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JungYun Lee

Follow this and additional works at:

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(2)

Graduate Industrial Design

SchoolofDesign

CollegeofImagingArtsandSciences

Rochester InstituteofTechnology October 2007

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RIT guidelines for the completion of my degree. I hereby grant to the Rochester Institute of Technology and its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in all forms of media in perpetuity. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis or dissertation. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis or dissertation.

Print Reproduction Permission Granted:

I,

JungYun Lee

,hereby grant permission to the Rochester Institute Technology to reproduce my print thesis or dissertation in whole or in part. Any reproduction will not be for commercial use or profit.

Signature of Author: ~J",u-,-,n~g~Y--"u,-,-n~Le,,-,e,,---

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Date: _ _ _ _ _

Print Reproduction Permission Denied:

I, , hereby deny permission to the RIT Library of the

Rochester Institute of Technology to reproduce my print thesis or dissertation in whole or in part.

Signature of Author: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Date: _ _ _ _ _

Inclusion in the RIT Digital Media Library Electronic Thesis & Dissertation (ETD) Archive

I, , additionally grant to the Rochester Institute of Technology Digital Media Library (RIT DML) the non-exclusive license to archive and provide electronic access to my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in all forms of media in perpetuity.

I understand that my work, in addition to its bibliographic record and abstract, wiIJ be available to the world-wide community of scholars and researchers through the RIT DML. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis or dissertation. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis or dissertation. I am aware that the Rochester Institute of Technology does not require registration of copyright for ETDs.

I hereby certify that, if 3ppropriate, I have obtained and attached written permission statements from the owners of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis or dissertation. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my committee.

(4)

College of Imaging Arts and Sciences Rochester Institute ofTechnology October 2007

JungYun Lee

Committee

Professor David Morgan Chief Advisor

Rochester Institute ofTechnology School of Design

4624 James Booth Building dcmfaa@rit.edu

(585) 475 4769

Professor Alan Redding Associate Advisor

Rochester Institute ofTechnology School of Design

4624 James Booth Building areddig l@rochester.rr.com

Professor Nancy Chwiecko Associate Advisor

Rochester Institute ofTechnology School of Design

4624 James Booth Building nacfaa@rit.edu

Professor Patti Lachance Administrative Chairperson RIT School of Design pjfaa@rit.edu (585) 475 2667

Editor

Lori D. Dabbagh . Writing Center Instructor

Rochester Institute ofTechnology Academic Support Center 2350 Eastman Building Idnolasco@gmail.com

(5)

-2-ProblemStatement

Situation Analysis

Shoes Sold in US ShoeWaste ShoeRecycling ShoeRepairing Observation 5 6 11 14 16 Research

GreenManufacturingSolutions:

Molding

IndustrialQualityMaterial,Single Material Noglue,NoStitching

Other Green Solutions

17 23 26 27

Considerationfor Shoe Design:

Standard Shoe Size Shoe Parts

28 31

Green Market Solutions:

InvitingDesign

EasyUser-replaceableParts System Education

32 33 35

IdeationProcess

MarkerRenderingandSketch Model 36

Final Development Application SolidWorks Model 3DPrinting MoldMaking TechnicalDrawing

(6)

Problem

Statement

Peopletend to throwawayashoe ratherthanrepairitfor furtheruse.Thismeans more and moreshoes are thrown away,and since a shoeismade out ofmany kindsofmaterials1

thatare all gluedor stitchedtogether,itis

difficulttorecycle or reusetheshoe.Additionally,thereisa symbolicrelationbetweenthelandandshoe;ashoe

istheproductthatconnects peopletotheground.

<Symbolicmeaningofa shoe>

People

Shoes Connectionto theearth:thefirstobjecttodirectlyconnecthumanto theground

Earth(Ground)

It is ironicthatashoe,whichprovidesthe connection,hasa negative effectontheland.Ifwewear ashoelonger,

we canreducethenumberofdiscardedshoes andhavea positive effect ontheenvironment.Iwanttodesigna sustainable shoebymaking it last longerandmakingitrecyclablewithreplaceableparts,sousers cansimply change a part whenitwearsout or whentheywanttotryadifferentstyle andfunction. Itcanbemadewith an

industrial qualitymaterial.Attheend oftheirserviceablelife,shoescanbe easilyrecycledorreused.The shoes canbeusedtomake othershoesand otherproducts.

Industrialmass-productiongeneratesgarbageand chemicalbyproducts. Byproductsofboththeoriginal

manufacturingprocessesandthesubsequentbreakdownof product materialsare majorfactors in land contamination.Chemicalcomponentsandunhealthymaterialsbothpresentmanyproblems. Poordesign degradestheenvironment,asthesoildoesnotsafelyabsorbthesewastes.

"John C. RyanandAlanTheinDurning,Stuff:The Secret LivesofEverydayThings (Seattle: Northwest EnvironmentJanuary1997),27.

(7)

-4-Americanapparel, shoes,and accessories accountforcombined retail sales ofapproximately $450billionannually,

an amount equaltoabout80%ofthefoodandgrocerysector'ssalesatretail.2

<USMarket in 2006>

Food 100%

Shoesand accessories qq^

-AmericanApparelandFootwear

Assoclatlon-U.S.consumersspendmorethan$20 billion annuallyonfootwear,accordingto theCensus Bureau's Statistical AbstractoftheUnitedStates.3 About 493

million pairs of athleticshoesweresoldin2004,anincreaseofalmost5%

from 471million pairs soldin2003,accordingtoNPDGroup/NPDFashionworld.4

<USShoe sellinggrowth>

# 493pairs soldin2003

471pairs soldin 2003 Numberof pairs

(Inmillions)

-NPDGroup/NPD

Fashlonworld-2PlunkettResearch,Ltd.,"lntroductlonto theApparel&Textileslndustry"[Article].,http://www.plunkettresearch.com/ApparelTextllesFashions/ ApparelTextilesFashlonsTrends/tabid/158/Default.aspx(accessed March 022007).

3AnnalynCensky,Covering Business/'Followingtherunway- and

money"

[essay],Donald W. ReynoldsNational Centerfor BusinessJournalism, http://www.businessjournalism.org/pages/biz/2007/09/following_the_runway_and_money_1/(accessedSeptember30,2007).

(8)

Situation

Analysis

ShoeWaste

AnalysisofShoe Waste

Peopletend to throwawaya shoeratherthanrepairingitfor longerwear.Moreand more shoes arethrown away,

and since shoes are madefromawidevarietyofmaterials,includingplastic,rubber andleatherthatareallgluedor

stitched,theyarevery hardtorecycle or reuse.

Biologicalmaterials

+ Thrownout=Wasteful Burningout=Notsafe

IndustrialMaterials

Organicandindustrial Incineratorsmokefrom

nutrientflowsare thetypicalgarbagewith

difficulttoseparates itsmixtureofindustrial

andbiologicalmaterials.6

sWilliamMcDonoughandMichaelBraungart,CradletoCradle:RemakingtheWayWe MakeThings (New York: North PointPress,2002),103-105.

