BIOLOGY UNIT 2

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(1)BIOLOGY UNIT 2 Introduction to Cells.

(2) Learning Targets 1. I can name and describe the characteristics or. themes of life that apply to all living organisms. 2. I can list and identify the basic parts found in every. cell, including organelles of both plant and animal cells (nuclear membrane, nucleolus, nucleoplasm, chloroplasts, cell membrane, cell wall, cytoskeleton, mitochondria, ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, centrioles, vacuole, flagella, cilia, and cytoplasm). 3. I can describe the functions of the cell’s organelles. and how they work together as a system within the cell and within the organism..

(3) Learning Targets, continued 4. I can explain the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and give examples of each type of cell. 5. I can list the essential chemical elements of life (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur), and explain the significance of basic organic molecules (carbohydrates; lipids; nucleic acids; and proteins, including enzymes)..

(4) History of Cell Biology.

(5) Robert Hooke  1660s English scientist Robert Hooke observed a. thin slice of cork and named the structures cells, due to the fact that they looked like cells that monks lived in.  First to see (cork) cells using a microscope.

(6) Anton Van Leeuwenhoek.  First to see living cells  Used a single lens microscope to observe. “animalcules” which were tiny bacteria and protists swimming around in pond water.  Using his handcrafted microscope he was the first to observe and describe muscle fibers, bacteria, sperm, and blood flow in small blood vessels..

(7) Matthias Schleiden  German botanist  Co-founder of the. cell theory  Discovered/declared that all plants are made of cells..

(8) Theodore Schwann  German zoologist  Co-founder of the cell. theory  Discovered/declared that all animals are made of cells..

(9) Rudolph Virchow  Polish/german. physician  Co-founder of the cell theory  Discovered/declared “where a cell arises, there a cell must previously have existed.”.

(10) Early Microscopes and Technology.

(11) Early Microscopes. e first microscopes had relatively poor resolution ow clearly the microscope can focus and stinguish between two small objects close gether).. 1660, Italian Marcello Malpighi was able to see blood capill the tail of a live fish using a microscope. it here!. thin the next decade, Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwen w cork cells and protists, both using simple, light microscop.

(12) Early Microscopes (cont.). n this type of microscope, light passes through one or more enses to produce an enlarged image of the specimen. imple microscopes use only one lens, whereas in compound microscopes, the light passes through an objective lens and he eyepiece lens.. Because of their limits in resolution, most of the organelles ound within cells remained invisible to early scientists!.

(13) Electron Microscopes. Light microscopes are limited in magnification to about 2,00 due to the wavelength of visible light. Electron beams have a much shorter wavelength than that o visible light, so electron microscopes are much more powerf than light microscopes (up to 200,000X). The first electron microscopes were developed in the mid 1900’s..

(14) Electron Microscopes (cont.) Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) shoot a beam of electrons through a thin specimen slice stained with metal ions. To the right you see a Golgi Apparatus..

(15) Electron Microscopes (cont.) Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) bounce electron beams off a specimen coated with metal onto a fluorescent screen. Can you guess what the image is to the right?. Surface of a cat’s tongue!.

(16) Electron Microscopes (cont.) Finally, Scanning Tunneling Microscopes use a needle-like probe to measure voltage differences from electrons that leak from the surface of specimens. This IBM logo was made using 35 Live specimens can be viewed xenon atoms on a nickel surface! with STM’s..

(17) Cell Theory.

(18) The Cell Theory  All living things are made up of one or. more cells.  Cells only arise from pre-existing cells.  The cell is the smallest form of life (the. cell is the basic unit of structure for living things).

(19) Learning Target #2 I can list and identify the basic parts found in every cell, including organelles of both plant and animal cells (nuclear membrane, nucleolus, nucleoplasm, chloroplasts, cell membrane, cell wall, cytoskeleton, mitochondria, ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, centrioles, vacuole, flagella, cilia, and cytoplasm)..

(20) Learning Target #3 I can describe the functions of the cell’s organelles and how they work together as a system within the cell and within the organism..

(21) Structures found in ALL cells!!  DNA  Ribosomes (they have to be able to make. proteins since proteins carry out all the functions of the cell)  Cytoplasm  Cell membrane – NOT a cell wall!  Cytoskeleton.

(22) Nucleus  The nucleus acts like the. brain of the cell, regulating everything that goes on in the cell..

(23) The nucleus consists of 3 other parts:  The nuclear membrane. (which separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell and controls what enters and leaves the nucleus)  The nucleolus (which assembles ribosomes)  The nucleoplasm (which is a jelly like substance inside the nucleus).

(24) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!!. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Membrane.

(25) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!!. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore.

(26) Chloroplasts  In plant cells only. (and some algae), this is the site of photosynthesis (this is where the plants take sunlight and convert it into sugar)  They have a green pigmentation…any plant that is green has chloroplasts..

(27) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!!. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore. Chloroplast.

(28) Mitochondria  Mitochondrion is singular  This is the site of cellular. respiration (when a cell takes sugar and changes it into usable energy, or ATP)  Since it makes ATP (usable. energy), we sometimes call it the powerhouse of the cell..

(29) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Mitochondrion. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Membrane.

(30) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!!. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore. Chloroplast. Mitochondrion.

(31) Ribosomes  This is where. proteins are made.  Some are found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (making it the rough ER)  Others are found by themselves in the cytoplasm (sometimes we call them free ribosomes).

(32) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Ribosome. Mitochondrion. Free Ribosome. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Membrane.

(33) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!!. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore. Ribosomes Chloroplast. Mitochondrion.

