PORTABLE DRAGON FRUIT GRADE SORTER (POWER SUPPLY AND STRUCTURE DESIGN)
NOOR RAFIZA BINTI RAMLI
“I hereby declared that I have read through this report and found that it has comply the partial fulfillment for awarding the degree of Bachelor of Electrical Engineering
(Power Electronic and Drive)”
Signature : ………
Supervisor’s Name : PN. ALIZA BINTI CHE AMRAN
PORTABLE DRAGON FRUIT GRADE SORTER (POWER SUPPLY AND STRUCTURE DESIGN)
NOOR RAFIZA BINTI RAMLI
This Report is submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for The Degree of Bachelor in Electrical Engineering (Power Electronic and Drive)
Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka
“I hereby declared that this report is a result of my own work except for the excerpts that have been cited clearly in the references.”
Signature : ………
Name : NOOR RAFIZA BINTI RAMLI
Assalamualaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
First and foremost, I would like to thank to Allah the Almighty for blessing me to complete my Project Sarjana Muda 1 and 2. I would like to enlarge my appreciation to my supervisor, Pn.Aliza binti Che Amran because of her kindness heart to accept me as one of the student under her supervision. Special thanks also dedicated to her for all comments, idea, and a guideline begin from the first day I start doing this project.
I would also like to thank to all my friends that always give support, opinion, and advices for me to complete this report especially my project team members Nur Azlina and Mohd Hidayat.
To my family especially my beloved parents; Hj.Ramli and Wan Zainun, I would like to forward my obliged for their continuous support during my study period, their patience and benevolence. Lastly, I would like to thank to everyone who has contributed during my Project Sarjana Muda 1and 2. Your kindness and cooperation in completion of my paper work is much appreciated.
This project focuses on building a Power Supply and Structure Design for Portable Dragon Fruit Grade Sorter. This Portable Dragon Fruit Grade Sorter machine is an
automatic machine that used to sort the dragon fruits according to their standards, grade and size. Sorting and grading process were done based on various criteria such as weight, shape and size. This project combines the knowledge of electrical and engineering drawing. This project is divided into three stages. The first stage is to design an adaptor to supply the system from 240Vac. Also to propose the best structure or design for the machine and then try to assemble the machine parts into one system using SolidWorks software. Hence, by using the Portable Dragon Fruit Grade Sorter
machine, the human errors that always occurred in manual operations can be minimized
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF FIGURES xii
LIST OF APPENDICES xiv
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Problem Statement 3
1.3 Project Objectives 3
1.4 Project Scope 4
1.5 Project Methodology 4
II LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Introduction in Fruit Sorting System 10
2.3 Latest Technology in Sorting Fruit Process 12
2.3.1 OMI Pineapple Sorting Machine 12
2.3.2 Compac In Vision 5000 Blemish Sorting 13
2.3.3 AWETA GS: The Cup Grader 14
2.3.4 AWETA GS: computer cucumber sorting 15 machine
2.4 Example Existing Machine Design 16
2.4.1 Rotary Cylinder Sizer 16
2.4.2 Citrus Juice Extractors 16
2.4.3 The Cherry Kg Grader 17
2.5 Introduction to Linear Power Supply 18
2.6 Introduction to Full-wave rectifiers 19
2.6.1 The Bridge Rectifier 21
2.6.2 The Positive Half-cycle 22
2.6.3 The Negative Half-cycle 23
2.7 Introduction to Solidworks Design CAD 24
III PORTABLE DRAGON FRUIT GRADE SORTER
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 The Fruit Sorting System 25
3.3 System Concept and Algorithm 27
3.3.1 Station 1: Loading Process 27
3.3.2 Station 2: Sorting Process 28
3.3.3 Station 3: Storing Station 29
3.4.1 Formulation 30
3.4.2 Concept design 30
3.4.3 Configuration design 30
3.4.4 Parametric design 31
3.4.5 Detail design 31
3.5 The Linear Power Supply for the portable 31
dragon fruit grade sorter machine 3.5.1 0-30vdc stabilized power supply with 32
current control 0.002-3A 3.5.2 Technical Specifications-characteristics 32 3.5.3 Features 32 3.5.4 Circuit operation 33 3.6 Exalibur Low-noise High-speed precision 36