(9)

Two generallyaccepted waystoextend shoelife

Rotate Two PairsofShoes

Itisa goodideatohavetwoto threepairs ofwalkingorrunningshoestoalternate.Rotatingmultiple pairs of shoes

increasestheirlongevity. Usingmultiplepairsofeverydayshoesisbetterthanhavinga single pair.Inaddition,

switching betweentwopairs of shoes givestimeforthemid-soletodecompressandifmoist,theshoeswillhave time todry.Walkingshoestend towear out attwopoints:theouterheeland atthepoint where awalkerpushesoff

withthebigtoe.7

Take Them OffProperly

Removingonesshoesgently,whichincludes unlacingandremovingthembyhand insteadofpushingofftheshoe withonesfeet,lessenswear ontheshoe.7

7REI:CrosstrainExpertAdvice,"WhentoReplace Your Shoes"[Article]. (Outdoor Fitness ExpertAdvice),http://www.rei.com/learn/Crosstrain/ rei/learn/crosstrain/clnewshoesf(accessedMarch15,2007).

(10)

-7-Situation

Analysis

Shoe Waste

AShoe's Life Span

Mostrunningand

walkingshoeslastupto

500miles.

Most runningandwalkingshoeslast approximately five hundredmiles,adistancethatvariesdependingonhow and wheretheshoes are used. Forexample,pavementwearsdownshoesfasterthanatrack,atrail,orgravel.Also,

shoes with anEVAmidsoletend toweardown fasterthanshoeswith a polyurethane midsole.8

Numerousfactors,includingtheweight oftheuser andthetrainingenvironment,affecthowlongmostrunning

shoes willlast.Also,alightweightpair oftrainerswillnotgenerally lastaslongasasturdymotion controltrainer.

Lighterproductstendtohave less durability.

Manyrunnerskeeprecords oftheirmileagetomonitorwhentoget newtrainers.Othersswitcheverythree tosix months andstillothers wait untilanagginginjuryappearswhentheirshoes areworn outanddisappearswhenthe

athlete switchestoafreshpairofshoes.

Generally,one shouldreplacea pair ofwalkingshoeswhen onehaswalkedinthemapproximately fourhundred miles.Everybodyis different. Somepeople strikeharderor softerthanothers.Some walkingshoes wearbetterthan

others.Onecantellwhenit istime toreplacethembynoticingthewear onthebottomand sides oftheshoes.

8

Ibid(accessedMarch 15,2007).

(11)

-8-Compositionof shoe

Shoes generally havemultiplelayersofdifferingmaterials,andthegluesandstitchingmakethematerialsdifficult

toseparateforrecycling.Iselectedasample ofcasualshoes and studiedthemtoseehow manymaterialsandlayers wereused,andtoseehowtheywerebonded. Herearefourexamplesthatillustratethematerials andmethodsin common use.

Case A

Purpose:walking, running, playing basketball

Usedmaterials:Polyurethane,plastic, nylon, rubber,andsponge Attachmenttechnique:Glueand stitch

CaseB

Purpose: walking

Usedmaterials:Leather,rubber,andfabric

Attachmenttechnique:Glueand stitch

(12)

-9-Situation

Analysis

Shoe Waste

Compositionof shoe

CaseC

Purpose: walking

Usedmaterials:Leather,plastic,fabric,andrubber Attachmenttechnique:Glueand stitch

CaseD

Purpose:walking,running, playingtennis

Usedmaterials:Polyurethane,plastic,foam,nylon,and rubber

Attachmenttechnique:Glueand stitch

(13)

-10-Whyare shoes notrecycledtoday?

Shoe recycling simplytransferswaste elsewhere.

Becauseofthemix of materials usedinashoe,recyclingtheshoe causesdowncycling.Thiscreateslostvalue and

degradesthequalityofthe materials,inadditiontoincreasedcosts and contamination ofthebio-sphere.'

Shoerecycle=Notpopular Shoerecycle=Toocomplicated Shoerecycle=Limited

Usuallyrecyclingcompanies

doesnot sponsorshoe

recycling.

Weneed a specialisttorecycle

ashoe.'0

www.europeanrecycling.co.uk/

NewTry

Noshoesthatincludemetal

eyelets, zippers,batteries, cleats or spikes areaccepted.

Noflipflops,poolshoes, sandals,dressshoes,bootsor

slip-onsareaccepted."

Shoe recycling

Severalcompanies collect old shoesand grinduptherubber andfiber. Therubber canbe

granulatedandre-usedandthefiber fluffcanbeusedforbedding,padding,orhome insulation.Asanexample,NikerunstheReuse-a-ShoeProgram.10

'William McDonoughandMichaelBraungart,CradletoCradle:RemakingtheWayWe Make Things (New York; NorthPointPress,2002),56.

,0The EuropeanRecyclingCompanyLimited: ShoeRecyclingintheUnited Kingdom[conclusion],http://www.europeanrecyclingxo.uk/ (accessedJanuary05,2007).

1'Solid Waste

AgencyofNorthern Cook County,"Ath letic ShoeRecycling"

[article],http://www.swancc.org/education/

athleticshoerecycling.html(accessedFebruary10,2007).

(14)

-11-Situation Analysis

Shoe

Recycling

E-mail from Recyclenow

Icontacted several recyclingorganizationstoaskaboutthefeasibilityofrecyclingshoesandwhat we candoto

promote shoe recycling.Icouldn't get specificdetails,but didreceivesomegeneralinformation.

Thefollowingisan emailfromtheRecycleNow helpline. RecycleNow isthenationalrecyclingcampaignforEngland.

V

recycle

now

Recyclenow Logo

(www.recyclenow.com/Phone:08453313131)

Thankyoufor contactingtheRecycleNow helpline.

PleasenotethatatRecycleNowwe areageneralinformationservice aboutdomesticwaste recycling.Assuch,weare

unabletoprovide specificinformationaboutthe technicalside ofshoerecycling.However,youmay findthe

followingfactsheetfrom WasteOnlineof use:

http://www.wasteonline.org.uk/resources/lnformationSheets/Textiles.htm

Pleasenotethatshoes canberecycledatmostrecyclingcentres,ordonatedtoacharityshops.

Pairsofshoesingoodcondition canbe donatedto charityshops.CharitieslikeOxfam,Save TheChildren, Barnado's,

Age ConcernandCancer Researchhavechains ofhighstreetshops:

http://www.oxfam.org.uk/

http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/scuk/jsp/newhome.jsp?flash=true

http://www.barnardos.org.uk/

http://www.ageconcern.org.uk/

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/

(15)

-12-E-mailwithRecyclenow

TheVarietyClubalsohas3000shoerecyclingsitesthroughouttheUK,mostly found insupermarket car parks and

insomespecialist shoeshops,such asUp& Running:

http://www.varietyclub.org.uk/httpy/www.upandrunning.co.uk/index.html

Nike'sReuse-A-Shoeprogram accepts usedathletic shoesin anystate.Theyareconvertedintosurfacesfor

basketballcourts,tenniscourtsandrunningtracks:

http://www.nike.com/nikebiz/nikebiz.jhtml?page=27&cat=reuseashoe

Wehopethisisofusetoyou.

Pleasefeel freetocontact us againviaemail ortelephoneifyou needfurtherinformation.

Regards

RecycleNow

(16)

-13-Situation Analysis

Shoe

Repairing

Analysisof shoe repair

Thenumber of shoe repair shopsisdecreasing.

Limitedtypesof shoes canberepaired: casual shoesandathleticshoesrequire aspecial repair servicethatgeneral

shoerepairshopscan't provide.

