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(1)

Data Center Designs

and Hospital Operations

Designing for Data Center Availability and the Effect on Daily Operations

Joe Harris, PE, RCDD

(2)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 2

AECOM Healthcare Practice

Industry Leader.

400

Hospitals

300

Ambulatory Care Centers

200

Medical Group Practice Centers

40

Academic Medical Centers

10,000

Patient Rooms

Top 10 Worldwide, Modern Healthcare Survey 2014

2014

ENR

RANKING

#1 DESIGN FIRM #1 PURE DESIGN #1 HEALTH CARE

(3)

About Me

20+ Years Industry Experience

Data Center Design across multiple industries: Healthcare

Military

Commercial Industrial

Professional Engineer (Ohio)

Registered Communications Distribution Designer Registered Telecommunications Project Manager

(4)

Client logo

Learning Objectives:

− Understand the reliance on the data center

− Learn why we need to design for reliability

and availability

− Understand how design decisions affect availability

based on:

• Space planning • Infrastructure

• Security concerns

• Services and Maintenance

June 10, 2015

(5)

Agenda

– Data Center Definition

– Hospital and Data Center Trends

– Availability and Reliability

– Design Considerations

– Conclusion

(6)

Client logo

Industry Acronyms

TIA – Telecommunications Industry Association ANSI – American National Standards Institute

BICSI – Building Industry Consulting Service International PUE – Power Usage Effectiveness

ASHRAE – American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers

NEC – National Electric Code

NFPA – National Fire Protection Association NEBS – Network Equipment-Building System CRAC – Computer Room Air Conditioner

June 10, 2015

(7)
(8)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 8

The Data Center Is:

– Large Heat Source

• Mechanical Engineer

– Large Electrical Load

• Electrical Engineer

– Expensive

• CFO

It Depends On your Viewpoint

– The Heart of Our Network

• Hospital IT Staff

– Our Most Critical Space

• CIO

– RISK!

(9)

Official Definition

–Data Center

• A building or portion of a building whose

primary function is to house a computer

room and its support areas

1

.

(10)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 10

Data Center Components

– Computer Room

• Network Core • Switching • Servers • Storage • Cabling • Power Distribution • Cooling Distribution (Most Critical IT Space)

– Support Areas

• Entrance Room(s) • Electrical Room(s) • Mechanical Rooms(s) • Operations Center

• Crisis Response Room • Maintenance Areas • Support Staff Offices • Loading Docks

• Receiving/Storing Areas • Battery Rooms

• Telecommunications Rooms (Enables everything that happens)

(11)

Expanded (Functional) Definition

–Data Center

• A building or portion of a building whose

primary function is to house a computer

room and its support areas

1

,

designed as a

set of interdependent systems operating

together to create the processing and

networking capabilities required to meet

the current business demands.

(12)

Hospital and Data Center

Trends

(13)

Hospital Trends

– Electronic Health Records

• More Processing • More Bandwidth • More Storage • More Risk

– Big Data

– Electronic Health Information

Exchange

• Radiology reports • Lab results

• Clinical Care Summaries • Medication lists

• F

(14)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 14

– It’s a connected world

– Healthcare providers rely on connected systems to provide

and receive patient information

– Services are being delivered electronically

– Patient diagnostics and historical data are online

– Critical systems are integrated

Hospital Trends – Bottom Line

(15)

Data Center Trends

TODAY

– Hot sites

– Tier IV = 2(N+1), .4 hour, .99.999% – Worms, Hackers, Backdoors

– Terrorism

– Political Concerns – Power grid failure

– Liability and Regulatory Compliance – Cascading Events

Handle unexpected disaster

Fwithout downtime

THE OLD DAYS

(15 Years Ago) – Simple Backups

– 24 Hour Replacement Contracts

– Disaster Recovery – Fire, flood, tornado

– Checklist Management

Anticipate every

(16)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 16

Data Center General Trends

– Greater focus on availability and reliability – Extreme power and cooling requirements – Increased Focus on preventing Data Loss – Consolidation of servers

– Virtualization

– Struggles with predicting growth rates – Converging low-voltage systems

– More Focus on Efficiency and Cost of Operations

• PUE

(17)

Coming Together

– Availability

– Reliability

– Services

– Efficiency

– Electronic Data

– Bandwidth

– Connectivity

– Complexity

(18)
(19)

We lose:

– Link to the outside world

– Server based applications

– Storage availability

– Ability to work remotely

– Connectivity

– Systems availability

– Reputation

What Happens When our Data Center Goes Down?

