenai Mts. 60 -150 4,600 1.25

15 Wrangell Mts. 62 -143 8,300 1.25

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glaciated region lat long area prec

17 St. Elias Mts. 61 -141 11,800 1.5

18 Coast Mts. 59 -134 10,500 2.5

19 Stikine River 57 -131 5,070 1.5

20 Yukon Territory 61 -140 10,000 1.5

21 Selwyn Mts. 62.5 -128 600 0.75

22 Rocky Mts. 58 -125 300 0.75

23 Coast Mts. 51 -125 13,500 2.5

24 Olympic Mts. 48 -123 46 4

25 N-Cascades 48.3 -121 266 2.5

26 Mt. Rainer / Adams 46 -122 63 4

27 Rocky Mts. 52 -118 3,000 1

28 Selkirk Mts. 51 -117 1,000 1.5

29 Rocky Mts. 44 -109 74 0.562

30 Sierra Nevada 37 -118 51 1

31 Mexico 19 -97 4 2.5

32 Mexico 19 -98.5 4 1.25

33 Mexico 19 -100 3 1.75

34 S.Nev de Merida 8.5 -71 3 1.5

35 Nev. del Huila 3 -76 19 1.5

36 Nev. del Ruzy / Tolima 4.7 -75.4 24 3

37 Nev. del Cocuy 6.5 -72.3 39 1.25

38 S. Nev de Santa Marta 10.8 -73.6 19 4

39 Ecuador -0.8 -78.2 111 3.5

40 N. Cordilleras -10 -77 873 1.5

41 N. Cordilleras -12 -75.5 258 1

42 S. Cordilleras -15 -73 649 0.813

43 Cordilleras Oriental -15.6 -68 51 1.12

44 Andes, 30-16S -23 -67.5 2,800 0.375

45 Chili -34 -70 743 1.5

46 Mendoza / San Juan -33 -70 1,170 1.5

47 Neuquen -37 -70 156 3.5

48 Chili -43 -72 3,570 3

49 N. Patagonia -47 -73.5 5,720 2

50 S. Patagonia -50 -73.5 16,900 2

51 Tierra del Fuego -54.5 -70.5 2,700 2

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53 Vatnajokull 65.5 -17 8,300 4

54 Langjokull 65 -20 953 4

55 Hofsjokull 65.5 -19 925 2.5

56 Myrdalsjokull 63.5 -19 600 4

57 Drangajokull 66 -22 160 2.5

58 Svalbard 79 18 36,600 0.375

59 Franz Josef Land 81 57 13,700 0.312

60 Novaya Zemlya 75 57 23,600 0.5

61 Severnaya Zemlya 79 98 18,300 0.25

62 N. Scandinavia 67.5 17 1,080 2.5

63 S. Norway 61.7 7.4 1,630 4

64 Alps 46 7.5 2,910 2

65 Pyrenees 42.5 0 12 2

66 Bol’shoy Kavkaz 42.5 44 1,340 1.5

67 Turkey 38 43.5 24 1.25

68 Iran 38 46.5 20 0.75

69 Severnity Ural 66 61 800 1

70 Ili + Chu 43 77.5 2,300 1

71 Syrdar’ya / Amudar’ya 38 71 10,700 1

72 Tarim Ba 42 77.5 320 0.75

73 Pakistan/India 36 76 40,000 1.75

74 Nanga Parbat 35.3 74.6 301 1.25

75 Chitral 36.4 72.4 1,350 2

76 Himalaya / Nepal 28 87 12,700 0.75

77 Bhutan 28 90 1,340 0.75

78 Niangtingtanggula 30 89 7,540 1

79 Qilian Shan 39 99 2,380 0.75

80 Altai Shan 47 91 293 0.375

81 Kunlun Shan 36 87 11,600 0.25

82 Tyan Shan 42 80 9,550 1

83 Tanggula Shan 33 91 2,080 0.75

84 Hengduan Shan 28 99 1,460 1

85 Gangdisi Shan 31 82 2,190 0.625

86 Dzungarsky Alatau 45 80 910 1

87 Qiangtang Plateau 34 87 3,190 0.25

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glaciated region lat long area prec

89 Cherskogo 65 145 372 0.875

90 Koryakskoye Khrebet 62.5 171 260 1.25

91 Suntar Khayata 62.5 141 202 1

92 Kodar 57.5 117 19 0.75

93 Kamtchatka 57.5 160 874 0.5

94 Mt. Kenya -0.2 37.3 1 1.75

95 Mt. Kilimandjaro -3.1 37.3 5 1.37

96 Ruwenzori 0.4 30 5 1.37

97 Irian Jaya -4 137 7 3.75

98 New Zealand -43.4 170 1,000 1.87

99 Kerguelen Island -49 69 450 1.07

100 Heard Island -53 73.5 450 1.72

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Supporting material for Chapter 2

Topographic maps of Alaska and Svalbard

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54°N

56°N

58°N

60°N

62°N

64°N

160°W

155°W

150°W

145°W

140°W

135°W

130°W

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76°N

77°N

78°N

79°N

80°N

81°N

10°E

15°E

20°E

25°E

30°E

35°E

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Location of glaciated region and precipitation data

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gl. region prec. grid dist gl lat long lat long [km]

1 80 -80 80 -86.25 121

2 79 -92 80 -86.25 161

3 75 -82 75 -93.75 338

4 72 -78 70 -82.5 276

5 67 -66 65 -67.5 233

6 73 -78 70 -82.5 369

7 68 -150 67.5 -150 56 8 63 -151 62.5 -150 75 9 62 -149 62.5 -150 76 10 61 -160 60 -161.25 131 11 54 -166 55 -161.25 326 12 57 -157 57.5 -157.5 63 13 60 -149 60 -150 56 14 60 -150 60 -150 0 15 62 -143 62.5 -142.5 61 16 61 -145 60 -146.25 131 17 61 -141 60 -138.75 166 18 59 -134 60 -135 125 19 57 -131 57.5 -131.25 58 20 61 -140 60 -138.75 131 21 62.5 -128 65 -127.5 279 22 58 -125 60 -123.75 234 23 51 -125 50 -123.75 142 24 48 -123 47.5 -123.75 79 25 48.3 -121 47.5 -120 116 26 46 -122 45 -123.75 176 27 52 -118 52.5 -116.25 132 28 51 -117 50 -116.25 123 29 44 -109 45 -108.75 113 30 37 -118 37.5 -116.25 165

31 19 -97 20 -97.5 123

32 19 -98.5 20 -97.5 153 33 19 -100 20 -101.25 172 34 8.5 -71 7.5 -71.25 115 35 3 -76 2.5 -75 124

36 4.7 -75.4 5 -75 55

37 6.5 -72.3 7.5 -71.25 161 38 10.8 -73.6 10 -71.25 272 39 -0.8 -78.2 0 -78.75 108 40 -10 -77 -10 -75 219 41 -12 -75.5 -12.5 -75 78 42 -15 -73 -15 -75 215 43 -15.6 -68 -15 -67.5 86 44 -23 -67.5 -20 -67.5 334 45 -34 -70 -35 -71.25 160 46 -33 -70 -32.5 -71.25 129 47 -37 -70 -37.5 -71.25 124 48 -43 -72 -42.5 -71.25 83 49 -47 -73.5 -47.5 -71.25 179 50 -50 -73.5 -50 -71.25 161

