**UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA**

**FATIGUE LIFE SIMULATION OF SPOT WELD JOINT **

**STRUCTURE BASED ON FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS**

This report submitted in accordance with requirement of the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for the Bachelor Degree of Engineering Technology

(Manufacturing Engineering Technology) (Hons.) (Product Design)

by

**MUHAMMAD FAIZ BIN CHE MUSA**

**B071310451**

**UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA**

**BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS LAPORAN PROJEK SARJANA MUDA**

TAJUK: **Fatigue Life Simulation on Spot Weld Joint Structure Based On Finite **
**Element Analysis**

SESI PENGAJIAN: **2015/16 Semester 2**

Saya **MUHAMMAD FAIZ BIN CHE MUSA**

Mengaku membenarkan Laporan PSM ini disimpan di PerpustakaanUniversiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Laporan PSM adalah hak milik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka dan penulis. 2. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk

tujuan pengajian sahaja dengan izin penulis.

3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan laporan PSM ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

4. **Sila tandakan ( )

SULIT

TERHAD

TIDAK TERHAD

(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia sebagaimana yang termaktub dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)

(Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

AlamatTetap:

NO 2, JALAN MELOR 1/2

Disahkan oleh:

i

**DECLARATION**

I hereby, declared this report entitled “Fatigue Life Simulation Of Spot Weld Joint

Structure Based On Finite Element Analysis ” is the results of my own research except

as cited in references.

Signature : ……….

Author’s Name : ………

**APPROVAL**

This report is submitted to the Faculty of Engineering Technology of UTeM as a

partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Manufacturing

Engineering Technology (Product Design) with Honours. The member of the

supervisory is as follow:

………

iii

**ABSTRAK**

Projek ini bertujuan untuk menjalankan analisis unsur-unsur pada model tempat

struktur kimpal untuk meramal dan menentukan hayat lesu dengan menggunakan

perisian Solidworks. Bahan yang digunakan adalah besi tergalvani dan aluminium. Dua

plat besi Tergalvani dan aluminium akan dianalisis dalam perisian Solidworks bertindak

sebagai dua plat yang digunakan pada tempat kimpalan rintangan. Kajian mengenai

hayat lesu pada bahan yang digunakan akan dijalankan.

Bahan-bahan yang akan dianalisis mempunyai ketebalan yang berbeza. Beban ini

akan digunakan untuk bahan bagi menentukan apakah had bahan boleh bertahan

sebelum ianya lesu. Data daripada masa kitaran dan beban bahan yang akan

dikumpulkan dan ianya akan dianalisis bagi menentukan kaedah yang berkesan untuk

mengurangkan kelesuan bahan. Hayat lesu akan diteliti melalui analisis unsur-unsur

yang terdiri daripada plot kontur dalam proses simulasi. Nilai yang menyebabkan

kelesuan bahan boleh ditentukan daripada plot kontur.

Hasil ramalan akan dibandingkan dengan data eksperimen dalam mencari kaedah

prestasi dan analisis yang terbaik. Daripada data yang telah dikumpulkan, ianya akan

menunjukkan masa kitaran dan loading yang sesuai untuk bahan-bahan bagi mencegah

**ABSTRACT**

This project was aimed to run finite element analysis on spot welded joint model

to predict and determine fatigue life for spot welded by using Solidworks software. The

material that is using is the galvanized iron and aluminum. Two plates of galvanized iron

and aluminum will be analyzed in the Solidworks software reacted as two plates that are

using by spot welding. There will be studies about fatigue life on the material that are

used.

The materials that will be analyzed have different thicknesses. The load will be

applied to the material to determine what are the limitation of the material can hold

before it fatigue. The data from cycle time and loading of the material will be collected

and it will be analyzed which are the effective method to reduce the fatigue of the

material. Fatigue life will be observed through the finite element analysis which consists

of the contour plot in the simulation process. The value that causes the fatigue of the

material can be determined from the contour plot.

