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Bovine uterine pressure and the response to oxytocin as measured by a new apparatus : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University


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(1)Copyright is owned by the Author of the thesis. Permission is given for a copy to be downloaded by an individual for the purpose of research and private study only. The thesis may not be reproduced elsewhere without the permission of the Author..

(2) BOVINE UTERI NE PRE.SSUP.·s AND 'l'H:S D£i)POaSE 11'0 OX:Y'l'OCH�. AS MEASURED BY A NEW A?P ARA'I'US. A thesis presented in partial. fulfilment of the. requirement. fer the degree of. Manter of Philosoph:t. in Veterinary Massey. Science. at. University. Sai San Aik. 1980. -,. (. This. thesis represents l�O% of the. assessment of the. candidate).

(3) II. ACKNO�n .EDGEHENTS. Hany people contributed to the completion of this thesis; them all I. my thanks for the assistanc2. provid e d .. m11e. and. to. Especially I Hish. to express my heart-felt thanks to my supervisor, Dr. B.S. Cooper, who provided. e nco u r a geme nt ,. cr i t icism .. I am. als o. understanding,. much. interest made this st udy possible. Depa r t ment of. P h y s i olo gy &. Department of. V e t e r inary Clinical. apparatus,. Hr. for technical. continued Likewis e. Veterinary. I. thank. Dr. L.S.. A.N.. Sciences, for advice. B.T. Pickett assistance,. Clinical Sciences,. Fielden,. for. of the. Forbes,. Bruere, Head of. the. and encouragement.. helping in the. and for hi s. d evelopm e nt of. friendliness throughout.. clerical staff. and the. Dean. help, guidance ,- and. Anatomy, and Professor. A word of thanks should also go to the. of. supervision and val uable. in d ebte d to P rofe sso r E.D.. Faculty of Veterinary Science, whose. I am grateful to. close. of the Department. staff of the L a r ge. Animal. Hospital,. for their assistance.. My. thanks are due to Sharon and the Arm itag e family for the warmth. and kindness they showed throug hout also goes to the library staff of assistance of. Mr. prov i de d. my s t a y. in New. Zeala n d .. Massey University,. My appreciation. especially for the. by the interloan d epar tment and the translation work. Chandler.. Finally, I \llould like to thank the Government of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma for financial support through the World Bank loan programme..

(4) III. AB STRACT. A new apparatus for mea suring u t erine pre s s ure (UP) \vas developed f rom an ar t i f ic ial insemina t ion tube , mod ified by sea l ing one end and crea t­ ing a s ide o p en ing wh ich was covered by pneuma t ic s y s t em . tested. a. rubber d iaphragm.. It wa s a who l ly. BeOQase every record ing tube was d i f f eren t , each \va s. i n vitro u s ing a syringe-barre l apparatus which cou l d ap ply a. �an g e of pre s s ures and mea sure the r e s i s tance f a c t or of the d iaphragm .. By. s imple c a l c u l a t ion , the r e s is tance fac tor for each d iaphragm could be used t o s tandard i s e the in vivo record ing s and so prov ide an e s t ima t e d forc e or pre ssure of the uterine mu sculature .. The sensor d iaphragm was sen s i t iveand. r e s ponded to appl ied pre s sure on a linear s c a l e. up to. 4SIOmmHg .. The UP compris ed u t er ine tonic ity l)re s sure ( 3 2 -lOlOmmHg ) and uter ine con trac t ion pre ssure ( 0 - l lOmmHg ) .. The UP there fore was muc h higher than the. t ra d i t ional intra-u t erine pres sure whicr. had b e en interpreted b y research workers prev iously to con s i s t o f the u t erine contra c t ion pre s sure alone. The u t erus o f the normal cow was more ac t ive and respon s ive to oxytoc in dur ing estr-.�s .. In the d ie s tral period , the u t er ine a c t iv i ty \va s. reduced and there were t ime s when the uterus \va s quiescent .. In s payed cow s ,. t h e u t er in e a c t ivity wa s mu ch reduced , and in many re cord i n g s t her e ,,,ere no a c t ive uter ine contrac t io n s .. Es trogen could produce e s tral b ehaviour in. spayed cows and it sl ight l y increa sed the u t er ine a c t ivity .. Such act ivity. wa s muc h l e s s in d egree t han that observed during e s trus in norma l cows . Urina t ion , defe cat ion , bel l ow ing or arching o f the back had no long­ l a s t ing e f f e c t on u ter in e con trac t ion trac ings , t hough either urina t ion or d e f ec a t ion pro duced a trans ient fall in u t erine tonic i ty .. Env ironmen t a l. d i s turbanc e s such as a t ra c tor oper a t ing n earb y did not a f f ec t t h e p a t t ern of uterine a c t ivity wh ic h had a contra c t ion frequency ranging from 0 to 2 2 p e r 1 0 minu t e s ..