51 -54.5 -70.5 -55 -67.5 200 52 -57 -35 -60 -45 669 53 65.5 -17 65 -18.75 99

54 65 -20 65 -18.75 59

55 65.5 -19 65 -18.75 57 56 63.5 -19 62.5 -18.75 112

57 66 -22 65 -22.5 114

58 79 18 77.5 15 180

59 81 57 80 78.75 412

60 75 57 80 78.75 755

61 79 98 80 78.75 404

62 67.5 17 67.5 18.75 75 63 61.7 7.4 62.5 7.5 89 64 46 7.5 45 7.5 111 65 42.5 0 42.5 0 0 66 42.5 44 42.5 45 82 67 38 43.5 37.5 45 143 68 38 46.5 37.5 45 143 69 66 61 65 60 120 70 43 77.5 42.5 78.75 116 71 38 71 37.5 71.25 59.8 72 42 77.5 42.5 78.75 116.9

73 36 76 35 75 143.4

74 35.3 74.6 35 75 49.3 75 36.4 72.4 37.5 71.25 159.4

76 28 87 27.5 90 300.4

77 28 90 27.5 90 55.6 78 30 89 30 90 96.3

79 39 99 40 97.5 170.1

80 47 91 47.5 90 93.7 81 36 87 37.5 86.25 179.7 82 42 80 42.5 78.75 116.9

83 33 91 30 90 346.8

84 28 99 27.5 97.5 157.7

85 31 82 30 78.75 330.6

86 45 80 45 78.75 98.3

87 34 87 37.5 86.25 395.0 88 68 128 67.5 123.75 187.3 89 65 145 65 146.25 58.8 90 62.5 171 62.5 172.5 77.1 91 62.5 141 62.5 142.5 77.1 92 57.5 117 57.5 120 179.2 93 57.5 160 57.5 161.25 74.7 94 -0.2 37.3 0 37.5 31.4 95 -3.1 37.3 -2.5 37.5 70.3 96 0.4 30 0 30 44.5 97 -4 137 -7.5 138.75 434.7 98 -43.4 170 -45 168.75 203.9 99 -49 69 -50 71.25 196.9 100 -53 73.5 -50 71.25 368.1

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Average

annual

mean

precipitation

of

three

sources

Table B.2 lists average annual precipitation rates of 100 glaciated regions from three sources:

PZ&O data from Zuo and Oerlemans (1997a)

PCRUaver calculated from data of the Climate Research Unit (CRU) POFaver calculated from the data sets provided by Siobhan O’Farrell

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gl PZ&O PCRUaver POFaver 1 0.22 0.085±0.028< 0.259±0.045+ 2 0.22 0.085±0.028< 0.251±0.042+ 3 0.225 0.176±0.039< 0.226±0.0.35+ 4 0.312 0.261±0.064 0.425±0.058 + 5 0.5 0.514±0.119+ 0.582±0.093+ 6 0.22 0.261±0.064+ 0.260±0.040+ 7 0.375 0.426±0.103+ 0.698±0.074 + 8 0.875 0.691±0.117 1.652±0.185 + 9 0.875 0.691±0.117 1.976±0.225 + 10 0.75 0.541±0.165 1.076±0.113 + 11 1.5 1.153±0.235 1.368±0.105 12 1.25 0.653±0.117 1.214±0.112 13 3 0.685±0.114 1.755±0.217 14 1.25 0.685±0.114 1.631±0.191 + 15 1.25 0.306±0.056 1.791±0.176 + 16 1.75 3.435±1.007+ 2.024±0.247 + 17 1.5 4.628±0.926+ 2.368±0.261 + 18 2.5 0.347±0.058 2.345±0.274 19 1.5 1.574±0.182+ 2.580±0.313 + 20 1.5 4.628±0.926+ 2.368±0.261 + 21 0.75 0.386±0.081 0.718±0.078 22 0.75 0.543±0.092 1.276±0.121 + 23 2.5 1.423±0.198 2.478±0.345 24 4 2.284±0.334 1.798±0.253 25 2.5 0.833±0.133 1.826±0.270 26 4 2.016±0.331 1.530±0.242 27 1 0.540±0.069 1.294±0.121 + 28 1.5 0.761±0.110 0.880±0.095 29 0.562 0.421±0.073 0.947±0.116 + 30 1 0.173±0.053< 0.565±0.225 31 2.5 2.408±0.325 1.354±0.287 32 1.25 2.408±0.325+ 1.996±0.270 + 33 1.75 1.003±0.142 1.996±0.270+ 34 1.5 1.818±0.260+ 1.575±0.317+ 35 1.5 2.025±0.338+ 5.586±0.470 + 36 3 1.020±0.173 4.520±0.596 + 37 1.25 1.818±0.260+ 2.216±0.289 + 38 4 1.276±0.209 0.200±0.171< 39 3.5 1.529±0.373 6.851±0.369 + 40 1.5 3.931±0.792+ 2.713±0.403 + 41 1 0.885±0.160 2.090±0.385 + 42 0.813 0.006±0.006< 0.316±0.193 43 1.12 2.561±0.574+ 2.467±0.241 + 44 0.375 0.515±0.154+ 0.457±0.259+ 45 1.5 1.204±0.308 0.435±0.119 46 1.5 0.498±0.218 0.297±0.103 47 3.5 1.511±0.331 0.480±0.109 48 3 0.915±0.171 1.206±0.127 49 2 0.441±0.126 1.475±0.127 50 2 0.215±0.051< 1.248±0.108

gl PZ&O PCRUaver POFaver 51 2 0.693±0.146 1.662±0.131 52 1 0.593±0.259 1.147±0.070+ 53 4 0.610±0.112 0.951±0.094 54 4 0.610±0.112 0.907±0.105 55 2.5 0.610±0.112 0.899±0.100 56 4 1.843±0.263 0.915±0.100 57 2.5 0.999±0.168 1.075±0.115 58 0.375 0.459±0.154+ 0.461±0.066+ 59 0.312 0.273±0.096 0.322±0.050+ 60 0.5 0.273±0.096 0.376±0.070 61 0.25 0.273±0.096+ 0.296±0.047+ 62 2.5 0.638±0.082 0.756±0.093 63 4 1.442±0.257 0.964±0.114 64 2 1.222±0.214 1.639±0.202 65 2 0.788±0.149 0.646±0.135 66 1.5 0.983±0.118 1.114±0.170 67 1.25 0.486±0.076 0.628±0.145 68 0.75 0.486±0.076 0.437±0.117 69 1 0.623±0.117 0.816±0.096 70 1 0.478±0.086 0.688±0.123 71 1 0.369±0.097 0.786±0.165 72 0.75 0.478±0.086 0.816±0.121+ 73 1.75 0.860±0.182 0.895±0.136 74 1.25 0.860±0.182 0.834±0.259 75 2 0.369±0.097 1.027±0.213 76 0.75 3.409±0.469+ 1.806±0.207+ 77 0.75 3.409±0.469+ 1.322±0.140+ 78 1 0.551±0.104 0.570±0.110 79 0.75 0.089±0.030< 0.728±0.074 80 0.375 0.155±0.039< 0.470±0.069+ 81 0.25 0.027±0.017< 1.163±0.138+ 82 1 0.478±0.086 0.577±0.151 83 0.75 0.551±0.104 0.145±0.059< 84 1 0.816±0.114 2.053±0.184+ 85 0.625 1.646±0.358+ 1.415±0.274+ 86 1 0.391±0.082 0.350±0.077 87 0.25 0.027±0.017< 0.290±0.063+ 88 0.625 0.356±0.061 0.557±0.077 89 0.875 0.312±0.075 0.697±0.075 90 1.25 0.404±0.093 0.891±0.124 91 1 0.259±0.066 0.794±0.125 92 0.75 0.429±0.076 0.970±0.110+ 93 0.5 0.757±0.136+ 0.763±0.110+ 94 1.75 1.315±0.266 0.489±0.202 95 1.37 1.032±0.216 0.469±0.220 96 1.37 1.386±0.164+ 2.447±0.252+ 97 3.75 1.813±0.417 3.822±0.864+ 98 1.87 1.091±0.187 1.261±0.138 99 1.07 0.992±0.319 1.649±0.095+ 100 1.72 0.992±0.319 1.415±0.088 aver 1.49 1.00 1.28