The result of the prediction will be compared to an experimental data in finding

the best performance and analysis method. From the data that have been collected, it will

show that which cycle time and loading that are suitable for materials to prevent the

v

**DEDICATION**

Firstly thank to Allah S. W. T for the opportunity to finish this project. I owe this project

and my true happiness to my beloved parent. Since the day I started going to this

**ACKNOWLEDGMENTS**

This report teaches and provides me a basic knowledge of engineering and helps

me to understanding more about Fatigue life studies and force direction. This report

inevitably involves many helping hands. First of all, I am extremely grateful and thanks

to my supervisor, Mr. Mohammad Khalid b. Wahid for all the guidance and critics given

to me directly or indirectly, and also his friendly in time to teach and explain to me

amicably. Once again thanks you for your idea, knowledge and guidance that make me

more understand and can develop further thinking for this project.

Finally, I would like to thank to all my family and friends, thank you for all the

spirit word, love and helping me during the whole period which gave me the strength I

vii

**TABLE OF CONTENTS**

Declaration i

Supervisor’s Approval ii

Abstrak iii

Abstract iv

Dedication v

Acknowledgement vi

Table of Contents vii-ix

List of Table x

List of Figure xi-xiii

**CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION**

1.1 Background of Project 1

1.2 Statement of Problems 2

1.3 Objectives 2

1.4 Scope of Project 2

1.5 Significance of Project 3

1.6 Summary 3

**CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW**

2.1 Introduction 4

2.2 Fatigue Life 4-5

2.3 Fatigue Parameter 5

2.4 S-N Fatigue curve 6

2.5 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) 7

2.5.1Pre-Processing 7-8

2.5.2 Solution 8

2.5.4 Advantage of Finite Element Analysis 9-10

2.6 Principle Spot Welding

2.6.1 Resistance of Spot Welding 10

2.6.2 Heat Generation 11

2.6.3 Welding Cycle 11

2.7 Material Properties 12

2.7.1 Aluminum properties 12-14

2.7.2 Iron Properties 14-15

**CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY**

3.1 Introduction 16

3.2 Project Planning 17

3.3 Flow process 18

3.4 Problem Statement 19

3.5 Gathering Information 19

3.6 Generating Cad Model 20

3.6.1 Material Selection 21

3.7 Finite Element Analysis 22-23

3.8 Pre-processing 23

3.8.1 Applied Meshing 23-24

3.8.2 Fixed Geometry 24

3.8.3 Applied Force 25

3.8.4 Loading Event (Fatigue Simulation) 26

3.9 Solution 27

ix
**CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DISCUSSION **

4.1 Introduction 28

4.2 Result 28

4.3 Aluminum Alloy H14

4.3.1 100 N (Lateral Force) 29-30

4.3.2 300 N (Lateral Force) 31-32

4.3.3 500 N (Lateral Force) 33-34

4.3.4 100 N (Shear Force) 35-36

4.3.5 300 N (Shear Force) 36-37

4.3.6 500 N (Shear Force) 37-39

4.4 Grey Cast Iron

4.4.1 100 N (Lateral Force) 39-41

4.4.2 300 N (Lateral Force) 42-43

4.4.3 500 N (Lateral Force) 44-45

4.4.4 100 N (Shear Force) 46-47

4.4.5 300 N (Shear Force) 47-48

4.4.6 500 N (Shear Force) 48-49

4.5 Discussion 49

**CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK**

5.0 Introduction 50

5.1 Conclusion 50-51

5.2 Future work 51

**LIST OF TABLE**

Table 3.0 Gantt Charts Planning 17

Table 4.0 100 N (Lateral Force) Aluminum 30

Table 4.1 300 N (Lateral Force) Data 32

Table 4.2 500 N (Lateral Force) Data 34

Table 4.3 100 N (shear Force Table) 36

Table 4.4 300 N (Shear Force) 37

Table 4.5 500 N (Shear Force) 38

Table 4.6 100 N 41

Table 4.7 300 N lateral Force Grey Cast Iron 43

Table 4.8 500 N Grey Cast Iron 45

Table 4.9 100 N Shear Force 46

Table 4.10 300 N Shear Force data 48

xi

**LIST OF FIGURES**

Figure 2.0: S-N curve 6

Figure 2.1: The result of stress analysis on the coupling 9

Figure 2.2: Illustration Resistance Spot Welding 10