Operational amplifier 3.6.1 Introduction 36
3.7 Complementary Silicon Power Transistor 39
2N3055 (NPN) IV RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ASPECT 4.1 Introduction 40
4.2 Design Specification 40
4.3 Design Concept and Design Comparison 41 4.3.1 First Concept 42
5.1 Conclusion 52
5.2 Recommendation 52
LIST OF TABLES
NUM. TITLE PAGE
1.1 Difference types of dragon fruit weights and sizes 2
LIST OF FIGURES
NUM. TITLE PAGE
1.1 Hylocereus undatus 1
1.2 Hylocereus polyrhizus 1
1.3 Project methodology 5
2.1 Fruit sorting machine vision 10
2.2 User control console 11
2.3 CCD Camera and Weight Sensor 12
2.4 Channelizer 12
2.5 Apple weighting (Single Line Sorter) 14
2.6 Baggers interfaced to Compac 4 lane 14
2.7 Apple 8 lane pre-grade line with InVision 5000 Blemish grading
2.8 Fruit grading line 15
2.9 The cup grader 15
2.10 Cucumber sorting tray 15
2.11 Rotary cylinder sizer 16
2.12 Citrus Juice Extractors 17
2.13 The Cherry KG Grader 17
2.14 Diagram of Simple Series Power Supply 18
2.15 Basic diagram of rectifier conversion 19
2.16 Full-wave rectifier circuit using two-diodes 20
2.17 The Diode Bridge Rectifier 22
2.18 The Positive Half-cycle 22
2.20 Full-wave bridge rectifier (a) alternative presentation
(b) Voltages and current 23
2.21 The Solidworks software user interface 24
3.1 Whole system 26
3.2 Loading Station 27
3.3 Five phases of design, emphasizing the crucial nature of design
problem formulation 29
3.4 Schematic diagram 34
3.5 Symbol for TLE2141 37
3.6 TLE2141 op-amp 37
3.7 Block Diagram of TLE2141 38
3.8 Power Transistor 2N3055 (NPN)
4.1 Design for first concept 42
4.2 Flowchart of the sorting process 42
4.3 Design for second concept 43
4.4 Front view of the design 44
4.5 Back view of the design 44
4.6 Top view of the design 45
4.7 Components part 45
4.8 Circuit for 12vdc motor 48
4.9 Waveform of 12VDC motor 48
4.10 Revised circuit for TLE2141 operational amplifier 50 4.11 Modified circuit for 0-30vdc stabilized power supply 50 4.12 The electronics components placed on the printed circuit board 51
LIST OF APPENDICES
NUM. TITLE PAGE
A Gantt chart 56
B Instruction to use the Solidworks software 58
C Component List 66
D Circuit for 0-30vdc stabilized power supply 68
E Operational Amplifier (TLE2141) 70
F Operational Amplifier (TL081) 74
Malaysia is blessed with good tropical climate. Besides fruits, many crops can be grown here like rubber, oil palm, paddy and cocoa. One of the most recent newcomers in the Malaysian fruit industry is dragon fruits (Hylocereus polyrhizus).
After many trials and errors, dragon cultivation has made its way in the Malaysian fruit industry. The local name for dragon fruit is „buah naga‟ or „buah mata naga‟. The dragon fruit growing areas are in the states of Johor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Pulau Pinang and Sabah . The fruit comes in three types, all with leathery,
slightly leafy skin which is white flesh with pink skin (Hylocereus undatus), red
flesh with pink skin (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and white flesh with yellow skin
(Selenicereus megalanthus)  . But only two types of variety can be grow in
Malaysia which is the red and white flesh. Figure below show the two variety types of dragon fruit:
Dragon fruits have different weights and sizes. Table 1.1 shows the different weight and grade of the dragon fruit:
Table 1.1: Difference types of dragon fruit weights and sizes.
AA 601gm and above
A 451gm – 450gm
B 356gm – 450gm
C 350gm – 250gm
D 250gm and below
For this project its combines the knowledge of electrical and engineering drawing in designing the Portable Dragon Fruit Grade Sorter. This project is to
design an automatic machine that used to sort the dragon fruits according to their standards, grade and size. Sorting and grading process were done based on various criteria such as weight, shape and size. This project is divided into three stages. The first stage is to propose the best design for the Portable Dragon Fruit Grade Sorter Machine in low cost but still effective. For the second stage, to design and assemble the machine parts into one system using the SolidWorks software. For the last stage, to design and develop an adaptor to supply the system from 240Vac to the desired input value for the actuator, motor and sensors.