(5) IV. Some in tramu s cular inj ect ions o f o xytocin (5 o f 16 ) d id no t produce any ac t ion on a u t e rus wh ich w a s la t er f ound to be r e s pons ive t o intravenou s l y admin i s t e red oxy toc in.. The e p i dural rou t e o f oxy t o c in administra t ion. accoun t ed for f ewe r fai lures ( 1 of 1 3 ), bu t the in t ravenou s rou t e was mo s t c on s i s t ent o f a l l prov ided the u t erus w a s und ergo ing r egu lar con ta c t ion s . F ive un i t s o f oxy to cin g iven int ravenously did no t pro du c e any s ign i f i cant inc rease in uter in e ac t iv i t y whe reas 1 0 - 20 unit s g iven 40 minu t e s later pro duced a max imum in c r ea se .. Do ses o f 40 - 6 0 uni t s given. a f t e r ano ther 40 minu t e s , d id no t produ c e a further inc rease in u t erine a c t iv i ty . The durat ion o: ac t ion o f oxy t o c in l a s t e d for more than 9 hours when the r e c ording was taken cont inuous ly; but when the an imal was a l lowed rest per io d s int er sp e r sed with r e c o r d ing per iod s , the du ra t ion wa s f ound to be a lways greater than 1 hour and in 7 o u t of 1 5 recor d ing s , more than 3� hours . The e f f ec t o f adrena l in e on u t e r in e act iv ity w a s s t imula tory for a f ew momen t s onl y and thi s wa s f o l l owed by 2 - 4 minu t e s o f inhibition . Xylazin e in the f o rm o f "Rompun" ha d a s t imulator y e f f e c t on u ter ine ac t iv i t y . There are indic&tions th a t th e s po n t aneous mus cular co n t r a c t i ons o f the n on-pregnan t u t erus are g o verned b y a complex o f influences inc luding endogenous hormone s .. To d e t e rmine the rela t ive i mp o r t ance o f th e di f ferent. c ompo nen t s woul d s e em t o b e an inte res t i n g and impo r t ant f i eld o f s t udy th a t m i gh t p o s s i b ly lead t o the more r a t i onal use o f therapeu t i c d rugs abo u t the t ime o f parturi tio n..

(6) TABLE OF CONTENTS C H A PT E R. PAGE TI. ACKNOWLED3EMF.NTS. · A BST RA C T. III. V. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. 2. REVIEW OF THE LI'T'ERATURE. 2.1. 3. ANATOMY OF THE UTERUS. 3. 2. 1.1. Macroanatomy. 3. 2,1.2. Innervation. 5. 2.2. U TERINE PHYSIOLOGY. 6. 2.3. HOl�vJONES AFFECTING. 2.3.1. Oxy t ocin. 2.3.2. Es tr o g en. 2.4 3 3· 1. 9. 11. TECHNIQUES. USED FOR RECORDING. UTERI1�E ACTIVI'l'Y. 17. DEVELOPHENT O F. 17. A RECORDING DEVIC E. Preliminary trial. 3.1.2. Closed. 17. catheter with. rubber sensor. diaphragm. TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING THE RESISTANCE OF THE DIAPHRAGH. 3·3. RECORDING PROCEDURE. Introducing the recording. 3.3.2. Procedures. tube into. the uterus. 27. used in obtaining recordings of. 29. AND DISCUSSIONS. 37. PATTERNS OF BOVINE UTERD!E AC T I VI TY. cows and between days. 4.1.1. Differences. 4. 1. 2. The lack of effect of body. between. local irrit ation or. movements. 37. 37. 42. 4.1.3. Uterine. 4.1.4. Frequency of uterine contractions. 46. 4.1.5. The intra-uterine "lumen". 48. 4.2. DISCUSSION. 48. 4.3. EFFECT OF OXYTOCIN. 51. 4 .. 3.1. Uterine response to oxytocin. 51. 4.3.2. The response. dose of oxytocin. 5L�. 4.3.3. Duration of. action of oxytocin. 54. 4 .l�. •. 20. uterine muscle activity. RESULTS. 4· 1. 18. 27. 3.3.1. 4. 13. MATERIALS AND tfSTHODS. 3· 1. 1. 3.2. 8. UTERINE ACTIVI'I'Y. pressure. DISCUSSION. 42. 54.

