Reverse Engineering Of Dogbone Mould Into Another Product

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UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

Reverse Engineering of Dogbone Mould Into

Another Product

Thesis submitted in accordance with the partial requirement of the

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka for the

Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing Design)

By

Syed Mohd Fadly Bin Syed Hassan

Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering

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UTeM Library (Pind.1/2005)

SULIT

TERHAD

TIDAK TERHAD

(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)

(Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS) Alamat Tetap:

58 TAMAN MULIA, JALAN UDA, 05350 ALOR STAR,

KEDAH. Tarikh: _______________________ Disahkan oleh: (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA) Cop Rasmi: Tarikh: _______________________

* Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS*

UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA (UTeM)

JUDUL: REVERSE ENGINEERING OF DOGBONE MOULD INTO ANOTHER PRODUCT

SESI PENGAJIAN: 2006/2007

Saya _____________________________________________________________________

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/Sarjana/Doktor Falsafah) ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Tesis adalah hak milik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.

2. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.

3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

4. **Sila tandakan (√)

SYED MOHD FADLY BIN SYED HASSAN

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APPROVAL

This thesis submitted to the senate of UTeM and has been accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing Design). The members of the supervisory committee

are as follow:

……… Main Supervisor

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DECLARATION

I hereby, declare this thesis entitle “Reverse Engineering of Dogbone Mould into Another Product” is the results of my own research except as cited in the reference.

Signature : ………..

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ABSTRACT

The reverse engineering terms is very familiar to re-design the product

existed. Most of the product existing nowadays starts from the research in reverse

engineering study. There are a lot of advantages in this field such as the cost and

time can be reduce in product manufacture and also we can integrate the product into a high level usage after a few research been made. Reverse Engineering consist a few important factors such as measuring, re-design, designing a new parts using

CAD sofware, analyzing, and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing). In this

project, the scope mostly is to reverse engineering the current Dogbone Mould by producing another mould of another product which is plastic keris. The structure of runner of this plastic keris mould has been modified in order to get the optimized results. There are two types of plastic materials that used in this research which is Polypropylene High-Flow and Polypropylene Low-Flow. Analysis has been done and the most optimized parameters for Polypropylene High-Flow is 260°C for Melting Temperature and 20°C for Mold Temperature with the time of injection 2.65 second. As for Polypropylene Low-Flow, the Melting Temperature and Mold Temperature is the same as Polypropylene High-Flow and the injection time is 1.52 second. CAM simulation has been made for the plastic keris mould and the results for core is achieved only for the cavity there are a minor correction has to be made into a secondary processes.

Keywords: Reverse Engineering, measuring, re-design, designing a new parts using CAD (Computer Aided Design) software, analyzing, and CAM

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DEDICATION

Specially dedicated to; My beloved Father, Syed Hassan Bin Syed Ibrahim and My

Mother, Nor Ashikin Binti Shuib who are very concern, understanding, patient and

supporting. Thanks for everything. To My Sisters, All My Friends, and My Love

Ones, I also would like to say thanks. The Work and Success will never be Achieved

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In The Name of Allah Almighty And The Most Merciful and Blessings Be Upon His Messenger Prophet Muhammad S.A.W and His Companions.

Assalamualaikum w.b.t.

I am thankful to Allah the almighty for his divine inspirational guidance, which had helped me in completing this final year project. I would like to convey my sincere thanks to my supervisor, Mr. Zolkarnain bin Marjom for his constructive guidance and patience in fulfilling our aspiration in completing this project. I would like to thanks to technicians involved; Mr. Jaafar bin Lajis, Mr. Nor Fauzi bin Tamin and Mr. Hairmi bin Othman for their explanation, experiment and demonstration of the lab equipments and machineries regarding to this lab work. Finally, to my family and friends for their support and understanding during the completion this final year project report.

Last but not least, I would like to thank all those who had contributed to my final year project, directly or indirectly.