3 1.2 Problem Statement
In Malaysia, the fruit grade sorting is based on shape, weight, or size. Fruit sorting is still in the initial stage and most of the sorting process still done manually. Currently, the manual sorting is more popular and cheaper where the process is done by a number of labors. Automatic fruit grading and sorting has not been implemented widely for this type of fruit. The process is time consuming and error prone as human labor efficiency and consistency will decrease with time. To overcome this problem, the Portable Dragon Fruit Grade Sorter is proposed. Grading is done on several of
criteria like weight, shape, size and etc . This machine is designed to overcome the
human error and reduce labor work in a short time and the design will not be fully automated, but can sort the fruits in a short time with less number of labor works. The main advantages of the present machine is it will facilitate automatic grading and sorting of dragon fruit in a non destructive method. The purposed machine is cheaper compared to other existing machines where robotic arms are used and cost around RM500, 000 per unit depending on its performance.
The objectives of the project that need to be accomplished are:
1) To propose the best design for the Portable Dragon Fruit Grade Sorter Machine in low cost but still effective.
2) To design and assemble the machine parts into one system using the SolidWorks software.
Determine the objectives of the project. Identifying problem and study the system.
Research about the project throughout resources like internet and books.
Discussion among team members, supervisor and from experienced person
In this project, the scope is based on three main parts. The first scope for this project starts with conducting research on information for example fruit grading and sorting, to get the basic idea to design the sorting machine. The second scope is, after find the best structure design for this project try to assemble the machine parts into one system using SolidWorks software. Then for the last scope, it follows with designing a power supply for the motor, actuator and sensors then simulate the circuit using Proteus‟s Lite software. The power supply is then built and be part of the sorter machine.
1.5 Project Methodology
In order to complete this project, a necessary project planning should be arranged. For this project, there are several steps should be taken to achieve the project‟s scope and objectives. Basically, Project Methodology defines the planning process flow and principles that are essentials guide to produce a well planning project. Besides, selected approach or methodology will be described the activities that may do in every stage. The requirements that are requisite in this system will be explained in project requirements and followed with project schedule and milestones.
The flow chart that describes the methodology for this project is shown in the flow chart below:
Engineering Drawing Design
Simulate the circuit using Proteus software
Construct the circuit Find the best structure design
Assemble the machine parts into one system using SolidWorks software
Build the structure design using suitable material Yes
Figure 1.3: Project methodology
1) Literature review
The first stage for completing the final year project is determining the objectives of the project and identifying the problems for this project and study the system. Besides, doing the research and finds information that related to the project through out resources such as internet, books and etc. By doing this literature review, the high understanding of the project can be achieved
Troubleshooting Power supply design
After gather all the information and identifying the problem, discussion among team members and supervisor is important. In this stage, supervisor will give the explanation and guideline throughout the project.
3) Engineering Drawing Design using SolidWorks.
The next step is find the best design for the main structure of the machine and then tries to sketch the design machine. The designs parts including sorting system design, power supply, computer system and etc. Learn about SolidWorks software and assemble the machine parts into one system.
4) Power supply design
Find the suitable circuit design for adaptor to supply the system from 240Vac and simulated the design using Proteus‟s Lite software. After the simulation is complete, the circuit for the power supply will be constructing along with the troubleshooting process.
5) Build the machine structure
The design parts for the structure are complete and the machine structure needs to be done. Doing some research among team members and supervisor for choosing the best material for the structure.
6) Build the adaptor supply hardware.
By completing the simulation on Proteus‟s Lite, all the data and analysis had been retrieved. The circuit is build using printed board.
7) Analyzed the results of simulation and hardware.
7 1.6 Thesis Outline
Chapter 1 is basically the introduction part of the project chosen. In this chapter, the project background and problems statements will be discussed clearly. Besides, elaboration on the project objectives and project scope will be explained in details so that a better view of the project can be obtained. The project methodology is the most important part that describes the flow of the project, also be mentioned and elaborated in details in this chapter.
In chapter 2, the literature review of the project will be discussed. The literature review is the method for collecting information regarding the machine, and the result based on the information will be analysis and examine for the purpose to know the benefit or the scarcity of the machine. In this section, it will be discuss about the theory and concepts that is accordingly to the project in details. Also, it will inform about the perspective and method that have been using in this project. The information for this project according: 1) Introduction in fruit sorting and grading system. 2) The latest technology in fruit sorting and grading process. 3) Example existing design from the fruit sorting machine application.
In chapter 3, the methodology is the method and tools that used to achieve the objective and the goal of the project. In this chapter, a few methods have been chosen to get the good solution for all the problems in sorting the dragon fruit. This chapter explains and elaborates about the methods, material and tools used to create this project and reasons of choosing such methods and tools. Problems arises in the methods used are also discussed.