Figure 2.3: Welding Cycle 11

Figure 2.4: Mechanical properties for aluminum alloy 1050 H14 13

Figure 2.5: Physical properties for aluminum alloy 1050 13

Figure 2.6: Fabrication response for aluminum alloy 1050 13

Figure 2.7: Properties of Cast Iron Type (Grey Cast Iron) 14

Figure 3.0 Flow Chat Process for Fatigue Life Simulation 18

Figure 3.1 3D Model of Resistance Spot Weld Specimen 20

Figure 3.2 (a) Aluminum Properties (b) Grey Cast Iron properties 21

Figure 3.3 (a) Static Study (b) Fatigue Study 22

Figure 3.4 1 Mm Meshing For Specimen 24

Figure 3.5 Fixed position of specimen 24

Figure 3.6 (a) Lateral Force (b) Shear Force 25

Figure 3.7 Loading Event of Fatigue Studies 26

Figure 3.8 Applied Fatigue Data to the Material 26

Figure 4.1: SN- Curve 30

Figure 4.2 (a) Maximum Stress of 300 N Force

(b) Fatigue Life (Damage Plot) 31

Figure 4.3 S-N Curve 32

Figure 4.4: (a) Maximum Stress at 2603 MPa

(b) Fatigue Life at 100 Cycle 33

Figure 4.5 SN-Curve of 500 N 34

Figure 4.6 (a) Stress value of 100 N

(b) Strain value of 100 N 35

Figure 4.7 Stress of 300 N (Shear Force) 36

Figure 4.8 Maximum Area of Strain Plot 37

Figure 4.9 (a) Stress of 500 N Shear Force

(b) Strain of 500 N Shear Force 37-38

Figure 4.10: (a) Minimum value

(b) Maximum value of Von Mises Stress 38-39

Figure 4.11: (a) Stress Plot of 100 N Grey Cast Iron

(b) Strain Plot of 100 N Grey Cast Iron

(c) Fatigue Damage at 100 Percentages 39-40

xiii Figure 4.13: (a) Von Mises at 2211 MPa

(b) Fatigue life of 300 N Grey Cast Iron

(c) S-N Curve of 300 N Grey Cast Iron 42-43

Figure 4.14: Stress value of 500 N Grey Cast Iron 44

Figure 4.15: (a) Damage Area and Minimum Fatigue Life Value

(b) S-N curve for 500 N (Lateral Force) 45

Figure 4.16: (a) Stress Value (b) Displacement (c) Strain Value 46

Figure 4.17: Variable of Stress Force value 47

Figure 4.18: (a) 90 MPa stress of 300 N (b) Stress area of the specimen 47

**CHAPTER 1**

**INTRODUCTION**

**1.1** **Background of The Project**

Fatigue life is the processes that are weakening the material when the load is

applied repeatedly. It is occurred relying upon the cyclic loading. Cyclic stresses may be

caused by fluctuating mechanical load. The crack of the material is known as fatigue

failure. Fatigue test method involves testing specimens under various states of stress,

usually in a combination of tension and bending. [Serope Kalpakjian et al. 2010]

In this project, the fatigue life will be determine through the Finite Element

Analysis (FEA) by applied the load and determine the cycle time until the material are

crack. The data will be collected from the simulation analysis and then, from the

observation, the current of the spot welding are determine depending on the selecting of

the material such as aluminum which has a much higher thermal conductivity and

electrical conductivity. The material properties will be inserting into Solidworks

software.

After that, the simulation of the software will be setting to the next stage which is

the load are inserted. The result will be determine in the contour plot of the simulation

that will be analyzes. From the result, the data will be collected and then, it will be

compared to the experimental process to determine whether it can be made some

2
**1.2** **Statement of Problem**

There is a requirement to do the spot welding on the simulation by using the

galvanized iron and aluminum. The uses of the material are limited and also not

economical to do the experimental. From the experimental, the material has been testing

to predict what the cycles times and load that is caused the fatigue failure in spot

welding. The simulation on the software with help to analyzed the result similar to the

actual force and stress. By using Solidworks software, it can predict the fatigue life with

the accurate analysis in simulation on the material.

