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Rochester Institute of Technology

RIT Scholar Works

Theses

Thesis/Dissertation Collections

1994

Response of U.S.A. owned hotels to the drug-free

workplace act of 1988: A Case study

Yun-Min Ha

Follow this and additional works at:

http://scholarworks.rit.edu/theses

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(2)

RESPONSE OF U.S.A. OWNED HOTELS TO

THE DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE ACT OF1988:

A CASE STUDY

By

Yun-minHa

A Projectsubmittedto the

FacultyoftheSchoolofFood,HotelandTravelManagement

at

Rochester InstituteofTechnology

inpartialfulfillmentoftherequirement

of

MasterofScience

(3)

FORM I ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

School of Food, Hotel and Travel Management Department or Graduate Studies

M.S. Hospitality-Tourism Management Presentation or 'lIIIIiI/Project Findines

Name: Yun-min Ha Date:2/22/94)S#: _

(Chairperson) Title of Research: RESPONSE OF U. S. A. OWNED HOTELS TO

THE DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE ACT OF 1988:

A CASE STUDY

Specific Recommendations: (Use other sideifnecessary.)

Thesis Committee: (1) Edward B. Stockham, ph.D.

(2) _

OR (3) _

Faculty Advisor: Edward B. Stockham, ph.D.

Number of Credits Approved: --"3~ _

1/~/9'(

Date Committee Chairperson's Signature

<9§d/qt/

;

Date Department Chairperson's Signature

Note: This form will not be signedby the Department Chairperson until all corrections, as suggested in the specific recommendations (above) are completed.

(4)

FORMK

ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

School of Food, Hotel and Travel Management Department of Graduate Studies

M.S. Hospitality-Tourism Management

Statement Grantine or Denyjne Penuission to Reproduce Desis/Proiect

The author of a thesis or project should complete one of the following statements and include this statement as the page following the title page.

Title of thesis/project: RESPONSE OF U. S • A. OWNED HOTELS TO

THE DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE ACT OF 1988:

A CASE STUDY

I, Yun-min Ha . hereby~deny) permission to the

Wallace Memorial library of R.I.T., to reproduce the document titled above in

whole or part. Any reproduction will not be for commercial use or profit.

OR

I, -',prefer to be contacted each time a

request for reproduction is made. I can be reached at the following address:

(5)

2!.XY'1Lt-ABSTRACT

RESPONSE OF U.S.A. OWNED HOTELSTO

THE DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE ACT OF1988

by

Yun-minHa

Alcoholanddrugabusehas been causingtremendousproblemsin American

workforces everyday. Themisuse of alcoholanddrug finallyleadthegovernmenttoreact

to theproblems. In March 1989,Drug-Free Workplace Actof1988wentintoeffect,

establishingthegoal of adrug-freeworkplace.

Thepurpose ofthisstudy istofindouthow14majorU.S. ownedhotelsare

respondingtoDrug-Free WorkplaceActof1988. Inordertofindout, a 10item

questionnaire wasdevelopedand usedtointerview humanresources executives. Fromthe

sample of14hotels, 11hotels(78.5%)responded. The surveyresults showedthat63.6%

ofhotels haverespondeddirectlyto theActof1988. However,90%ofhotels have had

writtenpolicies on alcoholandsubstance abuse whichcanbe interpretedas maybe some

hotelswerenot aware oftheActof1988. Also, 90%ofhotelsprovide education

programs on alcoholanddrugproblems,as well astreatmentprograms(72.7%). Most

hotelsuse outsidetreatmentprograms,whileonlyafew hotels(18%)have in-house

programs orthecombinationofin-houseand outside programs. Forsomecases,evenif

theydonothaveatreatmentprogram,theyatleast havealternativeprogramstoassist

troubledemployees.

Oneinterestingfactorwasthatonly27.2%ofhotels responding saidtheyrequired

drug-screeningtests,however,64%ofhotelsrequireddrugtestsaccordingto their

written policies on alcohol anddrugabuse. Therefore,quite afewrespondentsmaynot

(6)

Mosthotels(72.7%)seetheproblem quite seriously. Ona scale of1(lessserious)to5

(veryserious),themean was3.5. The remaining hotels didnot respondtothisquestion.

Thewritten policies onAlcoholandSubstanceAbusewhich weresentbynine

hotelscanbesummarizedthefollowing:

1. Theyprohibit alcohol and substance abuseintheirpremises onCompanytime.

2. Theyrequire either apre-or post-employment

drug screeningtest.

3. Theyprovide educationprograms, counseling,treatment,and rehabilitation

programs undercomplete confidentiality.

4. Theconsequencesof violation wouldbedisciplinaryactionupto,and

including,tennination.

Sincealcoholand substance abuseisaverysensitive and seriousproblem,the

studyrecommendsthathotelsaddresstheprobleminthefollowingways: 1. Policy- Setthe

policyonAlcoholandSubstance Abuse

1.1. Purpose

1.2. Policy

1.3. Procedure

1.3.1. Setthecompany-wide education system.

1.3.2. Trainsupervisorsand managerstoidentifypossibletroubled

employees.

1.3.3. Provideatreatmentprogram.

1.3.4. Requireapre-drugtestforallapplicants, a randompost-drug

test,andafollow-uptestforall current employees. 1.4. Supportsystemina realistic way.

1.5. Follow-upwiththe treatedemployees.

(7)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES hi

LIST OF FIGURES iv

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

Introduction 1

Problem. 3

Purpose 4

Methodology 5

ScopeandLimitation 9

CHAPTERn. REVIEWOFLITERATURE

AlcoholandSubstance Abuse intheWorkplace 12

Drug-Free WorkplaceActof1988 18

AlcoholandSubstance Abuse Education 20

EmployeeAssistanceProgram. 24

EmployeeDrug ScreeningTest 35

CHAPTERHI. RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONS

SurveyResults 42

Written PoliciesonAlcoholandSubstance Abuse 46

CHAPTERIV. CONCLUSION ANDRECOMMENDATION

Conclusion 54

(8)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Continued)

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 61

APPENDICES

A. QuestionnairewithaSummaryofResults 65

B. ListofControlled Substances 70

(9)

LISTOFTABLES

1. PercentagesofSupervisorsTakingVariousActionstoDealwithAlcohol

Problems,bySkill LevelofEmployee Supervised 23

2. EducationandPrevention Activities 23

3. EffectivenessofInternalandExternal EAPs 34

4. Drug TestingProgramsbySelected Industries 36

5. Process forSetting-Up Drug Testing 39

6. SummaryofQuestion 1 - 10 45

7. ComparisonandSummaryofPoliciesonAlcoholandDrugAbuseof

Hilton,HospitalityFranchiseSystem,andOmni 47

8. ComparisonandSummaryofPoliciesonAlcoholandDrugAbuseof

RadissonandSheraton 51

9. ComparisonandSummaryofPoliciesonAlcoholandDrugAbuseof

HobdayInnandMarriot 53

(10)

LIST OF FIGURES

1. HowanAlcohol Employee Behaves 13

2. Men & Women: OccupationswithAbove-Average Prevalenceof

Abuse-Dependence SyndromesInvolvingAlcoholorOther Drugs 15

3. Men& Women: OccupationswithBelow-Average Prevalenceof

Abuse-DependenceSyndromesInvolvingAlcoholorOtherDrugs 16

(11)

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Substanceabuse- the

misuse of alcohol anddrugs- isa nationwide problemthat

has had bothadirectandindirectbearingonthehealthandwell-beingofindividual,

familiesand employers. Itisa problemthatisnowbecoming increasinglyvisible,

especiallyintermsofhow itaffects peopleintheworkplace.