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Trends of precipitation data sets

Table B.3 lists linear trends in precipitation of 100 glaciated regions calculated from the data set of the Climate Research Unit, CRU. The time periods vary for each region, not covering time before 1900 or after 1998 at all.

Trends in precipitation of 53 glaciated regions arepositive. Of these: 35 trends are significant at a 1σ level

23 trends are significant at a 2σ level 4 trends are significant at a 3σ level

Trends in precipitation of 47 glaciated regions arenegative. Of these: 23 trends are significant at a 1σ level

11 trends are significant at a 2σ level 5 trends are significant at a 3σ level

Table B.4 lists precipitation trends of 100 glaciated regions calculated from the data set of SiobhanO’Farrell. Data for the time period 1871-2000 is available and is given on a 1.875o longitude by 1.86o latitude grid.

Trends in precipitation of 66 glaciated regions arepositive. Of these: 37 trends are significant at a 1σ level

15 trends are significant at a 2σ level 2 trends are significant at a 3σ level

Trends in precipitation of 34 glaciated regions arenegative. Of these: 10 trends are significant at a 1σ level

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gl trend 1 0.649 ±0.257 2 0.649 ±0.257 3 0.697 ±0.375 4 0.234 ±0.701 5 0.731 ±1.166 6 0.234 ±0.701 7 0.139 ±0.383 8 0.230 ±0.425 9 0.230 ±0.425 10 1.726 ±0.822 11 1.970 ±1.445 12 1.409 ±0.497 13 0.019 ±0.434 14 0.019 ±0.434 15 0.011 ±0.210 16 11.788 ±3.461 17 1.951 ±3.269 18 0.624 ±0.195 19 1.554 ±0.622 20 1.951 ±3.269 21 0.066 ±0.362 22 0.722 ±0.316 23 1.125 ±0.690 24 1.091 ±1.213 25 0.803 ±0.464 26 0.138 ±1.173 27 0.558 ±0.236 28 1.223 ±0.367 29 0.565 ±0.252 30 0.324 ±0.185 31 1.599 ±1.262 32 1.599 ±1.262 33 0.442 ±0.554 34 0.832 ±0.985

gl trend 35 1.149 ± 1.378 36 0.254 ± 0.680 37 0.832 ± 0.985 38 0.357 ± 0.794 39 1.789 ± 1.563 40 19.526 ± 8.232 41 0.065 ± 2.055 42 0.098 ± 0.082 43 4.982 ± 2.031 44 0.210 ± 0.545 45 2.516 ± 1.059 46 2.074 ± 0.743 47 2.611 ± 1.141 48 0.771 ± 0.600 49 1.298 ± 0.466 50 0.346 ± 0.338 51 0.650 ± 0.560 52 3.720 ± 1.248 53 0.420 ± 0.394 54 0.420 ± 0.394 55 0.420 ± 0.394 56 3.740 ± 0.850 57 0.538 ± 0.590 58 4.036 ± 0.938 59 0.334 ± 1.346 60 0.334 ± 1.346 61 0.334 ± 1.346 62 1.120 ± 0.268 63 2.025 ± 0.886 64 0.318 ± 0.757 65 0.180 ± 0.528 66 0.114 ± 0.416 67 0.088 ± 0.268 68 0.088 ± 0.268

gl trend

69 1.030 ± 0.406 70 0.131 ± 0.308 71 0.823 ± 0.337 72 0.131 ± 0.308 73 0.477 ± 0.671 74 0.477 ± 0.671 75 0.823 ± 0.337 76 3.555 ± 1.672 77 3.555 ± 1.672 78 0.328 ± 0.378 79 0.007 ± 0.218 80 0.050 ± 0.139 81 0.450 ± 0.183 82 0.131 ± 0.308 83 0.328 ± 0.378 84 0.490 ± 0.413 85 0.845 ± 1.282 86 0.349 ± 0.288 87 0.450 ± 0.183 88 0.233 ± 0.243 89 0.568 ± 0.267 90 1.193 ± 0.441 91 0.670 ± 0.338 92 0.709 ± 0.259 93 0.992 ± 0.675 94 1.223 ± 0.960 95 1.013 ± 0.782 96 1.260 ± 0.583 97 1.986 ± 1.507 98 2.084 ± 0.674 99 15.554 ± 4.119 100 15.554 ± 4.119

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gl trend 1 0.177 ± 0.103 2 0.056 ± 0.099 3 0.173 ± 0.083 4 0.287 ± 0.136 5 0.246 ± 0.214 6 0.192 ± 0.095 7 0.261 ± 0.173 8 0.471 ± 0.443 9 0.612 ± 0.534 10 0.182 ± 0.263 11 0.653 ± 0.237 12 0.563 ± 0.255 13 0.853 ± 0.518 14 0.637 ± 0.457 15 0.580 ± 0.416 16 0.925 ± 0.590 17 1.274 ± 0.616 18 1.928 ± 0.641 19 1.344 ± 0.734 20 1.274 ± 0.616 21 0.143 ± 0.184 22 0.252 ± 0.287 23 0.665 ± 0.858 24 0.504 ± 0.632 25 0.466 ± 0.674 26 0.067 ± 0.598 27 0.043 ± 0.291 28 0.169 ± 0.222 29 0.099 ± 0.266 30 0.035 ± 0.528 31 0.718 ± 0.667 32 0.394 ± 0.623 33 0.394 ± 0.623 34 0.544 ± 0.737

gl trend 35 0.979 ± 1.100 36 0.563 ± 1.398 37 0.199 ± 0.672 38 0.323 ± 0.405 39 1.384 ± 0.864 40 0.337 ± 0.933 41 0.552 ± 0.909 42 0.075 ± 0.449 43 1.706 ± 0.559 44 0.361 ± 0.609 45 0.678 ± 0.277 46 0.437 ± 0.238 47 0.781 ± 0.255 48 0.722 ± 0.297 49 0.398 ± 0.293 50 0.025 ± 0.251 51 0.255 ± 0.300 52 0.395 ± 0.160 53 0.342 ± 0.216 54 0.644 ± 0.248 55 0.255 ± 0.233 56 0.531 ± 0.237 57 0.213 ± 0.265 58 0.077 ± 0.157 59 0.145 ± 0.115 60 0.314 ± 0.163 61 0.063 ± 0.107 62 0.388 ± 0.212 63 0.294 ± 0.268 64 0.053 ± 0.473 65 0.124 ± 0.321 66 0.884 ± 0.388 67 0.170 ± 0.335 68 0.054 ± 0.272