Wassalam.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract………... i

Dedication... ii

Acknowledgement... iii

Table of Contents………...……… iv

List of Tables... viii

List of Figures……….……….….. ix

List of Abbreviations, Symbols, Specialized Nomenclature…………...… xiv

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Research Background………..……...…. 1

1.2 Importance and Benefits of Research………..…… 3

1.3 Objective of the Research………...….. 5

1.4 Scopes of the Research……….………..…………. 5

1.5 Thesis Organization………..…………... 6

2. LITERATURES REVIEW 2.1 Introduction……….. 8

2.2 Reverse Engineering………... 8

2.3 Researches Related to Reverse Engineering……… 9

2.4 Applications Using Reverse Engineering……… 10

2.5 Equipment in Reverse Engineering………. 11

2.5.1 CMM………... 11

2.5.2 Vernier Caliper………..12

2.6 Process in Reverse Engineering………... 12

2.7 Mould Making Process………... 13

2.7.1 CAD Design Team……… 15

2.7.2 NC Programming Team………... 15

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2.8 Product Identification………...17

2.8.1 Dogbone……… 17

2.8.2 Dogbone Mould……… 19

2.8.2.1 Dogbone Core……… 19

2.8.2.2 Dogbone Cavity………. 22

2.9 Summary……….. 24

3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction...…. 25

3.2 Process in Reverse Engineering………... 25

3.3 The Flow of the Process………..…. 26

3.4 Measurement Process………...28

3.4.1 Introduction to CMM……… 28

3.5 Part Design………..………. 30

3.5.1 Software Used in Reverse Engineering………...……. 30

3.5.2 Introduction to SolidWorks………...30

3.5.3 Mould Design………... 31

3.5.3.1 Mould Design Using SolidWorks Software.. 32

3.5.3.1.1 Method 1………. 32

3.5.3.1.2 Method 2………. 33

3.5.4 Analysis……… 33

3.5.5 CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing)……….. 34

4. THE MOULD DESIGN PROCESS 4.1 Design of the Core and Cavity………. 35

4.1.2 Identify the Dogbone Cavity………. 36

4.1.3 Identify the Dogbone Core………37

4.2 ‘Keris’ Design Procedures………... 38

4.2.1 ‘Keris’ Part Design………... 38

4.2.1.1 Extruded Boss/Base………... 39

4.2.1.2 Fillet ………... 43

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4.3 Plastic Keris Mould Design………. 46

4.3.1 Gates and Runners ………... 46

4.3.1.1 Extruded Boss/Base...……… 47

4.3.1.2 Swept Boss/Base……….………... 48

4.3.2 Injection Location………. 49

4.3.2.1 Extruded Cut……….. 50

4.3.2.2 Reference Geometry……….. 52

4.3.3 Mould Base Design………... 56

4.3.3.1 Mould Base……… 57

5. ANALYZING THE PROCESS OF REVERSE ENGINEERING 5.1 Introduction………..… 61

5.2 Analysis on the Injection Time Required……… 61

5.3 Analysis for the Plastic Keris Product………. 62

5.4 Procedures of Moldflow Analysis……….….. 64

5.5 Results of the Mold flow of Plastic Keris ………... 69

5.5.1 Results for PP High-flow……….. 69

5.5.2 Results for PP Low-flow………... 80

5.5.3 Identify the Results……….……….. 90

5.5.3.1 Results on New Improved Part on PP High-flow………. 92

5.5.3.2 Results on New Improved Part on PP Low-flow……….. 93

5.5.3.3 Summary……… 94

6. MACHINING PROCESS 6.1 Introduction... 95

6.2 Process Plan... 95

6.3 Machining Procedures………. 96

6.3.1 Calculation of Spindle Speed and Feed Rate………… 99

6.3.2 Machining Procedure of Core... 100

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6.4 Generate the G-Code………124

7. DISCUSSION

7.1 Introduction……….. 126 7.2 Data collection of Measurement Dogbone Core and Cavity…... 126 7.3 Analysis on the Plastic Keris Part. ……….. 127 7.4 Machining Process………... 127