(20)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 20

Availability vs Reliability

– Reliability is

• the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time

– Availability is

• the probability that a component or system is in a condition to perform its intended function

• affected by more events than a failure requiring repair or replacement of a component or system

(21)

Reliability Risk Metrics

– Failure Risks

• Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) • Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)

– Susceptibility to natural

disasters

– Fault tolerance

– Single Points of Failure in a

system

– Maintainability

(22)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 22

Availability Classifications

ANSI/BICSI-002-2014 and

TIA 942

• 5 Classes, 5 Sub groups • New Industry Standard

• 0 = No redundancy

• 4 = Component AND System Redundancy

Uptime Institute

• Tier Standards and Certifications

• Proprietary to Uptime Institute

• Tier 1 = Basic Site • Tier 4 = Fault Tolerant

99.999% Availability = 5 Minutes of Downtime per Year

2N+1 Redundancy = 2 Complete Systems + 1 extra

component

(23)

“Tiering For Dummies”

– TIER I/Class 0 and 1 – Car without a spare tire. Stop the

car and wait for it to be fixed.

– TIER II/Class 2 – Four tires and a spare. Stop, fix the flat,

drive on.

– TIER III/Class 3 – “Run Flat” tires. Drive slower until you

can replace the tire.

– TIER IV/Class 4 – Change the tires, transmission, and

engine while driving at 60MPH.

(24)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 24

9’s and N’s

– 9’s of availability

• Measure of uptime expressed as a percentage (i.e. 99.9%) • Five 9’s = 99.999% Availability

o Equates to five minutes of downtime per year

o Each additional 9 adds 50% to the data center cost.

– N’s of redundancy

• Redundancy applied to components, systems, services, etc. • Can be UPS systems, Switches, CRACs, etc.

(25)

How Much Redundancy is EnoughE

(26)
(27)

– Space Planning

– Infrastructure

– Security

– Services and Maintenance

(28)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 28

– Space Planning

– Infrastructure

– Security

– Services and Maintenance

(29)

– Site Selection

• Where should you put the DC?

– Adjacencies

• What should be near the DC? • What should not?

– Layout

• How should the DC space be arranged?

(30)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 30

Space Planning – Site Selection Stand Alone DC

– Location Criteria

• Availability of and access to reliable Telecommunications • Availability of and access to reliable Power

• Other Utilities (Water, Sanitation, Natural Gas, Etc.) • Transportation Access

• Property adjacencies

• Environmental Influences (Seismic, Flooding, Air Quality, Wind) • Separation from your primary or backup data center

(31)

Space Planning – Site Selection DC in a Hospital

– Location Criteria

• No patient access

• Not on ground floor or below • Protected from outside walls • Access to freight elevator • Not near EMI/RFI sources • Not near sensitive equipment

• No foreign piping systems in/over the space

• Away from large equipment (air handlers, MV Transformers, etc.) • No Drains running through the computer room! (Avoid all

(32)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 32

Public Space Secure Hospital Staff

Semi-Public Secure IT Staff

Semi-Private

Space Planning – Site Selection Inside a Hospital

Computer Room

(33)

Space Planning – Adjacencies

Computer Room Control Room Data Storage Lobby Computer Room X X Z Control Room X Y Z Data Storage X Y N Lobby Z Z N Symb Adjacency X Connected Y Near Z Away From N No Relation

(34)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 34

Space Planning – Data Center Layout

Computer Room

Computer Room HVAC / ELEC

Control Room Data Storage Secure Corridor WAR IT Personnel Spaces Secure Receiving Unpacking Staging Telecom Entrance Room Security Center Work Room Secure Storage

(35)

– Space Planning

– Infrastructure

– Security

– Services and Maintenance

(36)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 36

– Power

• UPS Systems

• Power Distribution

– Cooling

• Computer Room Air Conditioners (CRACs) • Hot (or cold) Air Containment

– Structured Cabling

• Fiber, Copper, Routing

(37)

– Power Company

– Generators

– Uninterruptable Power Supply

– Automatic Transfer Switches

– Power Distribution Units

– Power Whips and Strips

– Power Cords

– Redundancy

– Redundancy

(38)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 38

Cooling

ASHRAE TC 9.9, ANSI/TIA-942, NEBS GR-3160

All slightly different

Operational Temp Max Rate of Change Operational RH Max Dew point ANSI/TIA-942 68ºF – 77ºF 9ºF/hour 40% - 55% 69.8ºF NEBS GR-3160 65ºF – 80ºF 54ºF/Hour 55% Max 82ºF ASHRAE TC 9.9 64.4ºF – 80.6ºF 9ºF/Hour 60% Max 42ºF - 59ºF

(39)

Cooling / Thermal Management

– The primary goal is to deliver properly cooled air, in the

correct volume, directly in front of all active equipment.