gl trend 69 0.471 ± 0.226 70 0.213 ± 0.296 71 0.133 ± 0.428 72 0.404 ± 0.297 73 0.282 ± 0.328 74 0.739 ± 0.600 75 0.406 ± 0.534 76 0.014 ± 0.485 77 0.269 ± 0.335 78 0.180 ± 0.255 79 0.152 ± 0.173 80 0.203 ± 0.162 81 0.978 ± 0.339 82 0.083 ± 0.364 83 0.121 ± 0.136 84 0.555 ± 0.436 85 0.610 ± 0.629 86 0.254 ± 0.179 87 0.216 ± 0.149 88 0.171 ± 0.183 89 0.192 ± 0.183 90 0.017 ± 0.287 91 0.132 ± 0.290 92 0.075 ± 0.267 93 0.607 ± 0.247 94 0.071 ± 0.466 95 0.092 ± 0.509 96 0.451 ± 0.583 97 0.626 ± 2.033 98 0.459 ± 0.319 99 0.210 ± 0.228 100 0.173 ± 0.202

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temperature

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glaciated region station - observed corr. coeff dist yrs

Alask

a

7 Brooks Range 1 Umiat 0.28 177 10 3 Allakaket 0.07 194 64 12 Alaska Peninsula 1 King Salmon 0.04 190 71 2 Iliamna FAA Airport 0.10 334 47 15 Wrangell Mts. 1 Yakataga Airport 0.43 213 15 17 St. Elias Mts. 1 Yakataga Airport 0.57 129 15 18 Coast Mts.

1 Graham Inlet 0.53 68 16 4 Haines 0.09 83 63 7 Gustavus 0.57 119 16 20 Yukon Territory 1 Yakataga Airport 0.59 169 15 2 Burwash, Yukon 0.08 86 23

NW

USA

23 Coast Mts. 1 Mosley Creek 0.52 67 10 2 Tatlayoko Lake 0.05 88 61 25 N. Cascades 1 Stehekin 0.03 25 82 2 Winthrop 0.01 63 87 29 Rocky Mts. 1 Buffalo Bill Dam 0.05 25 89 3 Red Lodge 0.11 134 97

Sth.

Am. 49 N. Patagonia

1 Puerto Aysen 0.02 188 27 2 Balmaceda 0.22 184 26 51 Tierra del Fuego 1 Punta Arenas 0.15 168 109

2 Rio Gallegos 0.31 332 60

Arctic

53 Vatnajokull 1 Akureyri 0.14 55 115 55 Hofsjokull 1 Akureyri 0.14 47 115 58 Svalbard 1 Svalbard 0.19 105 19 59 Franz Josef Land 1 Gmo Im 0.02 48 39 2 Ostrov Vize 0.15 409 46

Europ

e

62 N. Scandinavia 2 Tromo -0.18 237 76 63 S. Norway 2 Dombas Norway 0.08 95 95 5 Hellisoy Fyr 0.14 176 75 64 Alps 1 Basel 0.08 178 100

6 Saentis 0.16 192 114 65 Pyrenees 2 Pic Du Midi France 0.28 45 36

Asia

71 Syrdar’ya Amudar’ya 2 Dir 0.12 244 10 76 Himalaya / Nepal 4 Darjeeling 0.10 163 97 80 Altai Shan 1 Bulgan 0.52 110 21 4 Hovd 0.00 120 46 84 Hengduan Shan 1 Deqen 0.18 56 37 2 Daocheng 0.24 176 34

NZ 98 New Zealand 1 Christchurch 0.20 202 92

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glaciated region station - observed corr. coeff dist yrs

Alask

a

7 Brooks Range 1 Umiat 0.46 177 10 3 Allakaket 0.13 194 64 12 Alaska Peninsula 1 King Salmon 0.01 190 71 2 Iliamna FAA Airport 0.02 334 47 15 Wrangell Mts. 1 Yakataga Airport 0.01 213 15 17 St. Elias Mts. 1 Yakataga Airport 0.02 129 15 18 Coast Mts.

1 Graham Inlet 0.18 68 16 4 Haines 0.14 83 63 7 Gustavus 0.07 119 16 20 Yukon Territory 1 Yakataga Airport 0.02 169 15 2 Burwash, Yukon 0.14 86 23

NW

USA

23 Coast Mts. 1 Mosley Creek 0.08 67 10 2 Tatlayoko Lake 0.19 88 61 25 N. Cascades 1 Stehekin 0.15 25 82 2 Winthrop 0.05 63 87 29 Rocky Mts. 1 Buffalo Bill Dam 0.06 25 89 3 Red Lodge 0.09 134 97

Sth.

Am. 49 N. Patagonia

1 Puerto Aysen 0.03 188 27 2 Balmaceda 0.14 184 26 51 Tierra del Fuego 1 Punta Arenas 0.22 168 109

2 Rio Gallegos 0.06 332 60

Arctic

53 Vatnajokull 1 Akureyri 0.17 55 115 55 Hofsjokull 1 Akureyri 0.24 47 115 58 Svalbard 1 Svalbard 0.42 105 19 59 Franz Josef Land 1 Gmo Im 0.14 48 39 2 Ostrov Vize 0.09 409 46

Europ

e

62 N. Scandinavia 2 Tromo 0.05 237 76 63 S. Norway 2 Dombas Norway 0.04 95 95 5 Hellisoy Fyr 0.04 176 75 64 Alps 1 Basel 0.11 178 100

6 Saentis 0.26 192 114 65 Pyrenees 2 Pic Du Midi France 0.17 45 36

Asia

71 Syrdar’ya Amudar’ya 2 Dir 0.08 244 10 76 Himalaya / Nepal 4 Darjeeling 0.03 163 97 80 Altai Shan 1 Bulgan 0.01 110 21 4 Hovd 0.14 120 46 84 Hengduan Shan 1 Deqen 0.13 56 37 2 Daocheng 0.26 176 34

NZ 98 New Zealand 1 Christchurch 0.15 202 92

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Linear trends in temperature over the period

1871-1990

Table B.7 lists linear trends in temperature of 100 glaciated regions over the period 1871-1990 using TG and TOF.

Temperature trends based on theGregory data set:

Trends in temperature of 97 glaciated regions are positive. Of those: 92 trends are significant at a 1σ level

58 trends are significant at a 2σ level 33 trends are significant at a 3σ level

Trends in temperature of 3 glaciated regions are negative: Of those: 1 trend is significant at a 1σ level.