Employeealcoholism anddrugabuse are estimatedtocostAmericanbusinessand

industrybillionsofdollarseach year. Severalresearchstudieshaveputthe totalcost of

substance abuse at about$102billionper year. However,agreement ontheactual cost of

alcoholism anddrugabusetobusinessandindustry is,ofcourse, virtuallyimpossible.

GiventhatmostAmericanswork,it isnotsurprisingthatseveral studiesindicated

thatsubstanceabuse canbe found intheworkplaceasit is inthegeneral population.

Substanceabuseprobablyoccursamongalldemographicgroups,inahindustriesandinall

partsofthecountry.

Fortunately,businessleaders,as well as government officials andindividual

citizens,havelongrecognizedtheseriousness of substance abuseintheworkplace. Many

companies,infact,havealreadyimplementedanti-substance abuse programs. Oneofthe

most effective and widespread anti-abuse strategiesistodevelopan employeeassistance

(12)

Theproblems relatetosubstanceabusehave beensoenormous,thefederal

governmentfinallydecidedtopasstheDrug-FreeWorkplaceActof1988thatwentinto

affectinMarch, 1989. The Drug-FreeWorkplaceActof1988recognizedthatillegal

druguseis seriouslyimpairingaportion ofthenational workforce,resulting inthelossof

billionsofdollarseach year. Asanemployer,acompanyisconcerned withthewell-being

ofitsemployees,thesuccessful accomplishment ofcompany missions,andtheneedto

maintain employee productivity. Theintentofthepolicyistooffer ahelpinghandto

thosewho needit,whilesendinga clear messagethatanyillegaldruguseis incompatible

withindustry'sobjectives.

The Drug-Free WorkplaceActof1988requiresthefollowing:

'Federalgovernmentcontractors and employersthatreceivefederalgrantsto

maintaindrug-freeworkplace.

Allcontracts/grantsare subjectto therequirements regardless ofdollarvalue.

Acompanymust publish apolicyprohibitingtheunlawfulmanufacturing,

distribution, dispensation,possession, or use of controlled substanceinthe

workplace and actionsthatwillbetaken.

Acompanyestablishesadrug-freeawarenessprograms such asEmployee

Assistance Programs(EAPs)advisingemployersand employees aboutthe

dangersofdrugabuseintheworkplace.

Acompanyinformsemployeesthattheyarerequired,as a condition of

(13)

Theemployernotifiesthefederal contractingagencies ofanyemployee

convictions.

Theemployertakesappropriate action against an employee convicted of a

drugoffenseincludingpossibletermination,required rehabilitationtreatment.

Theemployer makes a goodfaithefforttomaintain adrug-free

workplace."

(Drug-Free WorkplaceAct, 1988).

In addition,manyemployershave institutedmandatoryurinetestingprograms as a

way toehminatedrugabuseintheworkplace. However,mandatoryurinetesting

programsarefraughtwithproblems. Thereare questions abouthowaccuratetestingis,

what a positive resultmeans,and whethermandatoryurinetestingis legal.

Problem Statement

Theeffects of substance abuseintheworkplacecreate avarietyof problemsfor

employees and employers. Examplesoftheseproblemsare:

Lessefficienton-the-job performance

Increasedtardiness

Increased absenteeism,illness, andinjury

Higheremployeeturnoverrate

Greateruse of company-paid medicalbenefits

(14)

Theresearchquestioninthiscasestudy is howmajorU. S. ownedhotelsare

respondingtoDrug-Free Workplace Actof1988. haordertohave drug-freeworkplaces,

it isneededtoknowwhetherhotelsrealize:

Awarenessof alcohol and substance problems.

Policyon alcohol andsubstanceabuse.

Educationagainst alcohol and substance abuse.

Treatmentprogramsor alternative programs.

Drugscreeningtests.

Potentialdangersof alcohol and substance abuseinthefuture.

Purpose

Thepurpose ofthiscasestudywastodetermine how14majorU.S. ownedhotel

corporationshaverespondedtoDrug-Free WorkplaceActof1988,and whatkindof

policyand programtheyhaveestablishedinplanstodealwith employees who wouldbe

identifiedas alcohol and substance abusers. Itwasimportanttoidentifyhowtheywere

respondingto theDrug-FreeWorkplace Actof1988becausethehospitalityindustry

heavilyreliedonitsemployeestocreate anddeliver itsproducts,manyof which were

representedbypersonalservices performedbytheemployees. Thenature oftheservice

industryrequiredmanyofitsemployeestocomeindirectcontact withcustomers,and

poor performance and attitudes could resultinsubstantiallossof repeatbusinessand

(15)

Methodology

This studyexamineshow14samplehotelsarerespondingtotheDrug-Free

Workplace Actof1988through theanalysisof writtenpolicies anddatacollectedfrom

Human Resourcesatcorporateheadquarters. Fordatacollection,telephoneinterviews

wereconductedtoHuman Resourcesexecutivesaskingquestionnaires,and some were

donebymailsurvey. In addition,secondary datasources were collectedbyliterature

reviewinordertoseeinabroaderperspective whathas been done intheindustrytofight

against alcoholand substance abuse.

SamplePopulation

The14samplehotelswereselected onthesefollowingstandards:

Allheadquartersarelocated in U. S.

Allofthemare chainhotelswithmorethan40units.

Theyare affectedbysamelegislation.

(16)

Thelistof14majorU.S. ownedhotelssurveyedinthisstudy is below:

1. Best WesternInternational,Inc.

2. Choice Hotels International.

3. Days InnofAmerica,Inc.

4. Embassy Suites,Inc.

5. Hilton Hotels Corp.

6. HobdayInnWorldwide.

7. HowardJohnsonFranchiseSystem,Inc.

8. Hyatt HotelsCorp.

9. MarriottHotels,Resorts, andSuites.

10.Omni HotelsCorp.

11. RadissonHotels International.

12.RamadaInc.

13. SheratonHotels, Inns, Resorts,and allSuites Worldwide.

(17)

Instrument

Themajoritemsofthesurvey instrument includedquestions on:

1. Hasyourhotelrespondedto theDrug-FreeWorkplaceActof1988?

2. Doesyourhotel have anywrittenpolicyon alcohol and substance abuse?

3. Doyouprovideanyemployee education programs on alcohol and substance

abuse?

4. Doyouhaveadesignatedpersonineachpropertyresponsibleforyour

program?

5. Doyou referemployeestoanytreatmentprograms such as employee

assistance programs?

6. If yes,is itanin-houseprogram or an outside program?

7. Ifyoudon'tprovideanything(EAPoreducation, etc.), doyouhavealternative

programstodealwiththisproblem?

8. Doesyourhotelprovide asupervisorytrainingprograminrecognition and

referral?

9. Doyourequire apre-orpost-employmentdrug

screeningtest?

10.Doyousee orforeseethealcoholand substance abuse as a serious problemin

(18)

Questiontenwhich wasthemajorpointofthesurvey askingwhetherthehotelswere

aware ofthealcohol and substanceabuse problem or not wasaskedattheendbecauseof

thesensitivityofthismatter(Thequestionnaireandthesummaryof results are providedin

Appendix A).

Data Collection Method

Telephoneinterviewingwastheprimarymethod usedfor datacollection. The

interviewsweredirectlyaimed atVice-presidentofHumanResources Departmentofthe

eachheadquarters. Inordertogetbettercooperation,telephoneinterviewsweredesigned

tocollectclarifyingand consistentinformationwithintenminutes. Inadditionto the

telephoneinterviews, faxingthequestionnaireswasfollowedto theexecutiveswho were

notwillingtoprovideinformationbytelephone.