Eventhoughrepairingoldshoes canbe farcheaperthanbuyinganewpair,peopledon't usually bothertorepair

theirshoesbecause it's hardtoaccesstheservice andtherepair costisexpensive.Dressshoesand pumpsareoften

fixed,butcasualshoes,andathletic shoes arerarely fixedwhentheywearout,becauseregularshoerepairshops don't dealwiththose shoes,andmanypeopledon'tknowhowtheycanfixthem.

Producersmakeshoesinmore economicalwaystoreducethesellingpriceandtomaintain or

Economy increaseprofits.Sometimesbuyinga newpair ofshoesismoreeconomicalthanrepairingan

existingpair.

Inconvenient Customers havetobringtheirshoesto therepaircenter,andwaittogetthemfixed,which can

Serviceuse takefrom1 dayto7days.Manypeopledon'twanttobother.

Low

a ssbilitv Manyshoe repair shopsdon'tprovide repair

serviceforcasual and athleticshoes.

(17)

-14-Interviewswithlocalshoe repair shops

"^

"Lesspeople cometorepairtheirshoes comparedtothe 90s,"said Cobblers Corner Shoe.

What Ageneral shoe repairshop,

inexpensive.Theydon't

theydo Price $8-15

usuallyfixcasualshoes.

Repair

time

15-20minutes

Cobblers Comer Shoe

(376 Jefferson Rd. 585-475-1951)

Foot Performance Ctr

(3385Brighton Henrietta Rd.

585-473-5950)

"Wegetridoftheentire outsolepartfromthecasual shoes andreplaceitwithanother

outsole,butit'snot abletohavethesamekindof outsole.Wewill usedifferentmaterial andadifferentcoloredoutsoleforreplacing,"

saidFootPerformance.

What SpecializeIncasualshoes,

theydo andtherepairofBirkenstocks. Price $30

Repair

time

Oneweek

"Backthenshoes weremadebymorerepairable ways[i.e.,moreeasilyrepairable];they hadsimplerlayers,and usednailstocombine eachpart.Recently,especiallycasual

shoeshaveaverycomplicated structure andtheyuse

glue,"

saidSofiashoe service.

What

theydo

SofiaShoeService

(1476 MonroeAve.585-244-5907)

This isageneral shoe repair shopwhichhas been in

business 70years.

-15-Price $30-35 lepair time

(18)

Situation

Analysis

Obsevation

Peoplethrowawaytheirshoeswhentheydon'twanttowearthemanymore. It'sdifficulttospendthe time

necessarytorecycle andtomaketheextraeffortfortheenvironment.

Weneedtochangetheconsumers'

awareness,althoughit's difficult forcustomerstobeaware of sustainability.

Ithinkatthismomentsustainabilitycanbeachievedthroughbetterandmoreaccessibledesign;thecustomers can

beeducatedthrougha welldesigned product.

What ifwe makeit easy forpeopletobuyandkeeptheirshoes?Byusingthepropermanufacturingsystem,good

design,accessibleservice,and simplifiedrecycling, theentire processcanbeimproved.Our societyneedsbotha

productanda systemfortheproducttogivecustomersthesatisfactionofbuyingwell-designed and responsible

productsthatcanprotecttheenvironment.

From myresearch,I believe sustainabilitycanbe bestachievedthroughbetter design.

(19)

-16-BenefitsofMolding

Moldingisa positive solutionfortheenvironment.

Ifa shoeismadebymoldingwith a singlematerial,itdoesn'trequiredisassemblyorseparationofparts,which

makestherecyclingprocess simpler.

Lowdirect

emissionlevels12

Low energy consumption12

Lesswaste

of rawresource,

and materialsin

pro-ductionand

application

Easilyrecyclable

Domestically

manufactured

Productionis mostly in Third Worldcountries.

-ThirdWorldcountrieswhereregulationsarelax

-Verticallybuiltmanufacturingsystem

*ResearchonShoes Sold in US

-p.21

"AlexandreThirezandTimothyGutowski,"AnEnvironmentalAnalysisofinjectionmolding Extended Abstract-Greenmanufacturing

processes,"

abstractfor 2006 IEEE(February2006),"http://web.mit.edu/2.813/www/Reading%20List%20fites/ThiriezJEEE_abstract.pdf (accessedJanuary202007).

(20)

-17-Research

Green

Manufacturing

Solution:

Molding

BenefitsofMolding

<ResearchonShoes Sold in US>

Shoes Sold intheUS- 1

expectmoldingmightbeonewaytorevitalizetheshoemanufacturingindustryinthe

United States.This isbecause moldingrequiresonlyminimallaborandprocessing.

US Shoe manufacturingstatistics1980 US Shoe manufacturingstatistics2006

Imported

Madedomestically

50%

|50%

US Shoe importcontries2006

-AmericanApparelandFootwear

Association-China

Other Countries |2%

85%

-AmericanApparelandFootwear

Association-Todayonly2percentof allshoessoldintheU.S.aremadedomestically. Incontrast,in 1980,fullyone-halfofall footwear intheUnitedStateswas producedhere.

U.S. imports from Chinaaccountforover85percentofitsshoeimports.TheUSimportedover$30 billionworthof

footwearandapparelfromChina. (Today,fewerthan630,000people workinthemanufacture of apparel,textiles

andshoesintheUnitedStates

-alossof over1.6millionjobs,oralmostthree-quartersoftheworkforceproducing

thoseproductsin 1974.)13

"Kevin M.Burke,American ApparelandfootwearAssociation,"Re:WrittenStatement for WaysandmeansTrade Subcommitteehearingon* LegislationRelatedtoTradewithChina,"August2,2007(AdvisoryTR-5,July26,2007)^ittp://www.uscc.gov/hearings/2007hearings/ transcrlpts/feb_1_2/american_apparel_footwear_comments.pdf(accessedSeptember05,2007).

(21)

-18-InjectionMolding

Injection molding isthemost productive processforplastic.Itisaprocessusedtoproducepartsfromthermoplastic material.Injection molding isusedforawide range of product partsfromtoothpastecapstocarframes.

Injection moldingisparticularlyusefulforparts with curvature and other complicatedshapes.

Examplesofinjection-moldedparts

(http://www.plasti-coat.com, Plasti-CoatCorp.)

Capacities:

28to250 ton, 1 /3to20oz.

Applicablematerials:

allthermoplastic,from PVCtoliquidcrystalpolymers14

""Injection Molding:InjectionMoldingCapabilities"http://www.plasti<oat.com/injmldg.htm(accessed March 05,2007).

(22)

-19-Research

Green

Manufacturing

Solution:

Molding

InjectionMolding

Molding(lnjectionmolding)process

Mol

An injectionmoldistheinvertedformoftheproduct's shape.For moldingprocess youhave

tomakesurethatyourpart will notbe lockedintothemold.Moldsusually havetwohalves (calledthecoreandthecavity)tohavetheparttobeextracted after cooling.

Themostcommonmanual clamps arebolts,butmoldsare also clampedbymagneticallyor

electrically fortheinjectionprocess.

Intheinjectionprocess,heatedplasticis injectedintothemold athighpressure and

temperature.