Temperature trends based on theO’Farrell data set:

Trends in temperature of 99 glaciated regions are positive. Of those: 90 trends are significant at a 1σ level

83 trends are significant at a 2σ level 64 trends are significant at a 3σ level

(19)

2 0.0080±0.0040 0.0091 ±0.0022

3 0.0031±0.0029 0.0097 ±0.0027

4 0.0032±0.0027 0.0100 ±0.0027

5 0.0017±0.0033 0.0064 ±0.0033

6 0.0032±0.0027 0.0088 ±0.0032

7 0.0105±0.0025 0.0073 ±0.0034

8 0.0041±0.0023 0.0071 ±0.0038

9 0.0041±0.0023 0.0066 ±0.0033

10 0.0103±0.0048 0.0033 ±0.0038

11 0.0063±0.0026 0.0011 ±0.0013

12 0.0051±0.0031 0.0024 ±0.0017

13 0.0044±0.0041 0.0058 ±0.0030

14 0.0044±0.0041 0.0054 ±0.0030

15 0.0043±0.0022 0.0068 ±0.0029

16 0.0046±0.0045 0.0067 ±0.0030

17 0.0041±0.0034 0.0066 ±0.0028

18 0.0038±0.0024 0.0068 ±0.0027

19 0.0059±0.0022 0.0059 ±0.0023

20 0.0039±0.0026 0.0066 ±0.0028

21 0.0051±0.0021 0.0077 ±0.0024

22 0.0051±0.0022 0.0070 ±0.0022

23 0.0012±0.0015 0.0061 ±0.0019

24 0.0022±0.0015 0.0054 ±0.0015

25 0.0032±0.0022 0.0061 ±0.0016

26 0.0018±0.0014 0.0060 ±0.0015

27 0.0026±0.0016 0.0083 ±0.0017

28 0.0016±0.0014 0.0081 ±0.0016

29 0.0032±0.0021 0.0087 ±0.0015

30 0.0020±0.0022 0.0076 ±0.0018

31 0.0038±0.0019 0.0092 ±0.0017

32 0.0038±0.0019 0.0085 ±0.0015

33 0.0065±0.0014 0.0085 ±0.0015

34 0.0063±0.0015 0.0098 ±0.0021

35 0.0063±0.0012 0.0068 ±0.0016

36 0.0056±0.0012 0.0075 ±0.0016

37 0.0063±0.0015 0.0089 ±0.0019

38 0.0076±0.0023 0.0084 ±0.0018

39 0.0057±0.0013 0.0067 ±0.0014

40 0.0055±0.0034 0.0083 ±0.0021

41 0.0058±0.0012 0.0069 ±0.0018

42 0.0068±0.0012 0.0087 ±0.0021

43 0.0047±0.0012 0.0070 ±0.0018

44 0.0059±0.0016 0.0087 ±0.0021

45 0.0032±0.0012 0.0079 ±0.0011

46 0.0054±0.0012 0.0083 ±0.0011

47 0.0035±0.0013 0.0085 ±0.0011

48 0.0041±0.0011 0.0065 ±0.0012

49 0.0034±0.0007 0.0054 ±0.0009

50 0.0032±0.0007 0.0057 ±0.0009

52 0.0024±0.0011 0.0021±0.0009

53 0.0087±0.0043 0.0041±0.0036

54 0.0087±0.0043 0.0005±0.0035

55 0.0087±0.0043 0.0028±0.0039

56 0.0003±0.0014 0.0008±0.0032

57 0.0002±0.0021 0.0018±0.0044

58 0.0316±0.0087 0.0136±0.0046

59 0.0196±0.0045 0.0120±0.0033

60 0.0144±0.0034 0.0093±0.0037

61 0.0050±0.0027 0.0145±0.0028

62 0.0076±0.0028 0.0060±0.0036

63 0.0046±0.0037 0.0050±0.0025

64 0.0045±0.0027 0.0064±0.0016

65 0.0029±0.0015 0.0073±0.0016

66 0.0029±0.0023 0.0057±0.0020

67 0.0050±0.0019 0.0047±0.0016

68 0.0050±0.0019 0.0036±0.0017

69 0.0049±0.0032 0.0072±0.0036

70 0.0026±0.0015 0.0084±0.0018

71 0.0038±0.0019 0.0099±0.0019

72 0.0026±0.0015 0.0096±0.0016

73 0.0047±0.0016 0.0091±0.0015

74 0.0047±0.0016 0.0076±0.0020

75 0.0038±0.0019 0.0100±0.0023

76 0.0039±0.0012 0.0098±0.0025

77 0.0013±0.0010 0.0112±0.0024

78 0.0026±0.0024 0.0099±0.0027

79 0.0064±0.0016 0.0067±0.0012

80 0.0039±0.0022 0.0063±0.0019

81 0.0049±0.0018 0.0083±0.0012

82 0.0026±0.0015 0.0083±0.0017

83 0.0025±0.0012 0.0089±0.0016

84 0.0002±0.0009 0.0057±0.0012

85 0.0023±0.0018 0.0077±0.0021

86 0.0040±0.0022 0.0070±0.0019

87 0.0049±0.0018 0.0076±0.0018

88 0.0097±0.0020 0.0019±0.0020

89 0.0071±0.0022 0.0005±0.0019

90 0.0090±0.0030 0.0028±0.0023

91 0.0065±0.0023 0.0003±0.0020

92 0.0073±0.0020 0.0037±0.0018

93 0.0048±0.0028 0.0018±0.0024

94 0.0067±0.0015 0.0081±0.0014

95 0.0070±0.0015 0.0079±0.0013

96 0.0063±0.0008 0.0086±0.0012

97 0.0056±0.0006 0.0069±0.0007

98 0.0051±0.0013 0.0031±0.0009

99 0.0053±0.0007 0.0072±0.0007

100 0.0065±0.0009 0.0079±0.0008

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Linear trends in temperature over the period

1871-1895

Table B.8 lists linear trends in temperature of 100 glaciated regions over the period 1871-1895 using TG and TOF.

Temperature trends based on theGregory data set:

Trends in temperature of 41 glaciated regions are positive. Of those: 21 trends are significant at a 1σ level

5 trends are significant at a 2σ level 1 trend is significant at a 3σ level

Trends in temperature of 59 glaciated regions are negative. Of those: 30 trends are significant at a 1σ level

3 trends are significant at a 2σ level 0 trends are significant at a 3σ level

Temperature trends based on theO’Farrell data set:

Trends in temperature of 82 glaciated regions are positive. Of those: 31 trends are significant at a 1σ level

15 trends are significant at a 2σ level 5 trends are significant at a 3σ level

Trends in temperature of 18 glaciated regions are negative. Of those: 2 trends are significant at a 1σ level

(21)