Theinitial literatureresearch was obtainedfromRITEmployee Assistance

Programwheretheresearcher receiveddataanddirectoriestocontactfor further

information.

Themainsecondarydatasources were collectedfromarticles,journalsand

textbookspublished abouttheproblem ofdrugsand alcoholintheworkplace,the

Drug-Free WorkplaceActof1988,Employee AssistanceProgram,andDrugtesting. Also,

inquirylettersand phone calls were madetoGovernmentofficialssuch asThe American

CouncilonAlcoholismHelpline,The National CouncilonAlcoholismandDrug

(19)

Data AnalysisandReporting

Analysisof10questionsfrom interviewsand comparison ofpolicyand procedure

ofresponding hotelswere madetoidentifythesimilaritiesamongcompanies andto

categorizetheextentofthenresponsesto theDrug-Free Workplace Actof1988.

Assumptions

Thehospitality industryas awhole,hasbeenslowtoreactto theissue,andit

appearsthatnoneoftheleading hospitalityfirms havetakena public stance on alcohol and

substance abuse andtheproblemsthatare associated withit. Therefore,it isabouttime

forhospitalitycompaniestoexpandthenawareness ofthedimensionsand costs ofthe

problem,andtobuildsupport programsfor directaction againstsubstanceabuseinthe

workplace.

ScopeandLimitations

Thisstudywillshowhow14 sampleU.S. ownedhotelscomplytoDrug-Free

WorkplaceActof1988.

Also,thisstudy'slimitationswouldbegettinginformationfrom VP'sofHuman

Resourcesat central offices of majorhospitalityfirmssincethestudy dealswith sensitive

(20)

LongRange Consequences

Afterthestudy isdone,thisstudywillbeusedas aninitialguideline fora

hospitalityfirmtorealize wheretheystandinordertomakedrug-freeworkplaceandto

leadthefirmtoputmore efforttomakebetter.

This studywill provide enoughinformationtoplacetheissue in itsproper

perspectiveand allowthereadertodecidethebestwaytodealwith problems relatedto

thesubstanceabuseinthecompanies.

Definition

1. Alcoholabuse

Alcoholabuseisa condition whichischaracterizedbythedrinker'sconsistent

inabilitytochoose whethertodrinkatall,ortostopdrinkingwhenhe has

obviouslyhadenough.

2. Drugabuse

Drugabuseistheuse of adrugforotherthanmedicinal purposes whichresults

intheimpairedphysical, mental,emotional or socialwell-beingoftheuser.

Drugmisuseistheunintentional orinappropriateuse of prescription or

over-the-counterdrugs,with similar results.

3. Troubledemployees

(21)

4. Drugtesting

Drug screeningortestingisatechniqueusedtoascertain which employees or

prospective employees areusingorhave beenusingalcohol ordrugs.

Althoughit istruethatthe testsarequicklygiven and resultsgenerallyeasyto

obtain,therearemany logisticalandlegalproblems associated withthe testsat

allphases.

5. Employeeassistance programs

EAPsare programs aimed atidentifyingandrehabilitatingemployees who

havesubstanceabuseproblems,as well as other personal problemsthat

(22)

CHAPTERH

REVIEW OFLITERATURE

AlcoholandSubstance Abuse intheWorkplace

Theproblemof substance abuseintheworkplaceisnot new. Today,in everyday

America,substance abuseispresentthroughout theworkplace anditcosts employersbig

money.

Aswellasthecost of alcohol and substance abusetobusinessesandindustries,

thereare alsolosesthatare noteasytoquantifysuch asthecosts of:

Accidentsandinjuries;

Poordecisionmakingat ahlevelsofmanagement;

Workerrors;

Adverseeffectsonthemorale and performance ofco-workers;

Tardiness;

Wastedsupplies andmaterials;

Absenteeism;

Replacementandtraining(Scanlon, 1986).

Figure 1 showshowalcoholic

employees'

behaviorsare changedbytheyears of alcohol

[image:22.490.89.383.301.501.2]
(23)

A studyofthreecommunities conductedintheearly1980sbytheNational

InstituteofMental Healthfoundthatabout 13percent ofthepopulation sufferedfrom

alcoholabuseoralcoholism Thehospitalityindustryalmostcertainly hasahigher

percentageofemployeeswho areaddictedor substance abusersthan thegeneral

population representedinthisstudy(Quick, 1987).

Figure 1.

HowanAlcohol Employee Behaves

Behavior

EarlyPtiaw .Dnnkjto nbm

YearsofAlcoholicAddiction

[image:23.490.66.407.253.556.2]
(24)

Accordingto therecentstudyconductedbyAnthony, Eaton, Mandell,and

Garrison(1992),aboutonein12 adultsintheworkforce(8.4%)isaffectedby drugor

alcoholabuse,using data fromabout 12,000currently full-timeemployed andformerly

employed adults age18-64yearsold. Also,thisstudy findsthatseveral occupationshave

aparticularlyhighprevalence of active alcohol ordrugabuse. Evenwhenholding

constant suspectedconfoundingvariables suchasage, sex,andeducation,theoccupations

with ahigherthanaverage prevalenceincludes:

Constructionlaborers- 38%

Carpenters-23%

Sales, retail,andpersonal services- 17%

Waitersand waitresses- 12%

Foodpreparation occupations- 9%

Astheyaredescribed,few jobsareinvolved inthehospitalityindustry. Otheroccupations

with above-average prevalence estimates are showninFigure 2. However,thereare other

groupsfound lowerthanaverage prevalence are shownin Figure 3. Amongthoselower

than themean prevalencefromall workersintheservice sector are:

Healthprofessionals- 1%

Teachers:collegelevel- 2.8%

Cooks(exceptshort-order)- 5.4%

Nursingaides, orderlies,&attendants- 5.8%

(25)
[image:25.490.76.394.109.532.2]

Figure 2.

Men& Women: OccupationswithAbove-AveragePrevalenceofAbuse-Dependence

SyndromesInvolvingAlcoholorOther Drugs

ALLWORKERS (MEANPREVALENCE) Repairer:electric&electronicequipment

Cashiers Foodpreparationoccupations,nos Repairer: industrial machinery Protectiveservices

Sales: other,nos Machineoperators:assorted materials Stockhandlersandbaggers Sales:apparel

Precisionworkers: assortedmaterials

Scientists: math, computer,natural

Machineoperators, assemblers,inspectors,nos Otherfabricators,assemblers,handworkers Machineoperators:machine notspecified

Accountants&auditors

Healthaides(exceptnursing) Management-relatedoccupations, nos Machineoperators: miscellaneous

Painters:construction&maintenance

Laborers (except construction) Repairers:vehicles&mobile equipment

Welders&cutters Waiters&waitresses

Writers,artists,athletes,entertainers

Technologists: engineering&related

Clerks:stock&inventory Janitors&cleaners Machineoperators:printing

Machineoperators: metal&plastics Repair occupations,nos Groundskeepers&gardeners

Precisionmetalworkers

Equipmenthandlers,cleaners, laborers Farmworkers Sales:retail&personal services

Driversofheavytrucks Miscellaneousmechanics&repairers

Transport& movingoccupations

Automechanic

Otherconstructiontrades Moverorhandleroffreight&stock

Carpenter Construction laborer

Estimated PrevalenceofAlcoholorDrug

Abuse-Dependence Syndromes(%)

Source:Anthony,JamesC, Eaton,WilliamW Mandell, Wallace,&Garrison,Roberta.(1992,Summer).Journal

(26)
[image:26.491.93.404.115.533.2]

Figure 3.