8. CONCLUSION

8.1 Conclusion ……….……. 129 8.2 Recommendation and Future Works... 130

REFERRENCES……….. 131

APPENDICES

A Tables of Cutting Speed and Feed per tooth B G-Code for Core Manufacturing

C G-Code for Cavity Manufacturing D Core

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LIST OF TABLES

3.1 CMM machine specification……….. 29

5.1 Experiment Parameters for PP High-flow………. 63

5.2 Experiment Parameters for PP Low-flow……….. 63

5.3 Summary Results of PP High-flow……… 79

5.4 Summary Results of PP Low-flow…………..……….. 89

5.5 Summary Results of PP High-flow (New Improved Part)………….94

5.6 Summary Results of PP Low-flow (New Improved Part)…………. 94

6.1 Process Plan for Core………. 98

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LIST OF FIGURES

2.1 Mould Manufacturing Flowchart………... 14

2.2 Summary of process flow during the mould manufacturing………..16

2.3 Dogbone ………...………. 17

2.4 Dimension of Dogbone ……….………...………. 18

2.5 Core for Dogbone……….. 19

2.6 Plates in Core………. 20

2.7 Top view of Core………..………. 20

2.8 Front View of Core……… 21

2.9 Cavity………. 22

2.10 Parts in Cavity……… 22

2.11 Top view of Cavity……… 23

2.12 Front view of Cavity……….. 23

3.1 Flow chart of the process………... 27

3.2 Guide Pins, Guide Pins Holes and Ejector Pins………. 28

3.3 CMM machine type Wenzel LH 54………... 29

4.1 Dogbone with runners……… 35

4.2 Plastic Keris re-designed………...……...……..36

4.3 Drawing of Dogbone Cavity………...…... 36

4.4 Location of Pin Hole……….. 37

4.5 Location of guide pin hole in Dogbone Cavity……….. 37

4.6 Flow Chart for Keris Part Design……….. 38

4.7a Sketch of the Keris blade………... 39

4.7b Extruded Boss/Base of Keris Blade………... 40

4.8a Sketch Location of Neck……… 40

4.8b Extruded Boss/Base of Neck Sketch………..41

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4.9b Extruded Boss/Base of Handle……….. 42

4.10 Edge Fillet of 5mm………...………. 43

4.11a Neutral Plane (Pink) and Draft Face (Green)……… 44

4.11b Draft Result……… 44

4.12 Copy of Keris Product………... 45

4.13 Flow Chart for Gate and Runner design……… 46

4.14a Location of Gate Sketch……….47

4.14b Extruded Boss/Base of Gate……….. 47

4.15a Sketch of Runner Location……… 48

4.15b Path……… 48

4.15c Runner……… 49

4.16 Flow Chart for Injection Location Design... 49

4.17a Extruded Cut Sketch Location………... 50

4.17b Extruded Cut……….. 50

4.18a Circle Sketch Location………... 51

4.18b Extruded Boss/Base 2 Direction 4mm and 7mm………... 51

4.19 Right Plane (Green) and Reference Plane (Yellow)……….. 52

4.20a Location of the semicircle sketch……….. 53

4.20b Semicircle Sketch is Extruded Boss/Base to 12mm……….. 53

4.20c Injection Location... 54

4.21 Plastic Keris (Top)… ……… 54

4.22 Plastic Keris (Bottom) ………...55

4.23 Flow Chat for Keris Mould Design... 56

4.24 Mould Base... 57

4.25 Location of the keris inside the Mould Base……….……… 58

4.26 Cutting Plane (red plane) of the keris Mould……….……58

4.27 Core……… 59

4.28 Cavity………. 59

4.29 Assemble of Cavity and Core……… 60

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5.1 Mouldflow analysis……… 64

5.2 Injection Location Selecting……….. 65

5.3 Material Selecting... 66

5.4 Mold Temperature and Melting Temperature……….………...67

5.5 Results……… 68

5.6a Experiment 1 Analysis Results (PP High-flow)… ………... 69

5.6b Experiment 1 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow) ……….. 70

5.7a Experiment 2 Analysis Results (PP High-flow) ………... 70

5.7b Experiment 2 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow)………... 71

5.8a Experiment 3 Analysis Results (PP High-flow)……….…………... 71

5.8b Experiment 3 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow) ……….. 72

5.9a Experiment 4 Analysis Results (PP High-flow)….………... 72

5.9b Experiment 4 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow)…………73

5.10a Experiment 5 Analysis Results (PP High-flow)…... 73

5.10b Experiment 5 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow)………... 74

5.11a Experiment 6 Analysis Results (PP High-flow)……… 74

5.11b Experiment 6 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow) …..…… 75

5.12a Experiment 7 Analysis Results (PP High-flow)… ……… 75

5.12b Experiment 7 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow)….…….. 76