2 0.0316±0.0447 0.0107±0.0247

3 0.0250±0.0389 0.0299±0.0310

4 0.0307±0.0298 0.0276±0.0330

5 0.0755±0.0382 0.0558±0.0351

6 0.0307±0.0298 0.1088±0.0345

7 0.0289±0.0303 0.0166±0.0338

8 0.0312±0.0213 0.0169±0.0334

9 0.0312±0.0213 0.0135±0.0295

10 0.0692±0.0468 0.0011±0.0274

11 0.0414±0.0269 0.0046±0.0111

12 0.0635±0.0294 0.0033±0.0133

13 0.0592±0.0365 0.0106±0.0259

14 0.0592±0.0365 0.0086±0.0254

15 0.0369±0.0205 0.0118±0.0268

16 0.0567±0.0417 0.0128±0.0268

17 0.0428±0.0292 0.0084±0.0235

18 0.0249±0.0211 0.0165±0.0236

19 0.0210±0.0199 0.0238±0.0194

20 0.0300±0.0226 0.0084±0.0235

21 0.0405±0.0208 0.0215±0.0237

22 0.0257±0.0207 0.0311±0.0236

23 0.0191±0.0141 0.0137±0.0175

24 0.0058±0.0166 0.0025±0.0156

25 0.0138±0.0236 0.0017±0.0176

26 0.0025±0.0180 0.0035±0.0161

27 0.0237±0.0157 0.0002±0.0173

28 0.0128±0.0138 0.0004±0.0168

29 0.0091±0.0243 0.0013±0.0153

30 0.0364±0.0302 0.0168±0.0142

31 0.0207±0.0206 0.0178±0.0152

32 0.0207±0.0206 0.0060±0.0130

33 0.0157±0.0141 0.0060±0.0130

34 0.0029±0.0164 0.0027±0.0154

35 0.0072±0.0154 0.0042±0.0103

36 0.0061±0.0151 0.0118±0.0108

37 0.0029±0.0164 0.0166±0.0135

38 0.0169±0.0247 0.0030±0.0099

39 0.0068±0.0161 0.0063±0.0092

40 0.0530±0.0378 0.0121±0.0147

41 0.0057±0.0154 0.0187±0.0134

42 0.0049±0.0168 0.0105±0.0161

43 0.0039±0.0156 0.0017±0.0156

44 0.0147±0.0172 0.0148±0.0159

45 0.0031±0.0122 0.0003±0.0116

46 0.0129±0.0127 0.0027±0.0113

47 0.0086±0.0141 0.0046±0.0104

48 0.0035±0.0119 0.0134±0.0140

49 0.0087±0.0067 0.0032±0.0100

50 0.0102±0.0063 0.0017±0.0096

52 0.0219 ±0.0115 0.0053 ±0.0084

53 0.0585 ±0.0568 0.1867 ±0.0271

54 0.0585 ±0.0568 0.1747 ±0.0259

55 0.0585 ±0.0568 0.2290 ±0.0322

56 0.0119 ±0.0153 0.1569 ±0.0235

57 0.0106 ±0.0251 0.2588 ±0.0365

58 0.1606 ±0.0935 0.0763 ±0.0507

59 0.0704 ±0.0472 0.0825 ±0.0326

60 0.0827 ±0.0394 0.0976 ±0.0341

61 0.0157 ±0.0277 0.0593 ±0.0294

62 0.1078 ±0.0333 0.0789 ±0.0395

63 0.1166 ±0.0458 0.0551 ±0.0240

64 0.0113 ±0.0269 0.0380 ±0.0149

65 0.0097 ±0.0145 0.0343 ±0.0145

66 0.0325 ±0.0289 0.0194 ±0.0263

67 0.0248 ±0.0253 0.0153 ±0.0200

68 0.0248 ±0.0253 0.0063 ±0.0191

69 0.0759 ±0.0430 0.0522 ±0.0326

70 0.0166 ±0.0183 0.0274 ±0.0180

71 0.0080 ±0.0228 0.0132 ±0.0224

72 0.0166 ±0.0183 0.0318 ±0.0165

73 0.0100 ±0.0180 0.0172 ±0.0152

74 0.0100 ±0.0180 0.0039 ±0.0214

75 0.0080 ±0.0228 0.0200 ±0.0373

76 0.0126 ±0.0102 0.0110 ±0.0173

77 0.0079 ±0.0086 0.0137 ±0.0187

78 0.0449 ±0.0282 0.0150 ±0.0191

79 0.0118 ±0.0171 0.0137 ±0.0129

80 0.0500 ±0.0258 0.0158 ±0.0245

81 0.0036 ±0.0194 0.0121 ±0.0123

82 0.0166 ±0.0183 0.0445 ±0.0146

83 0.0117 ±0.0154 0.0109 ±0.0145

84 0.0000 ±0.0099 0.0054 ±0.0115

85 0.0104 ±0.0204 0.0017 ±0.0222

86 0.0224 ±0.0256 0.0132 ±0.0169

87 0.0036 ±0.0194 0.0154 ±0.0180

88 0.0339 ±0.0225 0.0050 ±0.0221

89 0.0346 ±0.0190 0.0025 ±0.0215

90 0.0036 ±0.0290 0.0364 ±0.0256

91 0.0344 ±0.0205 0.0152 ±0.0242

92 0.0412 ±0.0253 0.0300 ±0.0224

93 0.0169 ±0.0260 0.0433 ±0.0210

94 0.0286 ±0.0177 0.0093 ±0.0116

95 0.0498 ±0.0198 0.0013 ±0.0111

96 0.0029 ±0.0110 0.0057 ±0.0094

97 0.0001 ±0.0088 0.0043 ±0.0053

98 0.0386 ±0.0140 0.0025 ±0.0073

99 0.0164 ±0.0068 0.0136 ±0.0056

100 0.0084 ±0.0098 0.0151 ±0.0066

(22)
(23)

Supporting material for Chapter 3

Compiling mass balance observations into primary

systems of Dyurgerov and Meier (2005)

(24)
(25)
(26)

Upscaling

method

from

primary

to

regional

systems of Dyurgerov and Meier (2005)

(27)
(28)
(29)

Table C.1 lists predicted ice-volume changes of 100 glaciated regions over the period 1871-1990, using various combinations of temperature and precipitation data sets, in particular TGPZ&O, TGPCRUseries, TOFPZ&O, and TOFPOF series. The parameter Θ is set globally to 0.15 K except for one case where regionally variable Θs are used.

(30)

gl TG TOF

PZ&O PCRUseries PZ&O POF series POF seriesΘvar

1 1.634 7.234 1.536 2.228 5.080

2 0.193 0.310 0.379 0.465 0.861

3 0.649 0.744 0.387 0.445 0.957

4 0.915 0.849 0.896 1.287 2.203

5 0.107 0.091 0.884 1.238 2.372

6 0.201 0.229 0.079 0.120 0.301

7 0.068 0.077 0.014 0.020 0.022

8 2.132 1.837 0.277 0.317 0.242

9 0.123 0.106 0.001 0.010 0.015

10 0.038 0.029 0.010 0.014 0.014

11 0.122 0.101 0.036 0.034 0.039

12 0.143 0.089 0.009 0.003 0.002

13 0.290 0.132 0.005 0.020 0.025

14 0.834 0.609 0.010 0.022 0.046

15 1.540 0.680 0.343 0.564 0.612

16 3.595 5.277 1.300 1.675 1.810

17 2.253 4.336 0.795 1.262 1.344

18 2.373 0.771 1.110 1.061 1.134

19 1.226 1.263 0.478 0.687 0.724

20 2.360 4.341 0.673 1.070 1.139

21 0.067 0.044 0.034 0.035 0.037

22 0.030 0.024 0.021 0.034 0.035

23 1.759 1.144 4.725 4.551 2.613

24 0.013 0.009 0.020 0.013 0.008

25 0.107 0.060 0.109 0.090 0.059

26 0.019 0.013 0.031 0.018 0.011

27 0.359 0.240 0.785 0.904 0.627

28 0.151 0.101 0.347 0.251 0.180

29 0.001 0.001 0.013 0.018 0.012

30 0.003 0.001 0.010 0.006 0.003

31 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001

32 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

33 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001

34 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

35 0.005 0.006 0.004 0.010 0.010

36 0.008 0.004 0.009 0.011 0.011

37 0.008 0.010 0.008 0.011 0.011

38 0.012 0.006 0.009 0.001 0.000

39 0.042 0.023 0.042 0.067 0.067

(31)