Men & Women: OccupationswithBelow-Average PrevalenceofAbuse-Dependence

SyndromesInvolvingAlcoholorOther Drugs

Technologists &technicians,clinicallaboratory Nursesregistered(RN) Hearthprofessionals:diagnosis & treatment Teachers: secondaryschool

Teachers-elementaryschool Financialrecordsprocessingworkers,nos

Nurses: licensedpractical(LPN)

Communicationequipment operators - Machineoperators:textile sewing,nos

Servants &cleaners:privatehousehold,nos Pnvale householdoccupations,nos

Secretaries Teachers,

post-secondary Inspectors,checkers.&examiners: productiontrades Supervisors:generaloffice Technologists & technicians;hearth-related,nos Teachers,nos Computerequipmentoperators Professional specialtyoccupations, nos Teachers &counselors,nos

Clerks:generaloffice Records processingworkers, nos Technicians,nos Data-entrykeyers Handpackersand packagers

Socialworkers Supervisors'

admnislrative support,nos

Hairdressers &cosmetologists Cooks {except short-order)

Supervisors-production occupations

Sales:counter clerks

Lawyers Banktellers Adjusters &investigators Nursingaides, orderlies,&attendants

Childcareworkers(exceptpnvalehousehold) Computerprogrammers

Clerks:bookkeepering,accounting,& auditing Administrativesupportworkers,miscellaneous

Managers &administrators,nos

Administrativesupport workers, nos Personalserviceworkers,nos

'

Receptionists\ Maids &

housemen' Farming, forestry,fishingoccupations, nos

Salesworkers:commodities Executives:administrative&managerial

Typists " Supervisors &proprietors'

sales Policeguards(exceptprotective

Salesrepresentatives:finance & business Precision textileoccupations

Foodpreparationoccupations: miscellaneous

Clerks:shipping,traffic, & receiving Personneltraining& labor-relatedspecialists

Occupationnotreported

Production inspectors, testers,samplers, nos Materialrecorders&schedulers,nos

Assemblers Mail &messagedistributingoccupations Machineoperators:textile,apparel,furnishing,nos Engineers,architects,&surveyors

ALL WORKERS (MEANPREVALENCE) 1

1 ' 'I '"i' ' i '

i' 'i

012345678 Estimated PrevalenceofAlcoholorDrug

Abuse-DependenceSyndromes(%)

Source:Anthony,JamesC, Eaton,WUliamW.,MandeU,WaUace,&Garrison,Roberta.(1992,Summer).Journal ofemployee assistance research.1 (1). p 157.

(27)

Inordertounderstandthesituation on alcoholand substanceabuseproblems,it is

significanttorecognizethealcohol and substance abuseproblem;toidentifythe

individual'sproblemwithsubstanceabuse oraddiction;andtoidentifythe treatment

alternativesthatare available.

Alcoholanddrugs

Althoughmuch ofthecontroversy involvedwith substance abuseintheworkplace

dealswithillicit drugssuch ascocaine, marijuana,andPCP,theextent of alcohol abusein

theworkplacefarexceedstheabuse of allillegal drugscombined. Theillegal drugs

includingcocaine, marijuana,heroin,mescaline,LSD,peyote,PCP,amphetamines,

barbiturates,codeine,andbenzodiazepinesareitemizedand explainedin AppendixB.

Addiction

Recentstudyindicatesthatof alltheindividualswho abuse alcohol anddrugs,

about20percent willbecomealcoholics ordrugaddicts(Thompson,Jr. 1990). The

natureof alcohol ordrugaddictionissuchthatit beginsto takeovertheindividual's life.

Asaresult,alcoholics and addictsdonotleavetheiralcohol ordrugproblemsatthedoor

whentheywalkintowork.

Manyemployersdenytoadmitthat theremightbeapossibilityof alcohol ordrug

problemsintheircompaniesandtherefore,thatcouldmissanopportunitytohelpan

employeetogetbackonhealthylife. Substanceabuseisnotgetting betterby ignoringit.

(28)

seriousnessoftheproblem. That's whytherearefederallaw,as well asfederal

regulations whichimpactonalcoholand substance abuseprograms, andtheDrug-Free

Workplace Actof1988isone of them.

Drug-Free Workplace Actof1988

The Drug-Free Workplace Actof1988,passedbyCongressonOctober21, 1988,

as part ofthelarger legislationentitledtheAnti-DrugAbuse Actof1988,requiresmost

federalcontractors and allfederalgrantrecipientstoimplementa comprehensive

substance abuse policy.

Whois Affected?

Youare notcoveredbytheActunless:

Youhavea single contract withtheFederalGovernmentof$25,000or more.

Youreceivea grantfromtheFederalGovernment.

However,all employees offederalgrantees or contractorsare coveredonlythose

employees"directly

engaged"

intheperformance of work onthefederalcontract or grant.

(29)

Whatisrequired?

Ifyouare coveredbytheAct,you are requiredto:

Certifythatyou willprovideadrug-freeworkplace. Thiscertificationispart

ofthefinalcontractorgrantagreement andisa requirementforreceivingthe

contract or grant.

Publishastatementnotifyingyour employeesthat theunlawfulmanufacture,

distribution,dispensing,possession, or use of acontrolled substanceis

prohibitedintheworkplaceand what actions willbetakenagainst your

employeesforviolations.

Establishan ongoing,drug-freeawareness programtoinformyour

employees ofthechangesofdrugabuse,yourdrug-freeworkplacepolicy,the

availabilityofanydrugcounseling programs, rehabilitation,and employee

assistance programsandthepossible penaltiesfordrugabuse violations

occurringintheworkplace.

Requireeach employeedirectlyinvolvedintheworkofthecontact or grantto

notifyyou ofanycriminaldrugstatute convictionfora violationoccurring in

theworkplace.

NotifytheFederal Governmentof such a violation.

Requiretheimpositionof sanctions or remedial measuresforanemployee

convicted of adrugabuse violationintheworkplace.

(30)

Whatisnotrequired?

The Drug-Free Workplace Actof1988doesnot require youto:

Establishanemployeeassistance program.

Implementadrugtestingprogram(An Employer's GuidetoDealingwith

SubstanceAbuse,U.S. DepartmentofLabor,October 1990).

A copyoftheDrug-Free Workplace Actof1988isavailablein Appendix C.

AlcoholandSubstance Abuse Education

Thegreatestlong-rangeproblemthatmanymanagersfeel isnotthepresentdrug

abuserintheindustry,butemployees whodonot usedrugssinceemployees, especially

youngerones,arebeginningtoacceptdrugsas asociallyacceptable. Sothechallengeis

inkeepingthemabletowithstandthepressuresthatpushtheminthedirectionof

experimentingwithdrugs.

Everyoneknowsthatit iseasiertostopor minimizebefore itstarts. Onlythrough

education can reducethe spreadofdrugs intheworkplace. Inordertohavean effective

educationsystem,employeetrainingdrugeducation must:

Communicatewithinthecontext of adrug-using society.

Theone-waycommunication whichismostlyused wouldjusttellswhatthe

managementthinksemployees shouldknow. Thiscan'tbeveryeffective. The

most effectivewayshouldbethetwo-waycommunicationbetweenthe

employerandtheemployeecommunicatingwithinthecontextof adrug-using

(31)

Developprogramsbasedonparticipatoryeducation.

Anotherimportant thinginasuccessfuldrugeducation programismutualtrust betweeneach other. Trustwillhappen basedon understanding. Inordertounderstand

employees'

feelingsaboutdrugs,theemployer shouldbeginwiththisfollowingsteps: 1. Familiarizeyourself withthedrugscene asit is known inthe"straight"world

doctors,socialworkers,topmanagement, governmentliterature.

2. Familiarizeyourself withhowtheyounger generationthinksaboutthedrug

scene.