Cooling Mold coolingmustbedesignedtodissipatetheheatofthemolding quicklyanduniformly. _H___HR1I

Ejection Themethod ofejectionhastobeadaptedto theshapeofthemoldingtopreventdamage.

.lamping

Injection

<lnjectionMoldingProcess>

Hopper: Granularplastic

|HV Moltenplastic

Screw-type

plunger

Nozzle Mold

Heaters

(23)

-20-ExistingMolded Shoes

/.

a m *

Clog

(http://www.clogsonline.com/)

Mi-on

(http://www.mionfootwear.com/)

Mi-on

(http://www.mionfootwear.com/)

'

\

Sketchers

(http://skechers.com/)

EVAslippermold

(http://kanhao.hisupplier.com/)

EVAslipper

a

(24)

-21-Research

Green

Manufacturing

Solution:

Molding

E-mailwithMi-on

Mi-On isanenvironmentallyfriendlyshoe producedbyTimberland. Mi-Onuses amoldingtechnique toformthe

bodyoftheshoe with a singlematerial;however,thecompany isabletoproducemany differenttexturesand colors. Mi-On hasthemost advancedlevelofmoldingshoeintermsofthequalityandexecution.Since Iwanttouse

moldingtoproduce a shoefromasinglematerial,IcontactedMi-Ontoaskmanufacturingquestions. Iobtained

someinformationaboutthematerial andthemoldingmethodtheyused.

Below isan emailIsenttoMi-On,andtheresponsefrom Mi-On.

Mi-onlogo

(http://www.mionfootwear.com/home)

Hello,mynameis JungYunLee,a graduate studentmajoring in industrial designatRIT. I'm workingon sustainable

shoedesignasathesisproject.I'mhighlyinterested in Mi-On'ssolutionandIhavereadaboutyourbusiness

through the website,but Ihavesomequestions.

Myquestions are:

Is Mi-Onmadewithdouble-injection moldingmethod? Howdoes Mi-Onshowdifferenttexturesandcolorsifitis

made out ofonlyonematerialEVA. Willtheshoesberecycled or reused afterconsumeruse? I'll veryappreciateifyou write meback. Thankyouforyourtime.

AnswerfromMi-on:

WeutilizeinjectionmoldedEVA (IMEVA). This isasingleinjection.

There istexturebuilt intotheinjectionmold. Weuse variouscolors ofEVAandapply filmsontothesandalsto

achieve variouscolors/patterns.

IMEVA isrecyclable...e.g.Itcanbegrounduptobeusedinotherproducts(runningtracks,sport courts etc).

Weare alsoinvestigatingmethodstouserecycledIMEVA"powder"tousedinnew sandals.

(25)

-22-IndustrialQualityMaterial

Technical Nutrient:Usinga material whichhas beenthroughanindustrialprocess suchasplastic15

Thisshoeismade of anindustrial qualitymaterial;itwill maketheshoelastlonger. Theindustrialqualitymaterial

allowstheproducttobemoredurable.

Durability:

Productswithindustrial qualitymaterials can achieveexceptionaldurabilityandlow

maintenancerequirements.These products areenvironmentallyattractivebecausetheyneed

tobereplacedlessfrequentlyandtheirmaintenancehas very lowimpact.

Sometimes,durabilityisacontributing factorto thegreendesignation.

Conservation Usjn_

gnjn<justrja|qUaiitymaterialhelpsconservetheenvironmentbyreducingthe effort,

ofthenatural

andtheassocjate_pollution,requiredtoharvestrawmaterials.

resources

Molding

possibility

Industrialqualitymaterialisusedformolding.

Moldingisagreenerwaytoproduceaproductbecause itcan reduce pollution and waste

fromoperations and useslessmaterialthanthestandardsolutions.

,5William McDonoughandMichael Braungart,CradtetoCradle:RemakingtheWayWeMakeThings(New York: North PointPress, 2002), 109-110.

(26)

-23-Research

Green

Manufacturing

Solution: Industrial

Quality

material,Single Material

IndustrialQualityMaterial

Possiblematerialsincludeplastics, polymers,polyurethane andPoliyou. Thesematerials areless harmfultothe

environmentand canberecycled easily.

Polyurethane isone ofthebestand mostdurablematerials availabletomakesolesonshoes. Polyurethane Polyurethane

alwaysholds itsshape.Polyurethaneaddsstabilityandweighttotheshoe.

Polyurethane'sdensityanddurabilityoffers a combination ofcushioningand stability.

EVA

EVA isalightweight,foam-based cushioningmaterial. Insidemanyshoes you canfindafirmer,

denserpieceofEVAcalleddual-densityEVAplacedintheshoetoreducetheamount of

pronation(walkingontheoutside ofthefoot).The lengthofthepostdeterminestheamount

ofcontrol.

POLIYOUisapatented opencellPolyurethanefoam developedtoprovideablendof

Poliyou

"cushioning"

withabuilt in "moisturemovementsystem".Poliyouisbreathable,and absorbs

moisture andodorwith"naturalactive

carbon"

and slowsthegrowthoffungusandbacteria

withAegisanti-microbials.16

^ak _ Polyurethane (http://www.ippnet.com/EN/maln/ products/plastics/S527/1486Jitml) Poliyou (http://www.jonesandvining.com/ products/foams/pollyou.html) EVA Materials (httpy/sl.en.allbaba.com/product/ 50031453/50143960/Materials/ EVA_Materialsi)tm)

"Uones&v1ning,"Products7http://jonesandvining.com/products/foams/pol'ryou.html(accessed March02,2007).

(27)

-24-Single Material

Whya single materialismorebeneficial?

Minimal Aproduct with one material uses resourcesefficiency becausesuchuse caneliminatetheneed

Environmental frextra materials.Usingone material canalsobepositivefortheenvironmentbecausea

Footprint simplermanufacturingprocess should producelesspollution.

Easilyrecycled Aproductthatismadeout ofonematerial makesrecyclingeasier.

Crosssections ofthesingle material shoe

Idesigneda shoeusinga singlematerial,soin everycross sectionviewitshowsasinglematerial.

<Crosssection views oftheshoe modelin SolidWorks>

(28)

-25-Research

Green

Manufacturing

Solution: No glue,No

Stitching

Withlowornolaborcost,noadhesives,and nosecondaryprocesses usedduringmanufacturing,less energywould

beconsumed. Also,thecostandtheriskofexposureto toxicchemical componentswouldbe lessened.

With mydesign,Idon't havetoglue orstitchthesoletothebody. Thisshoedoesn'tneedglue.Theabsenceofglue makesrecyclingeasier and shows a commitmenttotheenvironmentandthefuture.

Toxicchemicalcomponents

of glue andleather

Manytypesofglue containadangerouschemicalcomponent,chromium.

Chromium isaheavymetalusedinlarge-scale leathertanningprocesses.

Cancerscanbecausedafterlongtermexposureof20yearsormoreto

chromium17

Easyrecycling Easytoseparatewhenitisrecycled.

"MichaelGochfeld, Environmental Health Perspectives: Paneldiscussion: EpidemiologicandToxicologicalstudies ofChromium (NorthCarolina:TheNational InstituteofEnvironmental Health Science 1991),1 21-125.

(29)

-26-Usinglessmaterial:

Arrowhead

Arrowhead Waterreducedtheamountofplastictomakethebottle,sothattheycanproducelesswaste.