**1.3** **Objectives**

The aim of the project is to predict and determine fatigue life for spot welded by

using Solidworks software.

The main objectives are:

∑ Determine fatigue life for spot welded in simulation environment

**1.4** **Scope of Project**

The main purpose of this project was to determine fatigue life on spot welded

joint model on simulation and make a comparison to the experimental existing method.

There is requirement to analyze the materials which are:

∑ Type of material that are used is Galvanized iron and aluminum

∑ The thickness of the material is the limit to 0.5 mm-1.0 mm.

**1.5** **Significance of Project**

The method that is using to predict the fatigue life by the simulation is way

faster, easier and accurate analysis for the material before it take to the actual worked.

The project will determine the fatigue life thus it helps in order to achieve the aim of the

project to verify the fatigue failure that occurred in the selecting material of the spot

welding.

**1.6** **Summary**

Basically, this chapter describes how the project is going to be carried out.

Hence, it points out each objective and scopes that the project is going to targets and

focuses on. In addition to that, this chapter also shows the significance of the project,

4

**CHAPTER 2**

**LITERATURE REVIEW**

**2.1 ** **Introduction**

This chapter will be review literature related to the finite element analysis,

fatigue failure of the material in spot welding, principle of spot welding and properties

of the iron and aluminum. Literature shows there are a lot of cause that occur the fatigue

life in the spot welding. By using the experimental method, it is waste of materials used.

The study will review before analysis method were using.

**2.2** **Fatigue Life**

Basically, the testing on the spot weld material is included tensile-shear and cross

tension. Fatigue occurs in the spot weld based on the different loading condition and also

it intermediate-cycle fatigue life increased with increased base material strength. When

the cycle fatigue life at the higher, the performance of the fatigue was found to be

independent of strength.

In the spot welding, Fatigue performance was controlled by the primary variables

which are nugget size, sheet thickness, and the corresponding joint stiffness. When the

dynamic load is applied, the fatigue occurs when it is repeated cyclic stress from a

maximum to a minimum. The example of the fatigue is the fracture piece of wire that

had been bending in one direction and the other repeated for the number of cycle [R. W.

When the crack begins, it starts to propagate to the area that had form higher

stress concentration and it also proceed to propagates until the remaining stress area

becomes small and when it cannot support the load statically further, the sudden fracture

occurred.

The fatigue failure slowly spreading a crack with the load that applied to the

cycle of the stress, and it is known as the basic of the mechanism for the high-cycle

fatigue failure. In order for a crack to propagate, it only occurred when the stress of the

part in tension condition.

For the surface is hardened, it increases the fatigue strength. But in fact, it is

ambiguous statement which is the result for the material is depend on the material that

are chosen and type of heat treatment that applied on the material. In fatigue testing, a

specimen is subjected to periodically varying constant amplitude stress [Abass at al.

2013]

To prevent the fatigue or extending the life of the fatigue, the constant of

compressive surface stress need to be created in the outer layer of the specimen and it is

known as residual stress. It is also help to reduce or eliminate the tensile stresses that

occur during loading. In weld, it is consider as the stress that would exist in the body if

the external load were removed and sometimes it is called as internal stresses.

Apparently, it is caused by non-uniform temperature in welding.

**2.3** **Fatigue Life Parameter**

Resistance spot welding is the most preferred method to join metal sheets. The

design variables for spot-weld joints affecting their strengths are basically sheet

thickness, spot weld nugget diameter, number of spot welds and the joint type as

6
**2.4 ** **S-N Fatigue Curve**

S-N curve is the graph between stress and number of cycle plotted for fatigue

loading. When the fatigue failure is consider, it means that the material is subjected to

alternate tensile and compressive stresses at the same time. The result of the fatigue

testing plotted on the graph is called as S-N curve. To develop the curve, a series of

samples is tested to failure at various stress ranges.