3. Developimaginativewaysofcommunicatingwith youth aboutdrugabuse,

preferablybasedonparticipatoryeducation.

Also,an employeeeasilytrustsfellowemployees morethan themanagement.

Therefore,itis helpfultodevelopan education program which canbeused and applied

amongemployees. Followingare guidelinesthatmaybe helpfultocreatetheeducation program:

1. Ideally,baseyoureducation on adialoguewith youremployees. Makethe

processatwo-waycommunicationinvolvingthemintheaction.

2. Donotindoctrinate;rather, conveyinformationthatisas accurate as you know howtomakeit,and answerquestions.

3. Ahmembers of managementparticipatingintheeducation process should

eitherknowthedrugscene wellor admitthattheydonot.

(32)

5. Ifpossible,broaden rap sessionsandgroup discussionstoincludefamilies,

especiallyparentswho need moreinformationaboutdrugabuse (Chambers &

Heckman, 1972).

Inadditiontoeducatingemployees,trainingsupervisors and managersis helpful

process sincesupervisorsareinthepositionforthecompanytodependontomakea

successful alcohol and substance abuseprogram Therearetypesof actions couldbe

takenbysupervisorsat various skilllevelstohandlethealcohol problems(seeTable 1)

(Masi, 1984). That'swhy providinga propertrainingprogramtosupervisorsisessential.

Also,inTable2,accordingtotheHumanInteractionResearchInstitute,a considerable

amount oftrainingrelatedtodrugabuseisprovidedforsupervisors(88.6%)and

top-management(77.7%)inorganization as education andpreventingactivities(Backer &

(33)
[image:33.490.47.365.89.526.2]

Table 1.

PercentagesofSupervisorsTakingVarious ActionstoDealwithAlcoholProblem,by

Skill LevelofEmployees Supervised

Shll Level of EmployeesSupervised

Some Skilled Some All Unskilled' Only Professional* Levels

Types of Action <N=22) (N=33) (N=33) (N=88)

Failedlohelpemployeet 36.0 18.0 9.0 19.0

Referredemployee elsewhere in

organization 18.0 6.0 18.0 14.0

Counseledemployee 32.0 33.0 36.0 34.0

Referredemployeeforhelp* 14.0 42.0 36.0 33.0

100.0 99.0 99.0 100.0

X1= 10.89,6df,p<.10

Combinedcategoriesto meetchi-squarerequirementsforallsizes. tEithertook actiondetrimentaltoemployeeor noaction.

^Referredtoalcoholcoordinator,medicalresources, orotherhelpingresources.

Table 2.

EducationandPreventionActivities

Activity

Trainingforsupervisors

Trainingfor topmanagement

Educationtoworkers onthedangersofdrugabuse

anditsconsequences

Manuals/handbooksforsupervisors and managers

Organization-widecampaigns

Educationtofamilymembers

Stressmanagementtrainingwithadrugabuse emphasis

Community-basedcampaigns

Percemaee

88.6

77.7

74.4

66.4

56.6

44.6

36.6

28.6

Source:Backer,Thomas E. &O'Hara,Kirk B. (1991). Organizationalchangeanddrug-freeworkplace:Templates

[image:33.490.62.317.110.261.2]
(34)

Thepurposeof ahsupervisorytrainingistoeducateandmotivate. Accordingto CampbellandGraham(1988),theyrecommendtwo trainingsforsupervisors. Thefirst one will educate andmotivatewiththeaim ofimmediateprogramimplementation. The

secondtrainingisatroubleshooting sessioninwhich specificsupervisoryproblems are

discussed,andthereactive problems of supervisors are addressed.

Employee AssistanceProgram(EAP)

DefinitionofEmployee AssistanceProgram

Moreand more employers now recognizethat theiremployees are a valuable

resource. Becausepoor employee performance canleadthecompany into substantial

economiclosses, companieshave increasedthevariousformsof employee assistance

programs(EAPs). "Employee AssistancePrograms"

isa generictermusedtoidentifyany

servicethataddressesthepersonal problems of an employee(Scanlon, 1986). EAPs

motivatedtroubledemployeestoresolvetheirtroubles, and providedaccesstocounseling

ortreatmentfortheemployeeswhorequirethem. EAPsnotonlyoffer ahumanistic

answertomeetingtheneeds oftroubledemployees,buttheyare cost efficient as well

(35)

Historical PerspectiveofEAPs

Employeeassistance programsbegan appearing incorporateNorth America in

1940swhen alcohol abuse wasfirstaddressed as a major problemamongemployees

(Archer, 1977). EAPstrace theirrootsto theindustrialalcoholism and occupational

mental-healthprogramsthatwerebegunduringWorldWarH Theevolution ofthe

conceptfromhelpingemployeeswithdrinkingproblemstohelpingemployeeswithany

personal problems pickedupmomentumin 1965whenastudybytheNational Councilon

Alcoholism indicatedthatprogramsshouldfocusonjobperformance ratherthan

alcohohsm symptomsforthepurpose ofearly identificationof alcoholismemployees

(Scanlon, 1986). Eventually,thebroaderconcept cametobecalled employee assistance

programs.

Nowadays,corporations areturningincreasinglytoemployeeassistance programs

todealwith

employees'

alcohol and substance abuseproblems,wellnessprograms,

financial,emotional,and marital counseling. Thereare over18,000EAPsinoperation

acrossthe country invarioussizes andtypes(Quick, SonnenstublandTrice, 1987).

Basically, allEAPsreinforcethreeimportant ideas:

1. Employeesare a vital part of abusinessand valuablemembersofthe team.

2. Itis bettertooffer assistancetoemployeesexperiencingpersonal problem

than to disciplineorfirethem

3. Recoveringemployeesbecomeproductive and effective members ofthework

(36)

TypesofEAPs

Generally,therearetwo typesofEAP:thein-houseprogram and outside program.

Traditionally,thein-houseprogramischaracterizedby havingan employeetodevoteall

or some portion ofhisorherworktime toEAP(Masi, 1984). Responsibilitieswill

includetrainingsupervisors,maintainingtheemployee educationprogram, andworking

with managersandemployeestoscreen and makeinitialreferralstocommunityresources.

However,thein-houseprogramhas limitationssuch ascommitment, confidentiality,and

cost effectiveness comparetotheoutside program.

Inthesecondtype,the outsideprogram,theorganization contracts with an

externalprovider ofEAPservices whodealwitha wide range of problems(Roman,

1990). Also,accordingtoThompson,Jr.(1990), flexibility, location,confidentiality, and

various ofeconomyofscale are additional advantages ofhavingtheoutside program.

GuidelinesforEstablishingEAPs

AccordingtoThompson,Jr.,EAPshavecertainbasiccomponents which are

essentialtoestablishment ofanysuccessful program: complete managementsupport,a

well-defined programpolicy, a qualifiedEAPdirectorandstaff supervisorytraining,

employeeeducation, short-termcounseling services,and proper referral systemthat

(37)

ThecomponentsforanEAPareasfollows:

1. Managementsupport

Thesupport oftheorganization'skeypersonnelisvitalto theprogram's

existence. Thisincludesthosepeople who makedecisionsthataffecttheEAP

eitherdirectlyorindirectlyandthosewho operate as political alliesto theEAP.

2. Apolicystatement

Awritten programpohcyisessentialbecause itsetsforththeroles ofthose

who willimplementtheEAP. Thepohcystatement shouldinclude:

Thepurposeofthepohcy.

Organizationalmandatesforsuch a program andthesource of

authorityunder whichthepohcyisbeingwritten.

Locationoftheprogram.

Theehgibilityofemployeesfortheprogram' s services.

Theroles and responsibilities ofthevarious personnelinthe

organization.