Thethicknessofthebottlebecamevery thin,andthelengthofthelabel isshorter.

Arrowhead Bottle

(http://www.arrowheadwater.com/)

Usingasustainablematerialfortheenvironment:

Biota

Biota Wateruses a cornbasedmaterialforthebottle. Thecornbasedmaterialisreusableand notharmfulwhenit's

thrownaway.

Biota Water bottle

(http://www.biotaspringwater.com/)

(30)

-27-Research

Consideration for Shoe Design:Standard Shoe Size

Shoesize standards aredifferentinvarious countries.There arethreemajor shoesize standardsintheworld.

Theyusedifferentwaystomeasurethesizeoffeet,and measurement units.Fortheinternationalmarket,ISO9407is

used.Here isthebrief descriptionofthethreestandardsintermsof countries andthemeasurement units.

International

standard(ISO 9407) Europe,Korea,Japanusethis standard,measuredinmillimeters.

European

standard(EN13402) Thisstandardisalso usedforclothes,

measuredincentimeters.

United Statesand

Canadastandard

Themeasurement unitisinches.

<Tableofshoe sizesininternationalstandard,European standard.United StatesandCanada

standard^8

International

standard(ISO 9407) 35.5

36 37 37.5 38 39 39.5 40

\

Europeanstandard

(EN13402) 35 35.5 36 37

37.5 3B 38.5 39

Unitedstateand

Canadastandard V

5 55 6 6.5 7 7.5 85 9

J

"Aboutcom:Shoes/Women'sInternationalShoesizeConversionChart:http://shoes.about.eom/od/fttcomfort/a/wintshoesize.htm

(accessedMarch02,2007).

(31)

-28-Menandwomen'sshoesizesaredifferent.

Men'sshoes are alittlebiggerthanwomen's shoes ofthesame size.

sizing chart

fi

|Se,ectSize J_J ODD TO BAG ^f'

f^ftnXrltnH MM

9-Men.' 10,5

-'.vcm en 9.5-Men.'l1-Women 10-Men/l1.5-Women 10,5-Men/12-Women 11

-Men' 12.5

-'.'o men ji 5-Mcn i''-:\ams-n

othercolors:

i

J

Puma's Size Chart

(http://www.puma.com)

<Tableofmenand women's shoesizesin U.S.>"

(

US. Men's 4 45 5 55 6 65 7 7.5

\

US.Women's 53 6 65 7 75 8 85 9

J

"Needapair,"ShoeSize Chart'/httpV/needapair.com (accessed March02,2007).

(32)

-29-Research

Consideration forShoe Design:Standard Shoe Size

Therangeof shoesizesforeach shoebrand isnot regulated.The range of shoesizesisdiffersbyshoebrand,and

each shoe modelhasadifferentrange ofshoesizes.Hereisa graphshowingshoesize ranges ofthreemajor shoe

brands,NIKE, PUMA,andADIDASbasedontheirwebsite.

<Shoesize rangesofmenand womeninNike,Puma,and Adidas>

Men,US

Nike

Adidas

Women,US

<6~18>

# <5-5~15_>

<6_~18>

ShoeSize

Nike <5~12>

Puma a) <4~14>

Adidas <5~12>

Shoe Size

(33)

-30-Eachpart of a shoehasa specific namedependingonthelocation, function,and shape.

Upper

Insole

Toebox

Midsole

Outsole

OnlineDictionaryisusedforthedefinitionsoftheshoeparts.

Insole:Theinnersoleof ashoe orboot.20

Upper: Thepartof ashoeorbootabovethesole.

Strap: A flexibleand narrowbandto tieandholdshoes.

Toebox: Theforwardtipoftheupper of a shoe orbootthatprovidesspace and protectionforthetoes.

Outsole:Theoutersoleof a shoe.

Midsole:Cushioningbetweentheoutsole andtheinsoleof ashoe.

"OnlineDictionary,http://dictionary.reference.com(accessed September05,2007).

(34)

-31-Research

Green MarketSolutions:

Inviting

Design

Usuallycustomersdon'texpect shoe manufacturerstohaveanimprovedenvironmentalperformance(except for

environmentalists or afewgroupsofpeople whocarefortheenvironmententhusiastically).Mostpurchasers care onlyaboutprice,design,anddurability. So it is verycrucialfora green producttomeetthecustomer's satisfaction

expectations.

Itshould not screamtheecofriendlyconceptbyits green-looking design.The designshouldbeinvitingand

accessibletoanycustomers.

What BuyersSayIs Important inFootwear21

Comfort,fitandfeel

Suitsactivelifestyle 63%

Hasperformance advantage 56%

Has fashionadvantages 54%

Meets basicneeds 50%

Good foreverydaywear 41%

Hasconservative appearances 29%

Hasgoodbrandaura 27%

Is"hot"

withfriends 2%

-AthleticFootwear

Associatlon-2,RichardLaliberteandStephenC.GeorgeJhe Men's Health GuidetoPeakConditioning:BuyingShoes (The Men's HealthBooks):324,

http://boote_oogteom/books?ld=2MOrDKd^

=web&ots=mAREud-9li&sig=TgkYXg2Vx62BP01WTmropMqOV4U (accessed October02,2007).

(35)

-32-People mainlythrowshoesawaybecauseoftheworn outoutsole,andtheoutdated styles.Ithoughtaboutmaking each piece of shoeisreplaceable,so users cansimplychangethecertain partforthereasons offashionorwearing

longer.

Replacying

Replacying strap

outsole

shoelacepart

Research: Ididasurveyonwhypeoplethrowawaytheirshoes and usedtheresearchresultstodecidewhichparts

tomakereplaceable.Isurveyed25peoplefromage1 8to43.

Whydoyouthrowawayyour shoes?

Wornout outsole 83%

Wornoutmaterial,color 63%

Insole 56%

Outdatedstyle 54%

-ResearchbyJungYun Lee

(36)

-33-Research

Green Market Solutions:

Easy

UserReplaceable PartsSystem

Surveyformwith personalinformationandquestions

PERSONALINFORMATION

(Please fill in thepersonalinformation before the surveybelow)

.

N IPlease typeyourname (max 25char)

-. .-_ Hjj IPlease typeyouremail

2. Your Email Address 1 ^

(Ndblankspaces or special characters

"-' Male E Female 4.Age 16-19 20-22 23-25 26-29 30-34 35-39 40-45 46-50 5. Job li

Selectyourjob Business Politics

Bivironmental

3

1. Haveyouhad theexperience ofhavingthrow awayyourfavoritepair of shoes?

r Yes F

NO

2. If yes, why didyouhave to throw themaway?Whatwastheproblem?

5

3. Ifyour shoes(mostlyoutsole)areeasilyrepairableandlastlonger, doyouthink

youwouldweartheshoes alotlonger?

4. Ifyourfavoriteshoescouldbe kept ingoodcondition, howlongdoyouexpectto

wearthem?

1year

2years

3years

Longerthan 4years

ubrrit Cleattheform

(37)

-34-Ifthegreen products are welcomedbythecustomersitcanchangethebehaviorofusersgradually,anditwillbring

betterenvironmental performanceinthefuture.

Bythewebsite andtheproductdescriptionwecanprovideinformationto the customers,andtheycanlearnthe green conceptbehindthe product,and putmoremeaning init. Iftheyfeelgood withthewholething,

environmentalresponsibilitycanbeone considerationtobuya productnexttime.