(7) ,.. Lfi.5. 4.5.1. 4.5 •.2. 4.6. 4.7. 4.7.1. 4.7.2. 5. 4.8. ESTROGEN ADMINISTRATION. TO SPAYED C OWS. Palp able change s of the uterus Uterine res p onse t o oxyto cin DISCUSSION EFFECTS OF MILKING AND ADRENALINE. 61. 61 61. 64. 66. Milking. 66. Adrenaline. 66. DISCUSSION. 66. GENERAL DISCUSSION REFERENCES APPENDICES. 69. 73. 83.

(8) LIST OF FIGURES Page. No. 1.. Construction of the closed catheter with rubber 19. sensor diaphragm 2. Apparatus used to determine the resistance factor of the sensor diaphr agm. 3 . Te s ti 11 g in vitro of the resistance factor. 23 and. in vivo measuring of the uterine pressure. 4. Patterns of uterine activity of normal cows showing differences between cows and between days 5. Patterns of uterine activity of normal cows at estrus showing differences between cows. 25. 38 39. 6. Patterns of uterine activity in normal cows showing. differences between days according to the stage of 40. the estrous cycle. 7. Patterns of uterine activity of. spayed cows showing. 41. differences between days. 8. Patterns of uterine activity of normal cows showing momentary effect of uterine palpation, cervical palpation,. 43. couching and bellowing. 9. Patterns of uterine activity interrupted by arching of the back, urination and defecation 10.. Patterns of uterine activity showing lack of effect of body movements and. 11.. environmental noise. l }j. Changes in the pattern of uterine contraction due to oxytocin administration. 12.. 44. 52. Changes in the pattern of uterine contraction after doses of oxytocin administered intravenously at. intervals of 40 minutes ( Note after. 10 U). 13. Changes in the patter n of uterine contraction after doses� oxytocin administered intravenously at. 14.. intervals of 40 minutes ( Note after 20 U). 55. 56. Changes in the pattern of uterine contraction before, during and after the action of oxytocin. 57. 15. Patterns of uterine contraction in spayed cows showing active contractions and the response to oxytocin before,and during the action of estrogen. 62.

(9) ·-. 16. The response of the quiescent uterus in spayed cows to oxytocin befoTe, during and after the action of. estrogen. 63. 17. Changes in the pattern of uterine contraction due to the effects of milking and adr�naline. 67. LIST OF PLA'rES. 1.. IN VITRO. testing of the resistance factor of the. sensor diaphragm of the recording tube 2. IN VIVO measurement of uterine pressure. 24 28. 3. The Longdwel intravenous needle and dripset tube with adaptor, in position. 33. LIST OF TABLES I.. Uterine recordings of spayed cows before and after estrogen treatment. 42. II. Pressure of uterine tonicity. pressure of uterine contraction, and frequency of uterine contractions before and after oxytocin treat�ent III.. IV.. 47. Summary of effects of oxytoc�n given by the intravenous, intramuscular or epidur�l route. 53. Effect of oxytocin on uterine contractions. 58. APPENDICES. I. II.. F.xperiments on cow 350. 83. Experiments on cow 350 (spayect). 84. III. Experiments on cow D41 IV. v.. 85. Experiments on cow D41 (spayed). 86. Experiments on cow X88167(spayed). 87. VI. Experiments on. COVI. B2 (spayed). VII. Experiments on cow D318 and cow D542. 88 89.



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