The integrationoftheprogramintotheoverall management systems of

theorganization.

A delineationoftheproceduresfortheprogram's use.

Therecord-keeping procedures,which must emphasizeconfidentiality.

Thecriteriaforprofessionally staffingtheprogram

Theimportanceof and proceduresfor supervisorytraining.

(38)

Thestatementthatanemployee'sparticipationintheEAPwill not

jeopardizehisorher futureopportunities(Shain &Groeneveld, 1980).

3. Employee Assistance Programstaff

The EAPstaffischargedwithmanagingandcoordinatingtheEAP. AnEAP

shouldbestaffedbyqualifiedprofessionalssuch asclinicallylicensed

psychologists, psychiatrists, certifiedemployee assistance professionals

(CEAP),certified addictioncounselors,socialworkers,and psychiatric nurses.

4. Supervisorytraining

Itisveryimportant forsupervisorswellinformedoftheprogrampohcy,

believethatmanagement supportsit,and understandhowtocarryouttheir

functionsproperly. SupervisorytrainingsusuallyrunbytheEAPstaff whether

theEAPismaintainedinternallyorbyan outside contractor.

5. Employeeeducation

TheEAPaclministratorshall offerdrugeducationtoah employees. Drug

educationshouldincludeeducation andtrainingtoalllevelsofthe

employees on:

Typesand effects ofdrugs.

Symptomsofdruguse,andtheeffectson performance and conduct.

The relationshipoftheEAPtodrugtesting.

(39)

6. Short-term counselingservice

Whethertheemployer providesanin-house,anoutside,or acommunity

resourcenetwork,theEAPshouldprove someformof short-term counseling.

7. Referralandtreatment

Theideal EAPwillmakeprovisionforemployeestoseekreferrals,andthe

EAPshould provide aneasyaccessto thein-houseoroff-sitetreatment.

8. Follow-up

The finalcomponent of anEAPistherequirementthatitmakes provisionfor

follow-upwithclients sothatchangedbehaviorreceives positive reinforcement

(Bruce, 1990).

Methodsof referral

Therearethreewaysinwhichanemployee can getto thecompany EAP: as a

self-referraL as a medicalreferral,or as asupervisoryreferral. Themosteffective and

desirablemeans of referralis fortheemployeetoseekhelponhisorherown. Inaddition

tothat,thequalityofthereferralis determinedbyhowearlytheprogramisrecognized,

howtheemployeeisconfronted withthefactsofhisorherdecliningjobperformance,and

howsupportivetheEAPandthecoordinator's assistance are offeredto theemployee

(40)

1. Self-referral

Since EAPsaredescribedas an employer-sponsoredbenefit designedtooffer

employees andfamilymembers assistance with personalproblems,

managementshould make clearthatall employees who mighthave any

personalproblemstointerferewiththeirwork are welcometo takeadvantage

oftheEAPs. WhilesomeEAPsboasta self-referral rate ashighas60 percent,

inmost organizationemployeesarereferred,directlyorindirectly, by

supervisor(Scanlon, 1986).

Thebiggest obstacletoself-referralsisthestigmathat employeesmayfeelby

usingnamessuch asProgramsfor AlcoholicRecoveryorDrugAssistance

Programin EAPs. Also,confidentialityisanother criticalfactor forEAP

success. Finally,self-analysesareimportant forself-referralsbecausetheyhelp

employees,familymembers,peers,and supervisorsidentifypersonal

characteristicsandbehavioralpatternsindicativeoftheexistence of problems

(Myers, 1984).

2. Medicalreferral

Thismethod of referralisthat troubledemployees are simplyreferredbythe

medicaldepartment. Inthismethod,unlesstheemployee's conditionis

affectingjobperformance,ortheemployee'sbehavior jeopardizespersonal

safetyofothers,a medical referralisnotlikelytobeconsidered a condition

(41)

3. Supervisoryreferral

Supervisoryreferrals comprisethenecessarymechanismtoaddressthe

troubledemployee whochoosesnottoseek assistance ontheirown(Masi,

1984). Ifthisemployeealsohastheright,refusingtoacceptthereferral or not

cooperating intreatmentmayleadtodisciplinaryprocedures(Scanlon, 1986).

Figure4illustratesthestepsofsupervisoryreferral,andthecomponents of

steps are asfollows:

a. Asupervisorrecognizes an employee'sunsatisfactoryjobperformance.

b. Asupervisor conducts a correctiveinterviewwiththeemployee.

c. TheemployeeisofferedhelpfromEAP.

d. Theemployee, either, acceptsthehelpwhich wouldleadto the

satisfactoryprogress or refusesthehelpwhich wouldleadtothe

disciplinaryaction.

Finally,iftheseattemptsfail,mandatoryparticipationinandsatisfactory

completion oftheprogram mightberequired. Moreover,it iscrucialthat

supervisors receive propertraininginconstructive confrontationtechniques

(42)

Figure4. Procedural Flow Chart

SupervisorRecognizesindDocuments Employee'sUnsatisfactory

Job Performance

I

Consultwith

Program Coordinator

I

Consult With UnionRepresentative

ConductCorrectiveInterview

withEmployee

X

ConditionNotImproving

ConductSecondInterviewand OfferHelpfrom EAP

f =

D

EmployeeRefuses ProgramParticipation

EmployeeAccepts Program Participation

ProgressUnsatisfactory

DisciplinaryAction

ReferEmployeefor Professional Evaluation

andPlanofAction

SatisfactoryProgress

Final JobAction

3

c

JobPerformanceImproves

AcceptableJob Performance

[image:42.490.94.391.109.465.2]
(43)

EffectivenessofEAPs

There isnodisagreementthatEAPsprovide a valuablebenefit foremployees

whetherit is internalor externalEAPs. AccordingtoBacker& O'Hara(1991),the

effectiveness ofinternal EAPs is significantly higherthan theexternal programinaverage

(see Table 3). Further,theconsensusof opinionfromemployers whohave EAPsisthat

theprogramsarefinanciallybeneficialto thencompanies(Thompson, Jr., 1990).

Although EAPs have beencommonplaceamong businesses formorethan20

years,manycompanies arelookingtoEAPstoplaya more active roleinthechanging

workplacebeyondtreatmentforsuch afflictions as alcohol and substanceabuse,

depression,marital orjob-relatedstress.

Amongtherecenttrends, businessandEAPconsultantssaythatEAPsincreasingly

canhelp:

Reduceor stabilizethecost of psychiatric care ortreatmentfordrugand

alcoholabusebyconductinganinitialassessment anddirectingemployeesto

providerthatoffercost-effect care.

Rehabilitateworkerswhofaildrugtestsadministeredbyprivate companies

thatarecomplyingwithfederal lawsrequiringthemin industriessuch as

transportation, defenseand nuclear powertodrugtestemployeesthat

(44)

Increaseawareness of ethnic and culturaldiversitywithintheworkplace.

Morewomenand minorities are expectedtoenterthejobmarketthanwhite

males overthenextfewyears,dramaticallychangingthelookof workplaces

[image:44.490.59.400.238.394.2]

(Evans, 1992).

Table 3.

EffectivenessofInternalandExternalEAPs

Internal External

Average'

Average

4.13 355"

3.24 3.10'

3.40 3.23"

181 161*

331 3.05"

3.05 185*

3.08 3.08

QyiOime.

Helpingtroubledemployees

Increasingemployee morale andjobsatisfaction

Increasingjobperformanceandproductivity levels

Increasingvigilancetowardworker/publicsafetyissues

Reducingabsenteeism

Reducingemployeeturnover

Loweringworkerbenefitscosts

p< .01

"

p < .001

'Scale: 1 - Notatalleffective;2

-Slightlyeffective;3 Somewhateffective; 4 Significantly

effective;5

-Extremelyeffective.