gl TG TOF

PZ&O PCRUseries PZ&O POF series POF series Θvar

41 0.052 0.048 0.038 0.056 0.056

42 0.083 0.036 0.109 0.037 0.026

43 0.051 0.111 0.090 0.152 0.152

44 0.174 0.225 0.287 0.202 0.164

45 0.538 0.502 0.219 0.090 0.059

46 0.839 0.569 0.360 0.118 0.077

47 0.137 0.104 0.088 0.024 0.017

48 1.954 1.239 1.976 1.113 0.815

49 1.945 0.996 1.674 1.337 0.789

50 4.939 2.038 4.889 3.462 2.017

51 0.764 0.473 0.665 0.582 0.302

52 1.392 1.129 0.530 0.589 0.589

53 4.251 0.929 5.594 2.120 4.290

54 0.488 0.107 0.376 0.141 0.382

55 0.329 0.104 0.404 0.186 0.419

56 0.044 0.022 0.267 0.103 0.256

57 0.015 0.007 0.063 0.032 0.078

58 2.758 3.449 2.839 4.148 9.972

59 0.636 0.542 0.631 0.782 2.489

60 1.887 1.012 0.780 0.845 4.111

61 0.359 0.399 0.713 0.932 3.084

62 0.109 0.017 0.163 0.062 0.230

63 0.191 0.059 0.593 0.199 0.500

64 0.291 0.211 0.520 0.438 1.210

65 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.002 0.003

66 0.234 0.186 0.541 0.419 0.692

67 0.006 0.004 0.006 0.003 0.006

68 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.004

69 0.099 0.067 0.052 0.051 0.183

70 0.267 0.141 0.365 0.262 0.599

71 0.748 0.181 2.801 2.229 2.858

72 0.302 0.203 0.726 0.731 0.932

73 8.563 5.103 11.529 6.731 9.307

74 0.051 0.038 0.057 0.034 0.052

75 0.196 0.023 0.606 0.349 0.444

76 1.348 4.143 2.809 4.819 6.142

77 0.123 0.360 0.263 0.394 0.507

78 1.113 0.646 1.628 1.073 1.429

79 0.320 0.149 0.351 0.345 0.478

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gl TG TOF

PZ&O PCRUseries PZ&O POF series POF series Θvar

81 0.362 0.405 0.778 2.485 3.379

82 1.110 0.585 2.235 1.252 1.706

83 0.175 0.137 0.421 0.188 0.162

84 0.167 0.147 0.223 0.354 0.520

85 0.151 0.397 0.271 0.499 0.691

86 0.155 0.075 0.083 0.023 0.054

87 0.100 0.111 0.300 0.299 0.385

88 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

89 0.047 0.026 0.028 0.022 0.043

90 0.047 0.024 0.003 0.001 0.016

91 0.014 0.004 0.025 0.021 0.033

92 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.003

93 0.026 0.040 0.055 0.070 0.120

94 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

95 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001

96 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

97 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003

98 0.510 0.395 0.203 0.156 0.156

99 0.134 0.130 0.072 0.095 0.095

100 0.190 0.144 0.093 0.082 0.082

total 64.45 59.36 65.38 58.91 85.57

(0.178) (0.164) (0.181) (0.163) (0.236)

(33)

gl reg area dV

1 3 80,000 7.747

2 3 11,700 1.133

3 3 16,200 1.569

4 3 18,500 1.792

5 3 18,500 1.792

6 3 5,000 0.484

7 7 722 0.431

8 7 13,900 8.306

9 7 800 0.478

10 7 230 0.137

11 7 960 0.574

12 7 1,250 0.747

13 7 1,000 0.598

14 7 4,600 2.749

15 7 8,300 4.960

16 7 21,600 12.907

17 7 11,800 7.051

18 7 10,500 6.274

19 7 5,070 3.030

20 7 10,000 5.976

21 2 600 0.302

22 2 300 0.151

23 2 13,500 6.792

24 2 46 0.023

25 2 266 0.134

26 2 63 0.032

27 2 3,000 1.509

28 2 1,000 0.503

29 2 74 0.037

30 2 51 0.026

31 n/a 4 0.011

32 n/a 4 0.011

33 n/a 3 0.008

34 2 3 0.002

35 2 19 0.010

36 2 24 0.012

37 2 39 0.020

38 2 19 0.010

39 2 111 0.056

40 11 873 0.091

gl reg area dV

41 11 258 0.027

42 11 649 0.068

43 11 510 0.053

44 11 2,800 0.293

45 11 743 0.078

46 11 1,170 0.122

47 11 156 0.016

48 10 3,570 3.032

49 10 5,720 4.858

50 10 16,900 14.352

51 10 2,700 2.293

52 n/a 4,100 0.802

53 1 8,300 0.360

54 1 953 0.041

55 1 925 0.040

56 1 600 0.026

57 1 160 0.007

58 5 36,600 6.050

59 4 13,700 0.608

60 4 23,600 1.047

61 4 18,300 0.812

62 1 1,080 0.047

63 1 1,630 0.071

64 1 2,910 0.126

65 1 12 0.001

66 1 1,340 0.058

67 1 24 0.001

68 1 20 0.001

69 4 800 0.036

70 8 2,300 0.609

71 8 10,700 2.831

72 8 3,320 0.878

73 8 40,000 10.584

74 8 301 0.080

75 8 1,350 0.357

76 8 12,700 3.360

77 8 1,340 0.355

78 8 7,540 1.995

79 8 2,380 0.630

(34)

gl reg area dV

81 8 11,600 3.069

82 8 9,550 2.527

83 8 2,080 0.550

84 8 1,460 0.386

85 8 2,190 0.579

86 8 910 0.241

87 8 3,190 0.844

88 9 18 0.002

89 9 372 0.046

90 9 260 0.032

91 9 202 0.025

92 9 19 0.002

93 9 874 0.108

94 n/a 1 0.001

95 n/a 5 0.003

96 n/a 5 0.003

97 n/a 7 0.003

98 n/a 1,000 2.379

99 n/a 450 0.088

100 n/a 450 0.088

total 527674 146.5 (0.405)

(35)

Supporting material for Chapter 5

Tables D.1 and D.2 list locations of existing GPS and tide gauge stations which are referenced in Chapter 5.

site name short Latitude Longitude Fairbanks fair 64.98 147.50 Dunedin ous2 45.87 170.51 Ny ˚Alesund nyal 78.93 11.87

Palmer atw2 61.60 149.13

Punta Arenas parc 53.13 70.88 Resolute reso 74.70 94.89

Sheshan shao 31.10 121.20

Sydney sydn 33.78 151.15

Tromsoe tro1 69.66 18.94

Refrigerator Rock frig 62.41 143.01 Reykjavik reyk 64.14 21.96 Whitehorse whit 60.75 135.22

(36)

site name Latitude Longitude

Anchorage 61.23 149.90

Barentsburg 78.07 14.25

Bartlett Cove 58.46 135.88

Cordova 60.55 145.77

Dunedin 45.88 170.52

Juneau 58.30 134.42

Kanmen 28.08 121.28

Ketchikan 55.33 131.63

Langara Point 54.25 133.03

Nikiski 60.68 151.40

Ny ˚Alesund 78.93 11.93

Punta Arenas 53.17 70.90 Prince Rupert 54.32 130.33 Queen Charlotte City 53.25 132.07

Resolute 74.68 94.88

Reykjavik 64.15 21.93

Sand Point 55.33 160.50

Seldovia 59.43 151.72

Seward 60.12 149.43

Sitka 57.05 135.33

Skagway 59.45 135.32

St. Pauls habor 57.75 152.48

Sydney 33.85 151.23

Tromso 69.65 18.97

Yakutat 59.55 139.73

Valdez 61.13 146.37

Womens Bay 57.72 152.52

(37)

Supporting material for Chapter 6

Ocean bottom pressure changes and

correspond-ing second order relative sea-level changes

Plots in Figure E.1 show the ocean bottom pressure changes over selected 10-year periods (data provided by Felix Landerer). Note the changes in scale in 2000, 2050, and 2100.