The resulting lives are plotted versus the corresponding stress range. The S-N

curve is the locus of these data points. In more thorough testing, multiple samples are

tested at each stress range. Common practice is to plot the S-N curve through the mean

[image:21.612.207.450.306.480.2]value at each stress range. [Robert Stone, 2008]

Figure 2.0: S-N curve

(Source: <http://www.solidworks.com>05/01/16)

The stress range and its associated mean stress are determined from the load

history shown in the graph. The load history is “filled with rain.” After the stress range

and mean have been determined, the “rain” is drained from the lowest point. The range

and mean for each remaining portion of trapped “rain” are then determined. From the

results, Miner’s rule can be applied, and the fatigue life can be calculated.

**2.5** **Finite Element Analysis (FEA)**

Finite element analysis is the analysis based on the computerized method for

predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and

other physical effects. Finite element analysis will determine whether a product will

break, wear out, or work the way it was designed. The finite element method is

comprised of three major phases:

1. Pre-processing

2. Solution

3. Post-processing

**2.5.1** **Pre-Processing **

In Pre-processing, the subject geometry is divide into sub-domains which

is, it is builds up by finite element mesh for mathematical analysis, applies

material properties and boundary conditions. In pre-processing, the finite element

mesh subdivides the geometry into elements, which are found are nodes. The

nodes, which are really just point locations in space, are generally located at the

element corners and maybe near each mid side. For three-dimensional (3D) thin

shell analysis, it is basically a 2D element and may be slightly different in order

to comfort to the 3D surface. For the spot weld, nodes that are created will be

mesh to get the element size for the model.

Developing the mesh is usually the most time consuming task in FEA. In

the past, node locations were keyed in manually to approximate the geometry.

The more modern approach is to develop the mesh directly on the CAD

geometry, which will be (1) wireframe, with points and curves representing

edges, (2) surfaced, with surfaces defining boundaries, or (3) solid, defining

where the material is. Solid geometry is preferred, but often a surfacing package

8 As far as geometric detail, an underlying rule of FEA is to "model what is

there", and yet simplifying assumptions simply must be applied to avoid huge

models. Analyst experience is of the essence. The geometry is meshed with a

mapping algorithm or an automatic free meshing algorithm.

The first maps a rectangular grid onto a geometric region, which must

therefore have the correct number of sides. Mapped meshes can use the accurate

and cheap solid linear brick 3D element, but can be very time consuming, if not

impossible, to apply to complex geometries.

Free meshing automatically subdivides meshing regions into elements,

with the advantages of fast meshing, easy mesh size transitioning (for a denser

mesh in regions of large gradient), and adaptive capabilities. Disadvantages

include generation of huge models, generation of distorted elements, and, in 3D,

and the use of the rather expensive solid parabolic tetrahedral element.

It is always important to check elemental distortion prior to solution. A

badly distorted element will cause a matrix singularity, killing the solution. A

less distorted element may solve, but can deliver very poor answers. Acceptable

levels of distortion are dependent upon the solver being used.

[http://www.finiteelement.com/feawhite3.html]

**2.5.2** **Solution/Solver**

Solution is the programs that are used to solve the matrix equation from

the model and solve the equation to the major quantities. The solvers that are

usually used in the solving method are by using the ACUSOLVE software in the

hypermesh which is, it can solve the equation for the numerical equation of

**2.5.3** **Post-Processing**

The post-processing is in which the analyst check the legitimate solution

of the model and examines the values of major quantities such as displacements

and stresses, and derives and examines additional quantities such as specialized

[image:24.612.248.445.195.345.2]stresses and error indicators.

Figure 2.1: The result of stress analysis on the coupling (Rayothee al et. , 2015)

The FEA analysis can be performed to shown the stress-strain which

determined the critical area and safety level at various region in the component.

The element behavior is usually known under the support and load system. After

the model was designing by using Hyperwork software, the finite element

analysis is used. In order to study the stress-strain distribution, the model was

designed as actual size and can be use for further experiment. [Pitchaya Rayothee