Source:Backer,Thomas E. &O'Hara,KirkB. (1991). Orpni7ationalchange anddrug-freeworkplace:Templates

(45)

ConclusionofEAP

Employeeassistance programshave becometheprogramof choiceformost

employerstodealwith alcohol and substance abuse problems as well as other various

personal problems which would affectjobperformancesintheworkplace. EAPs'

primary

goals aretoidentifyemployeeswithproblems,motivatetheseemployeestoseek and

accepthelp,assesstheseproblemsand personalresourcesanddevelopa plan of actionto

assist employeesin gettingtheservicestheyneed sothattheymayberehabilitatedtolive

healthy,productivelives. Theachievement ofthesegoalsiscertainly possiblyunderany

well-definedandproperlyimplementedEAP(Thompson, Jr., 1990).

EmployeeDrug ScreeningTest

Sinceahthepolicies onAlcoholandDrugAbusereceivedfromtheresponding

hotelsarementioned,it issignificanttodiscussemployeedrugscreeningtests. Drug

testingisaninvasiveprocedure whichmay leadtoan applicant'sbeingdenied

employment,orto thedisciplineanddischargeof an employee whoisotherwise

performingsatisfactorily. Therefore, testinginthepubhc sector raises critical

constitutionalissuesabout

employees'

righttoprivacyanddueprocess. Theprivate

sectoris freertoimplementtestingprogramsbecauseit isnot requiredtoconduct

personnel practices so astoprotect

employees'

constitutionalrights(Khngnerand

O'Neill, 1991). Accordingto theHuman InteractionResearch Institute(HJRI)andthe

BureauofLabor Statistics(BLS),businessestablishmentsinmining, manufacturing,

(46)

(seeTable4)(Backer &O'Hara, 1991). Assuch,workplacedrugtestinghastakenon

increasingimportance,andcontroversy, inthewakeoftheBushAdministration'sdrive

fora drug-freeworkenvironment,particularlywherefederalcontracts areinvolved

[image:46.490.63.379.245.362.2]

(English, 1990).

Table 4.

Drug TestingProgramsbySelected Industries

Industry HTRI BLS

Manufacturing 21.8% 22.1%

Communications&PublicUtilities 10.7 20.5

Finance&Insurance 7.5 3.7

Transportation Z7 17.3

Trade 2J 64

Mining 0.7 25.1

Percentagesdonottotal100,as not aO oftheindustriesarelisted.

Source:Backer,ThomasE. &O'Hara,KirkB (1991). Organizationalchangeanddrug-freeworkplace:Templates

forsuccess, p 117.

Infact,caughtinthemiddleistheemployer whomustdealwiththerealitythat

chemicals anddrugsare asmucha partoftheworkplaceas employees and equipmentor

machinery. Inthefaceofdrugproblems,theimpactofdrugsonproductivity,

absenteeism,andthelivesofworkers, employers areturningtoa test calledurinalysis as a

(47)

Therearebasicallythreewaysurinalysisscreening for drugs isusedintheindustry:

1. Pre-employment screening

Allorselected applicantsaretestedpriortoemployment, usuallyin

conjunction with apre-employmentphysical.

2. Forcause

Thismethod oftestingwouldbesuggestedbysupervisors oremployerswho

suspectthata particularemployeeisunfitforwork orimpairedbydrugsor

alcohol. Thismethodcommonlyoccursafter anaccidentor absofvable change

in behaviorof an employee.

3. Randomurinalysis

Thismethodinvolvestheselection of anappropriatelysignificantnumber, as

well asscientificallydrawn,randomsampleof employeefor screening (Masi &

Burns, 1986).

However, startingadrugtestingprogramisnot a simpleprocess. Atesting

program mustbedeveloped inaccordance withrelevantlegalrequirements(whichvaryin

theirapphcationtoparticularworkplaces),forinstance, disabilitydiscriminationprovisions

and collectivebargainingrequirements. Inadditiontolegalconsiderations,thefollowing

questions will needtobeansweredtosetupand operate a program:

Whowillbetested?

Whenwilltestingbe done?

Forwhatdrugswilltestingbe done?

(48)

Whataction willbetakenifan applicanttestspositive?

Whataction willbetakenifan employeetestspositive?

Whattestswillbeusedand what procedures willbefollowedtoensure

rehabihty?

Whatprecautions willbeusedtoprotect anindividual'sprivacyandthe

confidentialityoftestresults(U.S.Departmentoflabor, 1991)?

Needlesstosay, adrugtestingprogramhastobe fairand accurate andthatit

protectstherightsanddignityoftheemployees. After reviewingallthefactorscarefully, Table 5illustratestheprocessforsettingupadrugtesting. First,acompany determines

theneedfordrugtestinginthework setting. Second,it isneededtodevelopadrug

(49)
[image:49.490.65.434.109.559.2]

Table 5.

Process forSettingUpDrug Testing

Determine the need for drug testing in your work setting.

I

J

Examine EAP utilization

Administer confidential survey Conduct cost/benefit analysis Assess health insurance utilization

accidents, safety complaints

c

Develop a drug

I

testing policy

I

Consult legal resources (for

appplicable statutes and

regulations).

Develop goal, rationale,

limitations of drug testing.

*

Specify drugs to test for.

Set up disciplinary process

and EAP referral process.

Specify details of collection,

lab testing procedures

including chain of custody.

Set up conditions for

designating sensitive positions*

J

Cost/Benefit Analysis:

Initial screen +

confirmation tests.

Staffing/training

Potential savings from

reduced sick leave,

absenteeism, health benefits utilization

1

Recommended

Drugs To Test For:

Marijuana Cocaine

Amphetamines

Opiates

Phencyclidine (PCP)

(50)
[image:50.490.82.400.51.516.2]

Table 5.

(Continued)

C

Thoroughly plan for

implementation

)

Establish internal linkages (Labor, EAP, management,

union, . . .)

Assess pros/cons of potential units for organizational

placement of drug testing (e.g., medical, personnel,

EAP )

Determine organizational placement of drug testing (organizational unit).

Choose a certified laboratory.

Disseminate notification to employees of implementa

tion of drug testing program, provisions, right to

confidentiality (have employees sign a policy acknow ledgement form).

Determine sensitive positions for random testing, and

send these individuals notification of such designa

tion and that they may voluntarily admit to using illegal drugs (in which case they may be referred to

the EAP). These individuals should be required to sign an acknowledgement.

Secure a collection site.

Train supervisors.

Design supervisor report form to document specific

events/behaviors observed which lead to testing.

Begin employee education.

Source:National InstituteonDrugAbuse. (1991). Comprehensiveproceduresfordrugtesting intheworkplace:A

(51)

Atlast,themanagement should undertake adrugtestingprogramonlyas part of a

comprehensivedrug-freeworkplace programthatisonethatincludesa writtenpohcy

statement,and employee education andawarenessprogram, supervisortraining,and an

EAP. In sum,drugtestingisone of severalusefultoolsthatcan assistintheprevention

anddiagnosisof substanceabuse,butonlyas part of alargeagenda,anditmustbe

formulated inaccordance with workplace needs and conductedusing systematic, reliable,

(52)

CHAPTER m

RESULTS ANDDISCUSSIONS

Surveyresultsfromthesamplehotels

Fromthesampleof14hotels, 1 1hotels(78.5%)respondedto thissurvey. Three

hotelsrefusedtoanswer. Outofthoserespondedhotels,3hotels- Days

Inn,Howard

Johnson,andRamada- are managed

bythesamecorporation,whichisHospitality

FranchiseSystems, Inc. Respondentswere8(72.7%)topexecutivedirectors,2(18.1%)

Human Resources officers,and 1(9%)secretary.