5.13a Experiment 8 Analysis Results (PP High-flow)… ………… ……... 76

5.13b Experiment 8 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow) ……….. 77

5.14a Experiment 9 Analysis Results (PP High-flow). ………... 77

5.14b Experiment 9 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP High-flow)….…….. 78

5.15a Experiment 1 Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)………. 80

5.15b Experiment 1 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow) ………. 80

5.16a Experiment 2 Analysis Results (PP Low-flow) ……….…... 81

5.16b Experiment 2 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)………… 81

5.17a Experiment 3 Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)………. 82

5.17b Experiment 3 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)………… 82

5.18a Experiment 4 Analysis Results (PP Low-flow) ……… 83

5.18b Experiment 4 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)………… 83

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5.19b Experiment 5 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)………. 84

5.20a Experiment 6 Analysis Results (PP Low-flow) ……….…… 85

5.20b Experiment 6 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow) ……… 85

5.21a Experiment 7 Analysis Results (PP Low-flow) ………. 86

5.21b Experiment 7 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)…...……. 86

5.22a Experiment 8 Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)… ………. 87

5.22b Experiment 8 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)………… 87

5.23a Experiment 9 Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)………...….. 88

5.23b Experiment 9 Moldflow Analysis Results (PP Low-flow)……... 88

5.24 New Improve Runner……….………... 91

5.25a Experiment 7 Analysis Results (New Inprove Part PP Hgh-flow)... 92

5.25b Experiment 7 Moldflow Analysis Results (New Inprove Part PP Hgh-flow)………. 92

5.26a Experiment 7 Analysis Results (New Inprove Part PP Low-flow)… ………...………….. 93

5.26b Experiment 7 Moldflow Analysis Result (New Inprove Part PP Low-flow)……….……… 93

6.1 Flow chat for machining core……… 97

6.2a Facing Operation for core……….…………. 101

6.2b Facing result for core……….……… 101

6.3a Squaring for core………..………..102

6.3b Squaring Results for core………..………. 102

6.4a Slotting for core………. 103

6.4b Slotting Result for core………..……… 103

6.5a Centre Drilling for core……….………. 104

6.5b Centre Drilling results for core……….………. 104

6.6a Drilling 10mm for core……….. 105

6.6b Drilling 10mm results for core………..………. 105

6.7a Drilling 20mm for core……….. 106

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6.8a Drilling 12mm for core……….. 107

6.8b Drilling 12mm result for core……… 107

6.9 Flow Chart Machining for Cavity……….. 108

6.10a Facing for cavity………..……….. 112

6.10b Facing result for cavity……….. 112

6.11a Squaring for cavity………. 113

6.11b Squaring results for cavity………. 113

6.12a Centre drilling for cavity……… 114

6.12b Centre drilling results for cavity……… 114

6.13a Drilling 10mm for cavity………... 115

6.13b Drilling 10mm results for cavity………..……….. 115

6.14a Drilling 20mm for cavity……….………….. 116

6.14b Drilling 20mm results for cavity………..……….. 116

6.15a Drilling 12mm for cavity……….………….. 117

6.15b Drilling 12mm results for cavity………..……….. 117

6.16a Slotting for cavity……….. 118

6.16b Slotting results for cavity………... 118

6.17a Drilling 6mm for cavity………. 119

6.17b Drilling 6mm result for cavity……….……….. 119

6.18a Keris profile roughing for cavity………... 120

6.18b Keris profile roughing result for cavity………. 120

6.19a Keris profile finishing for cavity………121

6.19b Keris profile finishing results for cavity……… 121

6.20a Draft roughing for cavity……….……….. 122

6.20b Draft roughing results for cavity……… 122

6.21a Draft finishing for cavity………... 123

6.21b Draft finishing results for cavity……… 123

6.22 Generate NC Code Interactively……… 124

6.23 Selection of HAAS Controller………... 125

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS, SPECIALIZED

NOMENCLATURE

CAD - Computer Aided design

CAM - Computer Aided Manufacturing

FR - Feed Rate

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background

Reverse engineering (RE) is a process for capturing the geometry of parts/tools, and to generate a conceptual numerical model that could be utilized by computer-aided engineering (CAE) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems. (Custodio, 2001).