<EducationProcess>

Buya shoe Findameaning behind Consider sustainability

Sustainability

Note:Thisprocess canbeappliedtoother products.

(38)

-35-Ideation

Process

Marker

Rendering

andSketch Models

Methods

Marker rendering & Sketch Models

Fortheideationprocess,Ididmarker rendering.Ithelpedme visualizetheideasquickly.Ialsomade sketch

modelstocheckthefittingandimprovethedesign. Iusedavacuum machinetoformtheshoeshapestomimic

themoldingeffect.Bytestingandgetting feedbackonthesketchmodels,Imodified anddevelopedthesketch

models.Iused colorfoams,and sinceit'sflexibleandeasilyapplicabletoanyfoam,Icould

achievesatisfyingresults onthesketchmodeldevelopment. Itwasreally helpfultofigureoutthefinal

appearance model.

Vacuummachine attheIndustrialDesignShop

(DepartmentofIndustrial Design Rochester InstituteofTechnology

Building7. Rochester,New York14623)

"Sketch ModelMaking

Materials:colorfoamsfromJoann.

Process:

1.Makingshoelasts: Imadewoodenshoelastsfor both leftand rightsides.

2.Addingclayontheshoelaststohavespecialshapepartly.

3.Settingthefoamandtheshoelastonthevacuummachine.

4.Raisingheatandpressure onthemachine.

5.Vacuuming:When itreaches enoughheatandpressure,pushtheshoelast intothefoam,and whenthefoam

coverstheshoelastand revealsthedetailoftheshapecompletelyturnoffthepressure.

6.Cuttingandgluing foamstomakethesketchmodel.

(39)

-36-DualInjectionMolding

Theoutsole and upper part oftheshoesaremade out of one material.

But, theyshowdifferentcharacteristics:hardness, flexibility,andsoon.

CL >*J v_-^

1

Moldl

Mold2

Stepl

/

A

r--r

&

Step2

1

7-'

//0 /

1

4\

|

-.'

(40)

-37-Ideation

Process

Marker

Rendering

and Sketch Models

Dual InjectionMolding

Theadditionalpiece can provide anotherfunctionto theshoes.

+Laces

Laces

Configurations

)

(41)

-38-Dual InjectionMolding

Shoes+Laces: Basicbodypart andVariationsofshoelacepart.

-'

I

/:

#

v

jO_tav

(42)

-39-Ideation

Process

Marker

Rendering

and Sketch Models

Pockettypeof outsole andthebody

<f>

1wr*TV) W.-j*.-<Lr

(43)

-40-SpecialshapedBodypart and shoelace and outsole part

(44)

-41-Ideation

Process

Marker

Rendering

and Sketch Models

SpecialshapedBodypart and shoelace and outsolepart

(45)

-42-Strapandhook

(46)

-43-Ideation

Process

Marker

Rendering

and Sketch Models

Strapandhook

(47)

-44-Strapandhook

(48)

-45-Ideation

Process

Marker

Rendering

andSketch Model

Strapandhook

(49)

-46-Strapandhook

The lastsketch model:

Toshowrealisticvolume oftheshoelast Icarved yellowfoam,andtheother parts are made ofthinfoam.

<Jp**

(50)

-47-Final

Development

SolidWorks Model

SolidWorks isa3DCADprogramthatrunsonMicrosoft WindowsandSolidWorksoffersunmatched2Dand3D designcapabilities.22

1modeledtheshoe partsinSolidWorks,anddevelopeda rapidprototypeby3Dprinting. For3Dprinting I keptthepartfilesand sentthemseperatlytothe3DPrinter,andfor renderingandpresentation,

Imade anassemblyof partfiles.

Parts Assembly

Drawing

r

<SolidWorksAssembly>

V'.;.-:-..:;]' :''..

'

. ' '' -'"::.

L

J

^SolidWorks 2004Overview:The Standard in 3D Mechanical DesignSoftware,http://www.hpgsccom/solutionfile/SOLUTIONFILE1242.pdf (accessedMay02,2007).

(51)

-48-SolidWorks filesthatare savedin STLfile formatcanbesenttoa3Dprintertomakea rapid prototype model.

3Dprinter atthemanufacturing engineering lab (DepartmentofManufacturingand

MechanicalEngineering/PackagingScience Rochester InstituteofTechnology

78 LombMemorial Drive

Rochester,New York14623-5604)

Rapidprototypeprinting

Rapidprototype model samples

(52)

-49-Final

Development

3D

Printing

STLfiles

Rapidprototype models

CloseUpView:Thesurface isconvertedintotriangular polygons

STLfile format?

The STLfile formatistheRapidPrototyping

industry'sstandarddatatransmissionfile format. The STL fileconvertsthesurfacesof a solid model intotriangularpolygons.23

^EngineersEdge,"STL CAD Files for Rapidprototyping'/http://www.engineersedge.com/stl_rapid_proto.htm(accessed September28,2007).

(53)

-50-Chosen3DRapid Prototype Material

JYPSUM ispowderbased.

JYPSUM+Binder Fairlycheap Easytobreak Roughsurface

Abletodealwithlargesize of3dprintingmodel

Plastic

Expensive Durable Finesurface

Onlyforsmall size ofthemodel

Dueto thecapacityandthe cost,JYPSUM isusedfortheproject.The prototype models wereonlyused aspatterns

tomakeasilicone mold.The smoothness ofthesurface canbeadjustedbythesettingandthebinder,andthefinal

siliconemoldshaveafairiysmooth surface.

(54)

-51-Final

Development

3D

Printing

EmailwithRedeye RPM

IcontactedRedeyeRPM,a professional3dprinting companyinMinnesota,toask aboutthe3dprintingprocess, andforsuggestions on possible materials.BycontactingthemIcouldknow it ispossibletodirectlyprinttheshoe shape withthesimilar materialthat Iwanttouse.ThefinalmaterialthatIwanttousewasEVAorpolyurethane-like materials,andRedeye RPMsuggestedusingalittlesoft andflexiblematerial calledTangoGraywhichissimilarto EVAor polyurethane.Ithought3Dprintingwillhaveaverysimilarresultto themolding,soIconsideredprinting SolidWorks Shoemodel withthesuggested material.IcalculatedtheSolidWorksmodel and after estimationitwas decidednottousethesuggested soft materialduetoprice andtimeconstraints.ThepricetotrytheTangoGray material wasfourto ten timeshigherthanhardmaterials.FortheprojectIdecidedtomake ahardprototypemodel and siliconmold,and sinceRITmechanicalengineering departmentoffers3Dprintingservicewithhard3D printing material, the3Dprinter attheschoolwasused.The experienceof3Dprintingandmoldingprocesshelpedtoexplain

themanufacturingprocessbetter.

Eventhoughthefinalprototypemodel wasdoneatRedeyeRPM,itwasvery helpfultocontacttheprofessional rapid prototypeplacetolearnthemanufacturingpossibilities and materials.

Thefollowingisanexchangeof emailsbetweenmyselfandRedeye RPM:

Jirif.'i I

;'-.;-l.acc.dtJ.ts:*(Tonrri

^J) r e d e y e rpm ^t*?",^ !K!-K;"sra RedEyeRPMLogo

(http://www.RedEyeRPM.com)

Hello,I'magraduate studentin industrial designmajor.I'm veryinterestedin 3Dprinting,andhavea question aboutit. For mythesisI'm workingonsustainable shoesmadebymolding.