Letusbegintorevealtheresults ofthesurvey. Inresponsetoquestion onefor

whetherthehotel hasrespondedto theDrug-Free WorkplaceActof1988,7hotels

(63.6%)saidthattheyhaverespondedtoit,and1hotel(9%)answered as not available.

Thishotelexplainedthatrespondingto the1988Actisnot a coveredentityalthoughthe

hotel has hadapohcy prohibitingworkplace alcohol and substance abuse priorto 1988.

Three hotels(27.2%)saidthattheyhavenot respondedto theAct,andtheydidnot give

anyexplanation why.

Inresponsetoquestiontwo thataddedfortheexistence ofanywrittenpohcyon

alcohol and substanceabuse, 10hotels(90.0%)respondedthattheyhad,andonlyone

hotel(9%)saidit didnothavea writtenpohcyon alcohol and substanceabuse. In

responsetoa sub-questionaskingwhether or notthefranchiseesfollowed

(53)

pohcyonthesamematter,sixhotels(54.5%)out of10hotelssaid clear "No,"

while4

hotels(36.3%)respondedthatitwasup to theproperties. Also, 1 hotelsaiditwas not

available sincememberproperties areindrviduahyowned and operated.

Nineout of10hotelswhohadthewrittenpohcysentcopies oftheirpohcies.

Questionthreeaskediftheyprovided employee education programs on alcohol

and substanceabuse; 10hotels(90.0%)responded"Yes," 1hotelsaid"No." However,4

hotelsthatsaid "Yes"

rephedthat theseprogramswere'Notspecifically" or'Not

formally"

devotedtoalcohol and substance abuse. Thiscanbeassumedthattheyhad

somedegreeoftheeducation program coveredinthecompanyand employee relationship.

Inresponsetoquestionfourthataskedifadesignatedpersoninthepropertywas

responsiblefortheprogram, 7hotels(63.6%)saidthattheyhadadesignatedperson,and

6ofthesehotels(85.7%)saidthedesignatedperson wouldbe DirectorsofHuman

ResourcesorEmployee Benefits Representatives. One hotelrespondedthattheDirector

ofPersonnelwasthedesignee. Four hotels(36.3%)saidtherewas no designatedperson

fortheprogram.

Inresponsetoquestionfivethatasked whethertheyrefertroubledemployeesto

treatmentprograms such as employee-assistanceprograms,8hotels(72.7%)answered as

"Yes". Fourofthesehotelssentcopies oftheirEAPs. Also,6out ofthose8hotels

(75%)wereusingoutsideprograms,whileonly 1hotel(9%)hadanin-houseprogram.

Finally, 1 hotelansweredthat thetreatmentprogramwaslocatedinsidetheproperty,but

(54)

Thethreerespondents(27.2%)thatanswered"No"forquestionfivewereaskedin

question7whethertheyhavealternativeprogramstodealwiththeproblemdidnot refer

troubledemployeestotreatmentprograms. Twoout ofthose3hotels hadalternative

programstodealwiththeproblem,whiletheotherdidnot refertoanytreatment

programs,nordid it haveanalternativeprogram.

Inresponsetoquestioneightforwhethertheyprovided asupervisorytraining

programinrecognition andreferral, 8hotels(72.7%)saidthattheyprovidedthis training.

And,3hotels(27.2%)repliedthattheydidnot.

Inresponsetoquestion nineforrequiringapre-or post employment

drug

screeningtest, 3respondents(27.2%)saidtheyrequired,and7hotels(63.6%)saidthey

didnot required. However,5 out ofthese7hotelswho sent copies ofthewrittenpohcy

on alcoholand substance abusesay ifan employee whoissuspiciousfortakinglegalor

illegaldrugswhichimpairtheworkperformance,or a newapplicant,haveto takea

drug-screeningtestaccordingto thewrittenpohcy. Thiscouldbe interpretedaspre-or

post-screeningtests. Also, 1hotelrespondedthatadrug-screeningtestwas required

sometimes. Therefore,itisa safe assumptionthat9respondents arerequiringa

(55)

Inresponsetothelastquestiontenfor seeingorforeseeingthealcohol and

substance abuse as a serious probleminhospitalityindustry, 8hotels(72.7%)answered

"Yes."

And, 5outofthese8hotelsrankeditas a3.5 on a scale of1(less serious)to5

(veryserious). However,3 outof8hotelsrefusedtoprorate a rank. Inadditiontothat,

2hotels (18.1%)answered

"No."

And, 1hotel didnotreplyat ahtoquestionten. Hotel

[image:55.490.56.439.257.577.2]

responsestothese 10questions are summarizedin Table 6.

Table 6.

SummaryofQuestion1-10

YES NO N/A UP TO

PROPERTY

#1: RespondingtoActof1988 7(63.6%) 3(27.2%) 1(9%)

#1-A: Ifno, whynot? Noexplination was given.

#2: Havingwrittenpohcy 10(90%) 1 (9%)

#2-a: Usingpohcybyfranchisee 6(54.4%) 4(36.6%)

#3: Providingeducation program 10(90%) 1 (9%)

#4: Havingdesignatedperson 7(63.6%) 4(36.3%)

#4-a: Ifyes,who? Dir.ofHR Personnel,& Employee Benefit Rep.

#5: Referringto treatment 8(72.7%)

See #6

3 (27.2%)

See #7

#6: In-houseprogram 1(9%)

Outsideprogram 6(75%)

In& Out 1(9%)

#7: Havingalternative program 2(66.7%) 1(33.3%)

#8: Providingsupervisorytrain 8(72.7%) 3 (27.2%)

#9: Requiringdrugtest 4(36.3%) 7(63.6%) bytelephoneinterview

9(81.8%) 2(18.1%) bywritten pohcies

#10: Foreseeingproblem of abuse 8(72.7%) 2(18.1%) 1(9%)

#10-a:Ranking 1- 5(less

(56)

Written PoliciesonAlcoholandSubstance AbuseofRespondents

Ninehotelssentthenwritten pohcies onAlcoholandSubstance Abuse. By

summarizingandcomparingeachhotel'spohcy,itwillbemore clear where eachhotel

standstorespondto theDrug-Free Workplace Actof1988.

Table7showsthecomparisonandsummaryof pohcies on alcoholanddrugabuse

ofHilton HotelsCorp., HospitalityFranchiseSystems,Inc. (themanagingcompany for

DaysInnofAmerica, Inc.,HowardJohnsonFranchisedSystems, Inc., &RamadaInc.),

andOmni Hotels Corp. Basically,fivehotels'pohcies arethemostcomprehensive and

havesimilaritiesinprohibition of alcohol and substance abuseintheirpremises on

Companytimeforthewell-beingofeveryindividualwhois involved inthecompany. Ah

threehotelsrequireapre- and post-employmentdrug

screeningtest. Also,theyprovide

counseling,treatmentprograms,and rehabilitation programs under complete

confidentiality. Theconsequences of violation wouldbedisciplinaryactionupto,and

including,termination, ha short,thesefivehotels'

pohcies areverysimilartoeach other.

Theonlydifferenceamongthesehotels'pohcies wouldbethatonepohcy is described in

(57)

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(58)

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(59)

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Figure

Figure 1 shows how alcoholicemployees'behaviors are changed by the years of alcohol
Figure 1.How an Alcohol Employee Behaves
Figure 2.Men & Women: Occupations with Above-Average Prevalence ofAbuse-Dependence
Figure 3.Men & Women: Occupations with Below-Average Prevalence ofAbuse-Dependence
+7

References

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