(40)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 40

(41)

Return Air Path Isolation

– Hot air is physically segregated from cold air in return air duct

• Rear door is “sealed” to prevent exhaust air from leaking into room

• Air Dams and filler panels in front of cabinet prevent air recirculation inside cabinet

– Room A/C is easy to manage, with little regard to concentrated heat loads

• Cabinets can be placed and oriented any way desired

(42)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 42

– HVAC Design should provide for

• Control • Filtration

• Direct cooled equipment

• Avoidance of recirculation and bypass air

• Redundant cooling systems to meet the class design.

(43)

Heat is the #1 cause of electronic component failures

(44)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 44

(45)
(46)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 46

– The fiber and copper cabling that connects all of the

networked components and distribution areas of the

computer room.

– Consists of:

• Fiber – Single Mode and/or 50 Micron Laser Optimized Multi-Mode (OM4 Recommended)

• Copper – Category 6A or better

• Proprietary Cabling (some switch manufacturers)

– 10 Gig backbone minimum

– Migration path to 40/100 gig (25 gig?)

– Pre-terminated cabling

– ORGANIZATION

(47)

Structured Cabling Areas of the Computer Room

– MDA – Main Distribution Area

• Network Core and Cross Connect

– HDA – Horizontal Distribution Area

• Backbone connections to serve multiple cabinets (typically end of row or middle of row)

– ZDA – Zone Distribution Area

• Cross connect point similar to a consolidation point

– EDA – Equipment Distribution Area

(48)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 48

MDA

U01 U02 U03 U04 U05 U06 U07 U08 U09 U10 U11 U12 U13 U14 U15 U16 U17 U18 U19 U20 U21 U22 U23 U24 U25 U26 U27 U28 U29 U30 U31 U32 U33 U34 U35 U36 U37 U38 U39 U40 U41 U42 U43 U44 U45 U46 U47 U01 U02 U03 U04 U05 U06 U07 U08 U09 U10 U11 U12 U13 U14 U15 U16 U17 U18 U19 U20 U21 U22 U23 U24 U25 U26 U27 U28 U29 U30 U31 U32 U33 U34 U35 U36 U37 U38 U39 U40 U41 U42 U43 U44 U45 U46 U47

Front View Rear View

FAN STATUS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Power Supply 1 Power Supply 2 Catalyst 6500 SERIES Catalyst 6500SERIES Fiber Termination 123456789101112 131415161718 192021222324 252627282930 313233343536 373839404142 434445464748 123456789101112 131415161718 192021222324 252627282930 313233343536 373839404142 434445464748 123456789101112 131415161718 192021222324 252627282930 313233343536 373839404142 434445464748 123456789101112 131415161718 192021222324 252627282930 313233343536 373839404142 434445464748 123456789101112 131415161718 192021222324 252627282930 313233343536 373839404142 434445464748 123456789101112 131415161718 192021222324 252627282930 313233343536 373839404142 434445464748 123456789101112 131415161718 192021222324 252627282930 313233343536 373839404142 434445464748 123456789101112 131415161718 192021222324 252627282930 313233343536 373839404142 434445464748 Cisco Systems, Inc.

RUN INSTALL

Switch must be in off "O" position to Install/Remove power supply. Fastener must be fully enaged prior to operating power supply. -48 V TO -60 V -40 A 1800 VA

INPUTOKFANOKOUTPUTFAIL Cisco Systems, Inc.