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1860-1869 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 m 1900-1909 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 m 1950-1959 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 m 2000-2009 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 m 2050-2059 0.599 0.500 0.400 0.299 0.200 0.100 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.299 0.400 0.500 0.599 m 2100-2109 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 m 2150-2159 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 m 2190-2199 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 m

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2100-2109 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 m 2120-2129 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 m 2140-2149 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 m 2160-2169 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 m 2180-2189 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 m

Figure

Table A.1 lists details of 100 glaciated regions adopted from Zuo and Oerlemans(1997a) and used in this thesis
Table A 1 lists details of 100 glaciated regions adopted from Zuo and Oerlemans 1997a and used in this thesis. View in document p.1
Table A.1: Details on 100 glaciated regions adopted fromZuo and Oerlemans (1997a).
Table A 1 Details on 100 glaciated regions adopted fromZuo and Oerlemans 1997a . View in document p.4
Figure B.1: Extent of glaciers in Alaska plotted on top of a topographic map.
Figure B 1 Extent of glaciers in Alaska plotted on top of a topographic map . View in document p.6
Figure B.2: Extent of glaciers on the Svalbard archipelago plotted on top of a topographicmap.
Figure B 2 Extent of glaciers on the Svalbard archipelago plotted on top of a topographicmap . View in document p.7
Table B.1: Comparison of locations between glaciated regions and available precipitationdata from the CRU
Table B 1 Comparison of locations between glaciated regions and available precipitationdata from the CRU. View in document p.9
Table B.2: Comparison of average annual mean precipitation and standard deviation(calculated from Equation 2.12) of 100 glaciated regions between the data sets of PZ&O,PCRUaver, and POFaver.The unit is meters year−1 of water.Red numbers indicatecalculated PCRUaver or POFaver that lie within 25% of the PZ&O value.CalculatedPCRUaver or POFaver that are greater than those of PZ&O are indicated with a ’+’ symbol.The symbol ’<’ indicates that the calculated average annual precipitation is less than0.22 m year−1 but has to be set to that number for any following calculations.
Table B 2 Comparison of average annual mean precipitation and standard deviation calculated from Equation 2 12 of 100 glaciated regions between the data sets of PZ O PCRUaver and POFaver The unit is meters year 1 of water Red numbers indicatecalculated PCRUaver or POFaver that lie within 25 of the PZ O value CalculatedPCRUaver or POFaver that are greater than those of PZ O are indicated with a symbol The symbol indicates that the calculated average annual precipitation is less than0 22 m year 1 but has to be set to that number for any following calculations . View in document p.11
Table B.3:Trends and standard deviations (calculated from Equation 2.12) ofprecipitation at glaciated regions for the period 1900-1998 (or available years) in mmyear−2
Table B 3 Trends and standard deviations calculated from Equation 2 12 ofprecipitation at glaciated regions for the period 1900 1998 or available years in mmyear 2. View in document p.13
Table B.4: Trends and standard deviations (calculated from Equation 2.12) of modelledprecipitation at glaciated regions for the period 1871-2000 in mm year−2
Table B 4 Trends and standard deviations calculated from Equation 2 12 of modelledprecipitation at glaciated regions for the period 1871 2000 in mm year 2. View in document p.14
Table B.5: Correlation coefficients between time series of TG and observed temperature ata few glaciated regions
Table B 5 Correlation coe cients between time series of TG and observed temperature ata few glaciated regions. View in document p.16
Table B.6: Correlation coefficients between time series of TOF and observed temperatureat a few glaciated regions
Table B 6 Correlation coe cients between time series of TOF and observed temperatureat a few glaciated regions. View in document p.17
Table B.7:Linear trends and standard deviations (from Equation 2.12) in annualtemperature of 100 glaciated regions in K year−1 for the period 1871-1990 using TGand TOF .
Table B 7 Linear trends and standard deviations from Equation 2 12 in annualtemperature of 100 glaciated regions in K year 1 for the period 1871 1990 using TGand TOF . View in document p.19
Table B.8:Linear trends and standard deviations (from Equation 2.12) in annualtemperature of 100 glaciated regions in K year−1 for the reference period 1871-1895using TG and TOF .
Table B 8 Linear trends and standard deviations from Equation 2 12 in annualtemperature of 100 glaciated regions in K year 1 for the reference period 1871 1895using TG and TOF . View in document p.21
Figure C.1: Example of compiling observations on six glaciers into the primary systemno
Figure C 1 Example of compiling observations on six glaciers into the primary systemno. View in document p.24
Figure C.2: Example of compiling observations on four glaciers into the primary systemno
Figure C 2 Example of compiling observations on four glaciers into the primary systemno. View in document p.25
Figure C.3:Example of upscaling ice-volume changes of primary systems used byDyurgerov and Meier (2005) to derive that of a regional system
Figure C 3 Example of upscaling ice volume changes of primary systems used byDyurgerov and Meier 2005 to derive that of a regional system. View in document p.27
Figure C.4:Example of upscaling ice-volume changes of primary systems used byDyurgerov and Meier (2005) to derive that of a reg1ional system
Figure C 4 Example of upscaling ice volume changes of primary systems used byDyurgerov and Meier 2005 to derive that of a reg1ional system. View in document p.28
Table C.1: Changes in ice-volume in km3 year−1 w.e. of 100 glaciated regions over theperiod 1871-1990 using various combinations of temperature and precipitation data sets,i.e
Table C 1 Changes in ice volume in km3 year 1 w e of 100 glaciated regions over theperiod 1871 1990 using various combinations of temperature and precipitation data sets i e. View in document p.32
Table C.2: Changes in ice volume dV in km3 year−1 w.e. of 100 glaciated regions (Zuo andOerlemans, 1997a)
Table C 2 Changes in ice volume dV in km3 year 1 w e of 100 glaciated regions Zuo andOerlemans 1997a . View in document p.34
Table D.1: Latitudes and longitudes of GPS sites referenced in this thesis.
Table D 1 Latitudes and longitudes of GPS sites referenced in this thesis . View in document p.35
Table D.2: Latitudes and longitudes of tide gauge sites referenced in this thesis.
Table D 2 Latitudes and longitudes of tide gauge sites referenced in this thesis . View in document p.36
Figure E.1:Thermal expansion induced ocean bottom pressure changes of 10-yearaverages relative to an unperturbed ocean expressed in meters of mass load.
Figure E 1 Thermal expansion induced ocean bottom pressure changes of 10 yearaverages relative to an unperturbed ocean expressed in meters of mass load . View in document p.38
Figure E.2: Spatial distribution of relative sea-level changes relative to 1860-1869 inmeter due to changes in ocean bottom pressure caused by thermal expansion of the A1BIPCC climate scenario.
Figure E 2 Spatial distribution of relative sea level changes relative to 1860 1869 inmeter due to changes in ocean bottom pressure caused by thermal expansion of the A1BIPCC climate scenario . View in document p.40

References

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