(34) Cell Wall  Found only in plants,. fungi, and prokaryotic cells  It is more rigid than a. cell membrane, and helps give the cell structure and support, and it helps protect the cell as.

(35) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!!. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore. Ribosomes Chloroplast. Mitochondrion. Cell wall Neighboring Cell wall. Cell wall pore.

(36) Cell Membrane.  Also known as the plasma membrane.  Made of a lipid bilayer  Polar/hydrophilic: like water  Nonpolar/hydrophobic: dislike water.  Selectively permeable  There are proteins embedded in it:  Marker proteins: helps one cell recognize another cell type  Receptor proteins: recognize and bind to specific substances  Transport proteins: aid movement of substances into and out of the cell.

(37) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Ribosome. Mitochondrion Cell Membrane. Free Ribosome. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Membrane.

(38) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!!. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore. Ribosomes Chloroplast. Mitochondrion. Cell Membrane Cell wall Neighboring Cell wall. Cell wall pore.

(39) Endoplasmic Reticulum  May be smooth (no. ribosomes attached) or rough (ribosomes attached)  Helps transport. proteins throughout the cell.

(40) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Mitochondrion. Ribosome Rough ER. Cell Membrane. Smooth ER Free Ribosome. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Membrane.

(41) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!! Smooth ER. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore Rough ER Ribosomes. Chloroplast. Mitochondrion. Cell Membrane Cell wall Neighboring Cell wall. Cell wall pore.

(42) Golgi Apparatus  Stacks of membranous. sacs  Receives, modifies, transports to other organelles or to the cell membrane (sends things out of the cell)  Package and Distribution Center.

(43) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Mitochondrion. Ribosome Rough ER. Cell Membrane. Smooth ER Free Ribosome. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Golgi Apparatus Membrane.

(44) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!! Smooth ER. Golgi Apparatus. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore Rough ER Ribosomes. Chloroplast. Mitochondrion. Cell Membrane Cell wall Neighboring Cell wall. Cell wall pore.

(45) Lysosome  Sacs of digestive    . enzymes Break off of the Golgi apparatus Destroy bacteria Recycle damaged organelles Recycle and Digest substances.

(46) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Mitochondrion. Ribosome Rough ER. Cell Membrane. Lysosome. Smooth ER Free Ribosome. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Golgi Apparatus Membrane.

(47) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!! Smooth ER. Golgi Apparatus. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore Rough ER Ribosomes. Chloroplast. Mitochondrion Lysosome. Cell Membrane Cell wall Neighboring Cell wall. Cell wall pore.

(48) Centrioles  Form spindle fibers. during cell division (we will learn more about these during our cell division unit).  The spindle fibers pull apart the chromosomes in the cell..

(49) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Mitochondrion. Ribosome Rough ER. Cell Membrane. Lysosome. Smooth ER Free Ribosome Centrioles. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Golgi Apparatus Membrane.

(50) Vacuole  A large, central. vacuole is found only in plants.  Contractile vacuoles are found in protists (they pump out excess water)  Food vacuoles are found in animals and are much smaller than the large central vacuole of.

(51) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!! Smooth ER. Golgi Apparatus. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore Rough ER Ribosomes. Chloroplast. Mitochondrion Lysosome. Cell Membrane Cell wall Neighboring Cell wall Large Central Vacuole. Cell wall pore.

(52) Flagella  Singular form is. flagellum  A long, whip like tail found on the outside of the cell.  Used for moving the cell/organism..

(53) Cilia  Singular form is. cilium  Short, fine, hair-like projections from certain cells.  Also used to move the cell/organism..

(54) Cytoplasm  Jelly-like substance in. which all the organelles of the cell are suspended.  In a picture/diagram/drawi ng, the empty space is showing the cytoplasm..

(55) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Mitochondrion. Ribosome Rough ER. Cell Membrane Cytoplasm. Lysosome. Smooth ER Free Ribosome Centrioles. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Golgi Apparatus Membrane.

(56) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!! Smooth ER. Golgi Apparatus. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore Rough ER. Cytoplasm. Ribosomes. Chloroplast. Mitochondrion Lysosome. Cell Membrane Cell wall Neighboring Cell wall Large Central Vacuole. Cell wall pore.

(57) Cytoskeleton  A “lattice-work made of:  Microtubules  Microfilaments  The cytoskeleton of the cell. has the same function as your skeleton – it gives the cell structure and shape..

(58) Let’s Label Your Animal Cell!!! Mitochondrion. Ribosome Rough ER. Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Microtubules Lysosome. Smooth ER Free Ribosome Centrioles. Outer Nuclear Membrane Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Nuclear Pore Inner Nuclear Golgi Apparatus Membrane.

(59) Let’s Label Your Plant Cell!!! Microtubules Microfilaments. Smooth ER. Golgi Apparatus. Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Nuclear Pore Rough ER. Cytoplasm. Ribosomes. Chloroplast. Mitochondrion Lysosome. Cell Membrane Cell wall Neighboring Cell wall Large Central Vacuole. Cell wall pore.

(60) Learning Target #4 I can explain the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and give examples of each type of cell..

(61) Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells  Simplest cells  All single-celled. organisms  Lack internal membranebound organelles (no nucleus, Golgi, etc)  May have just one function  DNA is circular.  Complex cells  All multicellular (and some .   .  Ex: BACTERIA. unicellular) organisms Has internal membranebound organelles (nucleus, Golgi, etc) Carries out many specialized functions DNA is linear (double helix) Ex: All organisms EXCEPT bacteria.

(62) Identifying Cell Pictures  If you see DNA that is circular and not. contained in a nucleus, with few other organelles, it is probably prokaryotic.  If the cell looks complex, with a lot of organelles, it is eukaryotic..

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