RUN INSTALL

Switch must be in off "O" position to Install/Remove power supply. Fastener must be fully enaged prior to operating power supply. -48 V TO -60 V -40 A 1800 VA

INPUTOKFANOKOUTPUTFAIL

– Includes the core

switching and main

cross connect for the

data center

– Hub of cabling

infrastructure for the

Data Center

– Has backbone

cabling to all HAD’s

and TR’s

(49)

HDA

FIBER PATCH PANEL A

HDA A

UTP PATCH PANEL A SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

RACK #1 RACK #2 RACK #3 RACK #4 RACK #5 RACK #6

UTP PATCH PANEL B SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT

UTP PATCH PANEL A SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL B SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT

UTP PATCH PANEL A SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL B SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT UTP PATCH PANEL #1

UTP PATCH PANEL #2

UTP PATCH PANEL #3

UTP PATCH PANEL #4

UTP PATCH PANEL #5

UTP PATCH PANEL #6

UTP PATCH PANEL #7

24 48 48 24 48 48 24 48

48 UTP PATCH PANEL

A SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL B SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT

24 48

48 UTP PATCH PANEL

A SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL B SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT

24 48

48 UTP PATCH PANEL

A SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL B SIDE (28 ACTIVE)

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT

24 48 48

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT RACKS 1 & 2

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT RACKS 3 & 4

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT RACKS 5 & 6

SERVER SPACE SERVER SPACE SERVER SPACE SERVER SPACE SERVER SPACE SERVER SPACE

SWITCH SPACE

FIBER PATCH PANEL ROUTE B

HDA B

UTP PATCH PANEL #1

UTP PATCH PANEL #2

UTP PATCH PANEL #3

UTP PATCH PANEL #4

UTP PATCH PANEL #5

UTP PATCH PANEL #6

UTP PATCH PANEL #7

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT RACKS 7&8

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT RACKS 9 &10

UTP PATCH PANEL KVM & MGMT RACKS

11 & 12

SWITCH SPACE

– Contains the horizontal cross connect – Distribution point for the equipment

distribution areas

• Has horizontal cabling to all EDA’s • Typically contains switching

(50)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 50

ZDA

1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

– Connection point between HAD and EDA

– Contains no active electronics – Limited to 288 connections

– Can be installed in cabinet, under floor, over head, etc.

– Comparable to Consolidation point located in the Work Area in 568

(51)

EDA

U01 U02 U03 U04 U05 U06 U07 U08 U09 U10 U11 U12 U13 U14 U15 U16 U17 U18 U19 U20 U21 U22 U23 U24 U25 U26 U27 U28 U29 U30 U31 U32 U33 U34 U35 U36 U37 U38 U39 U40 U41 U42 U43 U44 U45 U46 U47 U01 U02 U03 U04 U05 U06 U07 U08 U09 U10 U11 U12 U13 U14 U15 U16 U17 U18 U19 U20 U21 U22 U23 U24 U25 U26 U27 U28 U29 U30 U31 U32 U33 U34 U35 U36 U37 U38 U39 U40 U41 U42 U43 U44 U45 U46 U47

Front View Rear View

123456 789101112 131415161718 192021222324 Fiber Termination

Space for Optional Keyboard & Monitor

– Area allocated for the end equipment – Includes horizontal cable and

connections to the HAD

– Point-to-point cabling permitted – Comparable to the location of end

(52)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 52

(53)
(54)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 54

– Space Planning

– Infrastructure

– Security

– Services and Maintenance

(55)

– Three Main Components

• Architectural • Electronic • Operational

(56)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 56

Data Center Security Accreditations?

(57)

Security

– Architectural

• Landscaping • Lighting

• Doors/Locks/Glazing • Building features that

contribute to security

– Electronic

• Access Control • Intrusion Detection • CCTV • Duress

– Operational

• Security Staffing • Post Orders • Guard Tours

• Policies and procedures • Contingency Planning

(58)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 58

Information Security (InfoSec)

Confidentiality

Availability

Integrity

“The best configured firewall in the world can’t stand up

to a well placed brick.”

(59)

– Space Planning

– Infrastructure

– Security

– Services and Maintenance

(60)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 60

Services and Maintenance

– Testing

• Periodically throughout the life of the system

• Include backup systems

• Scheduled for off peak times

– System Maintenance

includes

• Cabling • Electrical • HVAC • IT Equipment • Security

(61)

Services and Maintenance

– Cleaning is critical and often

overlooked

– All spaces (above and below)

– Part of maintenance contract

(62)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 62

An insufficient maintenance plan will result in

extended downtime.

Regularly scheduled maintenance must be carefully planned

and performed by persons familiar with the entire system

and all inter-dependencies

(63)
(64)

June 10, 2015

Data Centers and Hospitals Page 64

Design for Availability

– Hospitals require a high level of

data availability to operate

efficiently

– Data center designs need to

focus on systems availability

– By designing for availability in

the data center, we can help

ensure hospital operations are

not interrupted due to lack of

electronic services and data

(65)

Thank You

References

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