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RE is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc.) apart and analyzing its functionality in depth, usually with the intention to construct a new device or program that does the same thing without actually copying anything from the original. RE is commonly done to avoid copyrights on desired functionality and may be used for avoiding patent law, though this is a bit risky: patents apply to the functionality, not a specific implementation of it. (Anonymous, 2007a)

RE is increasingly popular as manufacturers rush to meet the demands of reducing the product development time. A toolmaker can reduce the time needed to manufacture a tool and die by scanning the product or model and export the scanned data in a relevant file format for RP or to a computer numerical control (CNC) to machine the part. There are three basic steps in RE:

• The collection of the raw data of the object, it can be by a measurement machine (CMM) or a 3D scanner.

• Use a RE software to manipulate this raw data and convert it into a usable form.

• Transfer the usable data into 3D application software like CATIA or Solid Works.

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The research of this study involved the application of reverse engineering in producing plastic keris mould for plastic injection molding. The main focus of this study is the methodology and the application of reverse engineering in a real situation of product development. The process will follow normal reverse engineering steps and procedure and also will look on ways to produce a new product by taking an existing part as a reference. In this study, the main property to be identified is a design process on how to produce the plastic keris. By taking the product properties it will then identify the manufacturing process involved in plastic injection mold making. Therefore, the reverse engineering application is find out how to produce the plastic keris by redesign the core and the cavity of the Dogbone Mould.

1.2 Importance and Benefits of Research

Most of the organization facilities are theoretically claimed to have the facilities to follow in the development of mold making. Reverse engineering are known as an important element in product development. By combining reverse engineering and mold making techniques the facilities can be utilize and tested on its capabilities of producing mold by applying a combination of CAD capabilities, measurements tools and other resources possible.

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The reverse engineering application in some of the industry needs a high cost in term of machining and its equipments. It is also a barrier for the industry to redesign an existing product as their own manufacturing product. The product existed needs a reverse engineering process to find the actual process of design and the manufacturing process implemented on it. Therefore, by taking reverse engineering as a method to get close the manufacturing of the product, the cost of the product can be reduced. For this case the re-designed process is only the core and cavity of the Dogbone Mould. If the process is verified accurate then the mold can be manufactured and they can produce without depending on other organizations to fabricate or to purchase a mold.

Nowadays, with the knowledge in engineering field some of the components and part can be re-engineered to improve and developed their usage in manufacturing process. There are many advantages of using reverse engineering especially for a product of injection molding: (Bradley, 1998).

i) The mold manufacturing and fabrication process can be reveal.

ii) Overcome a problem occur at the old design during the designing process.

iii) Can reduce cost and mold can be fabricate by own after knowing the procedure.

iv) Results from the research can improve the level of productivity plastic process industry.

v) To identify the possibilities of reducing the cost of producing mold fabrication.

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vii) To create opportunity to increase the utilization of CAD software, increasing equipments and machines.

1.3 Objectives of the Research

The objectives of this study are:-

1. To apply the reverse engineering method in a real situation and implementing it by using measurements tools and equipments, CAD and CAM applications.

2. To design a new mould based on the Dogbone Mould criteria.

3. Analyze the new mould to determine the optimum parameters and filling condition.

4. Re-design the mould based on analysis results.

5. Conduct a CAM simulation to determine the machining condition.

1.4 Scopes of the Research

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The raw data of measurement for the core and cavity then will be used in CAD (Computer Aided Design) software to develop 3-D solid modeling for the core and cavity. The software that will be used during this research is SolidWorks and CATIA (Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application).

After the re-designed of core and cavity has been made, the solid modeling data will be transform into CAM programming (Computer Aided Manufacturing) to manufacture the core and cavity. The CAM programming can be done using the CATIA software. The simulation data will be converted into NC codes using the HAAS parameters.

1.5 Thesis Organization

Chapter 1 - Introduction

The overall review of this research is mentioned in this chapter. The important and benefit, objective and scopes of this research are also describe in this chapter.

Chapter 2 – Literature Review

This chapter describe about the source and the history of the research which had been done by others in reverse engineering field and the methods that had being used by them

Chapter 3 – Methodology

This chapter shows how the process of reverse engineering being applied according to the equipments and methods used

Chapter 4 – The Mould Design Process

Figure

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References

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