Iwanttoknow if Icanuse3Dprintingtomakethefinalmockupoftheshoesbecause Ithink3Dprintingmightbethe most similarsolutiontomolding.

Myquestions are:

1.Canyou printthisshoeshape(Iattached sketchesandsketchmodeloftheshoes)?

2.Howmuchdoesitcosttoprint apair of shoes?

3.Can Iusesoftandflexiblemateriallikerubberfor 3Dprinting?

4.Can Iuse aSolidWorksfilefor3Dprinting?Ifnot what programs orfilesshouldIuse? 5.Howlongdoes ittaketogetthe3D printingmodelfromthedaytosendyou afile?

I'm considering using3Dprinting for my thesis,soifyouanswermyquestionsIwillbe verygrateful.Thank youfor yourtime.

Answer from RedeyeRPM:

Youcan checkthepricebyuploadingyourSolidWorks file inour website.Therearenumberof materials we canuse, andIrecommendTangoGraywhichissoftlikerubber.WeacceptsSTLfile,andyou can convert yourSolidWorksfile to STLfile inSolidWorks.Oncewe getthefileandsetthemachineitwilltake twoto threedays.Ifyouhaveany furtherquestionsfeel freetocontact me.Thank you.

(55)

-52-Silicon MoldMakingProcess:

1.Buildingaclaywallmeetingtheparting line. 2.Makinginsertsandpins.

3.Buildingafoam boardwallaroundtheday.

4.Pouringsiliconerubberliquid intothefoamboardwall. 5.Makinga ventandsprue.

<Clayformingfora mold>

(56)

-53-Final

Development

Mold

Making

Silicon MoldMakingProcess:

1.Buildingaclaywallmeetingthe

parting line.

2.Makinginsertsand pins.

3.Buildingafoam boardwall aroundtheclay.

4.Pouringsiliconerubberliquidintothefoam boardwall. 5.Makingavent and sprue.

<Siliconmoldsforeach part>

* l-I

''*'

,y

.'!

V

*c_3

(57)

-54-Chosen MoldMakingMaterials

Sealer: Supersealer(MoldreleaseSpray)

Silicone: Moldmax (Twosilicone rubberepoxy)

Clay:Soapfreeone

Polyurethane: VYTAFLEX 20 (flexible &soft)

Colorpigment:SOSTRONG

<Picturesof moldmakingmaterials>

WOOMOO 30 (httpy/www.smooth-on.com)

Moldrelease (http://bogomip.net/blog/ make-your-own-3d-settlers

-of-catan/)

VYTAFLEX 20

(http://www.smooth-on.com)

(58)

-55-Final

Development

Mold

Making

Observation:ThemoldwithOOMOO30siliconturnedoutverywell,buttheVYTAFLEX20 Polyurethanewastoosoft

toholdtheshape.Thesiliconeisexpectedtowork wellfortheshoemock-up.

Theprocessfrom SolidWorksmodeltothemoldmakingwasvery successfullyexecuted exceptthecavity.Dueto thedifficultyofmoldmaking, thefinalmock-upendedworsethan expected,andIcouldn'ttakea good pictureof

thefinalmodel.However,itwasaverycrucial processtomake a moldactuallyinthewholedesignprocesstoexplain themanufacturingconceptbetter,andhaveamorebelievableresult.

Forthis project,ImodeledtheshoeinSolidWorks,anddevelopedarapidprototypeby3Dprinting,and madeamold

byusingtheprototype.Bygoingthroughalltheseprocessesstepbystep,Ibecamemorefamiliarwiththe

manufacturingand couldunderstandtherelationshipbetweendesign,engineeringand manufacturing.

(59)

-56-CADDrawing

InSolidWorks Icreated2dline drawingsof partandassembly fileswithdimensions for better understandingof size

andfeatures.The measuringunitismm,documentsizeisletter,andthescaleis 1 3.

Assembly Drawing

SKTUNA-A SCALE!:!

MBJUMMH itl HMUSHM *

nEKXEW 1 NEATSHOE

1 1

SMS13 ftBGHT: |aBTIOfl

(60)

-57-Final

Development

Technical

Drawing

CADDrawing

Partdrawing:Inner layer

SCAL2:1

MM ttfUK B-lfrff

imt

NEAT SHOE BODY

1

SCME13 |WBfflr: |SHgriflfl

(61)

-58-CADDrawing

Part drawing:outsole

TirS

NEAT SHOE: OUTSOLE

1

SCA1_I3 |HB8rr: |SHSUffl

(62)

-59-Final Computer Generated Model

(63)

-60-1.Puttheinnerlayerintotheoutsole.

2. Hooktheinnerlayerintotheholeoftheouter.

3. Putthestraps aroundtheinnerlayerandouter.

4. Weartheshoes.

5.Youcan changethepartsfor different looks.

(64)

-61-Final Computer

Generated

Model

Outer

?

Eachpieceoftheshoeisreplaceable,so users caneasilychange certain partsfor

purposesoffashionorwearing longevity.

Inner

Strap

<Assembly> <Outer> <lnnerlayer> <Strap>

(65)

-62-Interviewswith shoe stores

Iwenttoshoestores atmallandhad preliminaryquestions aboutthesustainableshoeto theemployeesand

customers.

Questions:

1.whydoyou wanttobuyordon'twanttobuythisshoe?

2.Wouldyou considerbuyinganenvironmentalfriendlysustainable shoe?

3.What doyou considerthemost whenbuyinga shoe?

4. Afterfindingaboutthegreen concept oftheshoe,would youliketoconsiderbuyingthatkindofshoe?

5.Doyouhave anysuggestions oropinions onNEAT inaspects ofdesignand concept?

Feedback: __

Peoplesaidtheywantbuytheshoebecauseoftheappearanceandthefunsystemofchangingparts.Theysaid

thattheyconsidertheprice andthedesignthemost whenbuyingshoes,andtheydon't reallycare aboutthe

green conceptforbuyingashoe,butthink positivelyaboutit.TheysuggestedthatImake more stylesformen

becausethecurrentdesignseemsforwomen.

Interviewed Shoe Stores

Journeys Foot Locker

(Miracle Mile DriveI Rochester,NY14623) (Miracle Mile Drive|Rochester,NY14623)

FOOTACTION

(Miracle Mile Drive|Rochester,NY14623)

(66)

-63-Application

Logo

Neat

Inamedtheshoe"Neat"whichrepresentstheclean appearance andtheinterlockingsystem,aswellas concernfor

theenvironment.Forthelogo Icameupwiththebluecolored archonthetopandthegray Neattext.

Tomatch withthecircle shapedholesontheshoeIchose"Centurygothic"

fonttypewhichhasafullcirclefigure in

theletters'^"and"e"The centurygothicfontalsofitsthesimpleand playfulimageofNeat.Previouslythearch was

greenfortheenvironmentallyfriendlyidentity,but Ichangedthegreentosky blue.The sky bluestill represents

nature,but doesn'tshoutthegreen concept whichiswhatI intendwiththeNeatproject.

