W o r k s h o p M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s i n L C I A L o n d o n, 1 4 O c t o b e r Fraunhofer ISI

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©Fraunhofer ISI

W o r k s h o p M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s i n L C I A

L o n d o n , 1 4 O c t o b e r 2 0 1 5

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Raw materials policy and security of supply

Clients include: European Commission (DG Enterprise and Industry, DG Research),

Office of Technology Assessment at the German Bundestag , German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

Dynamic material flow modeling

Clients include: International Copper Association, Volkswagen, German Federal

Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

Influence of technological change on the demand for raw materials

Clients include: European Commission (DG Research, DG Joint Research Centre),

Volkswagen, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

B u s i n e s s U n i t S y s t e m i c R i s k s

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Critical

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Impact on resources –

Depletion

(very) long-term

Global context

Criticality : Impact on supply

chain

Short-term

May only last for a certain time

Positionality / concernment

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D e f i n i t i o n o f c r i t i c a l i t y w i t h g e n e r a l r i s k

m a t r i x

Raw material criticality may be interpreted as the “systemic risk” for an economy due to

disturbances in raw material supply

Glöser, Simon; Tercero Espinoza, Luis; Gandenberger, Carsten; Faulstich, Martin (2015): Raw material criticality in the context of classical risk assessment. In Resources Policy 44, pp. 35–46. DOI: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.12.003.

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Criticality is a relative concept

Criticality has at least two dimensions

Some sort of risk – generally risk of supply interruptions

Some sort of impact – generally economic

At least two dimensions are connected by a logical „AND

Raw materials are not critical in themselves, they are critical to somebody (for some reason

or set of reasons) at some point in time

Countries or group of countries

Parts of countries

Sectors

Companies

Instrument to highlight current issues and inform policy or business decisions

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Title Focus Commissioners /

reference

Criticality matrix methodology as

introduced by the NRC

“Minerals, Critical Minerals, and the U.S. Economy”

U.S. economy National Research

Council (NRC,2008)

“Design in an Era of Constrained

Resources”

GE corporation General Electric

(Duclos etal.,2008)

“Critical raw materials for the EU”

European Commission (European

Commission, 2010, 2014) „Critical Materials Strategy” Clean energy technologies U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DoE, 2010, 2011) Critical Raw Materials

for Germany”

German industry KfW bank group

(Erdmann etal.,2011) “Criticality space

(matrix enhanced by the third dimension of “environmental

implications”)

“Criticality of the Geological Copper Family”

U.S. economy and global level

Yale University (Nassar etal., 2012)

Glöser, Simon; Tercero Espinoza, Luis; Gandenberger, Carsten; Faulstich, Martin (2015): Raw material criticality in the context of classical risk assessment. In Resources Policy 44, pp. 35–46. DOI: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.12.003.

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Three reasons why some materials may be considered critical:

“first, they have a significant

economic importance for key sectors,

second, the EU is faced with

high supply risks […]

and third, there is currently a

lack of substitutes.”

Need to define metrics for each in order to determine criticality.

D e f i n i n g “ c r i t i c a l ” r a w m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e E U

COM (2008) 699 – The Raw Materials Initiative

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M e t h o d o l o g y : S u p p l y r i s k

Material properties are

not included!

(a) (b)

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C r i t i c a l r a w m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e E U :

U p d a t e 2 0 1 4 ( S R

W G I

)

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P e r s p e c t i v e o f C r i t i c a l i t y A s s e s s m e n t

Upstream

Downstream

Supply Chain

Consumption and impact

on national economy/

value added

No standardised norm and no strict definition, what to concentrate on in

the supply chain (raw material vs. intermediate product)

Static (only image of status quo)

Relaliv assessment

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Critical

ity

LCA

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T h e f o u r p h a s e s o f L C A

1. Goal and Scope definition 2. Inventory analysis 3. Life-cycle impact assesment

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T h e e x p a n d i n g n a t u re o f L C A a p p l i c a t i o n s

Pr

od

uc

t

lev

el

LCA

Organi

zat

io

nal

LCA

Co

ns

umer

/

li

fe

style

LCA

Co

un

tr

y

LCA

Hellweg, S and Canals,L. (2014): Emerging approaches, challenges and opportunities in life cycle assessment; Science 344, 1109 (2014)

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Models based on reserves of a resource (Scarcity)

Exergy consumption

Future consequences of resource extraction

Marginal cost of resource extraction

Distance to target

Willingness to pay

A p p ro a c h e s t o a s s e s s re s o u rc e i n L i f e C y c l e

I m p a c t A s s e s s m e n t ( L C I A ) :

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Upstream

Downstream

P e r s p e c t i v e o f L C A

Supply Chain

Impact on environment

Whole supply chain is of interest

Established standardised norm (ISO 14040/44)

Discreet assessment possible

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Critical

ity

LCA

Critical

ity

and

LCA

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T h e t h re e d i m e n s i o n s o f L i f e C y c l e

S u s t a i n a b i l i t y A s s e s s m e n t ( L C S A )

Environment

Economic

Social

United Nations (2005) Acceptable Equitable Viable Sustain- able

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Life Cycle Costing (LCC)

Social Life Cycle Assessment (sLCA)

Challenge is

independency of

Criteria

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Important questions to ask here are:

What is

the aim of each method

, why were they developed?

What is the

additional value of integration

?

If integration is wanted, what do the methods contribute to each

other?

CRM

LCA

:

It may help to improve the LCA data base,

But it is not an environmental impact itself

LCA

CRM

:

Indirect contribution (like EPI) on a more detailed level?

Independency of criteria

: Criticality already included in LCC

Criticality as an extra dimension

in SLCA by Including Life Cycle

Thinking in criticality assessments?

I m p a c t o n s u p p l y c h a i n a s p a r t o f

S u s t a i n a b i l i t y A s s e s s m e n t

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©Fraunhofer ISI Seite 25

Dipl.-Ing. Torsten Hummen

Sustainability and Infrastructure Systems

Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI

Phone +49 721 6809-497

E-Mail:

torsten.hummen@isi.fraunhofer.de

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