Thefinal logo isappliedforthe shoe, advertisement,andtheweb site as a symbolic markoftheconceptand project.

LogoIdeationProcess

Neat

(67)

-64-Idesignedthe thesiswebsiteinordertopresentmythesisproject with moreinteractivityinaprofessional manner.

Byclickingtherolloverlinksontheleftside,users can explorethesite.

Thesissite

(http:ZAvww.yunnylee.com/neat)

Themost crucialpartinthesiteistoshowtheonlinedemo shoppingoption.Viewerscan choosethecolorsfor

each partforthebestmatch,andtheycandecideonthequantityandthesize.

Color Choice Option

(http://www.yunnylee.com/neat)

Perspective ViewerwithRotation

(http://www.yunnylee.com/neat)

(68)

-65-Application

Web Site

Iftheycompletetheshoppingdemonstration, theycanclick"BuyNeat"which will show athankyou messagefor

participatingwithoutallowingthevisitortoactuallypurchasetheshoe.

The informationthatviewersfill inwillbeemailedtothedesignerYun Lee (JungYunLee-tutujy2@hotmail.com),

andtheywillbeusedfor furthermarket studies and research purposes.

CostomizingOptions

(http://www.yunnylee.com/neat)

Personal Information

(http://www.yunnylee.com/neat)

Thank Youmessagetoinformthepurposeofthesurvey

(http://www.yunnylee.com/neat)

(69)

-66-Youcanalsochecktheresearchofthe project,linksto theresourcestounderstandtheprojectinadvanceand

moredetail.

Research

(http://www.yunnylee.com/neat)

Yuri's Portfolio Site: '

../.Vjrmviee.ccr-i

Yun's3D Gallerv: htto:v/vunrr.vle&,com/3d

ReferencingBacks: OadktcCr-3dk

Stuff: The SecretUv-e^of /e'vda-,Thinas

r~LilLtl.lJJ.-j:'.V:_IJj

Ihifr,*.-.rnsfl.(...ei

-J0<<

fteferencina Sites:h!iB;;7vi.-*'w.lflPur>irco",

Linksto theresources

(http://www.yunnylee.com/neat)

(70)

-67-Conclusion

Inthisprojecttodesigna sustainableshoe,Itried tomake shoes and asystemfor solvingtheenvironmental

problemsthat theshoeindustryiscreating.Myconclusions aredesigningshoes whichareeasy forpeopletokeep,

andusingthepropermanufacturingsystem,simplifiedrecycling,and gooddesign.

Tohelppeople maintaintheirshoeseasily Icameupwithassemblingmethodstoputthesinglepartsoftheshoes

together.People simplyreplacethepartbythemselveswithoutgoingtoshoerepairshop,andsendtheshoesto

thecompany for repairingwhentheparts are wornout.Theeasymaintenance oftheshoeswillactuallyhelp peoplekeeptheirshoeslonger.Also,useofindustrial qualitymaterialforalltheparts makesthelifespanofthe

shoeslongerandwillcauselesseffort andenergy forthemaintenance.

Forthemanufacturingsystem,moldingwithasingleandindustrialmaterialforeach part wasapplied.Moldingcan minimizethemanufacturingprocesses sothatitwillreduceenergyconsumptionandharmfulelementsduring

manufacturing.Alsobymoldingwe canminimizetheuse ofmaterials and produce shoeswithoutusingsynthetic

glue.

To simplifyrecycling,eachpart ofshoeusesa singlematerial and each partoftheshoecanbeseparatedcleanly

andtheyarenot attached at alltothemain part oftheshoe sothat itcanbeeasilyandeffectivelyrecycled.Itcan solvetheproblems ofshoerecyclingwhichusually leadstodown cyclingandis harmfultoboththeeconomyand

theenvironment.Alsothesinglematerial partsaresafeto throwitaway.

Forthedesignoftheshoes,sportyandorganiclinesand playful colors wereused.Theinterlockingassembling

systemoftheshoes allowspeopletohavethefreedomofchoosingafavoritecolormatchfortheparts. Usually green shoeshaveatoonatural appearance anddon't followthemarkettrend.Asaresult,sustainable concepts shoes areoftenignoredbycustomersbecauseoftheirunappealingappearance.So Ifocusedondesigningshoes

whicharenotgreenlooking,butpleasant and practicallookingwhich canactuallyattractcustomersforpurchase.

Thesustainableshoedesignwas named"Neat?meaningthesimplicityofthedesignandtheinterlockingsystem.

Thenamealsorefersto thewaytheshoe willhelp keepa clean environment.Neatisashoethatismade of interlockingcomponentsof asingle material.Thisdesignallowsfor easy repairingandupgrading.The system

employsasustained productionmodel, thoughtheproductisnot marketed as such.The userisdrawntothe

productsystembythe

shoes'

simplicity, customizability,andinvitingdesign. After purchasingtheinitialpair of

shoes,returningcustomersutilizeanonlineinterfacetoupgradeandcustomizetheircurrentpairorfutureshoe

purchases.Thecustomizablefeaturesextendthelifetimeandwearabilityoftheshoes,andthusrevealthe product's

sustainable nature.Theproductsystem strivestoinspiretheusertoconsiderthesustainabilityoffutureproduct

purchases,shoe orotherwise.

(71)

-68-easily.Differentmaterialstreams canbeusedfortheinnerlayerandtheoutsole.Forinstancethesole part canbe

polyurethane,andtheinnerlayercanbeafabric. Itcanbemorecomfortable andsatisfying forpeople who wantto

toucha naturaltextureonthefeet.Also,usingafabric fortheinnerlayercanincreasethebreathabilityofthe shoe,

andtheindustrialstream outsole partisdurableandlastsmuchlonger. Eachpartcanbecollectedseparatelyatthe

end oftheshoe's useandthenrecycledandreused.Thankstosustainablejointseachpartmay be detachedsimply

and cleanly.The easydisassemblywon't causeany downcycle anddamagethequalityofthematerial.

(72)

-69-Bibliography

About.com: Shoes."Women's International ShoesizeConversionChart"

http://shoes.about.eom/od/fitcomfort/a/

wintshoesize.htm(accessed March02,2007).

Burke,Kevin M.American ApparelandFootwear Assodation."Re: Written Statement for WaysandmeansTradeSubcommittee

hearingon"Legislation RelatedtoTradewithChina"August2,2007(AdvisoryTR-5,July26,2007)"

[essay].

httpy/www.uscc.gov/hearings/2007hearings/transcripts/feb_1_2/american_appareljootwear_comments.pdf

(accessed September05,2007).

Censky,Annalyn.CoveringBusiness/'Followingtherunway- and

money"

[essay]. Donald W. Reynolds National Center for BusinessJournalism,http://www.businessjoumalism.org/pages/biz/2007/09/following_the_runway_and_money_1/ (accessed September30,2007).

Engineers Edge."STLCAD Files for Rapidprototyping"

[conclusion]http://www.engineersedge.com/stl_rapid_proto.htm

(accessed September 28,2007).

The EuropeanRecycling CompanyLimited: ShoeRecyclingintheUnited Kingdom [conclusion].

http://www.europeanrecyding.co.uk/(accessedJanuary05,2007).

"Injection Molding: InjectionMoldingCapabilities"

[conclusion].http://www.plasti-coatcom/injmldg.htm

(accessed March05,2007).

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