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www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 285

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF MAGNESIUM OXIDE

NANOPARTICLES USING

OCIMUM

SANCTUM

AND ITS

APPLICATION

Sobana Premlatha T.1 and Preethika M.2*

1, 2

Department of Chemistry, Anna Adarsh College for Women, Chennai.

ABSTRACT

The current study deals with the synthesis and characterisation of

Magnesium oxide nanoparticles using the herb Ocimumsanctum. The

synthesis was carried out by sol-gel process using Magnesium Nitrate

and herbal extract. The synthesised Magnesium oxide nanoparticles

were characterised by UV-Vis, FTIR, FESEM and XRD studies.

Morphological study of Magnesium oxide nanoparticles was done by

FESEM . The FESEM studies showed Magnesium oxide nanoparticles

were of sharp in shape. The size of nanoparticle was found to be in the

range of 50-100nm. The Antibacterial activity of Magnesium oxide

nanoparticles was carried out by agar-well diffusion method against E.coli and S.aureus.

Antioxidant activity of the Magnesium oxide nanoparticles was determined by DPPH

method.

KEYWORDS: Ocimum Sanctum, Magnesium oxide nanoparticles, UV-Vis, FTIR, FESEM,

XRD, Agar well diffusion method, DPPH method.

1. INTRODUCTION

Nanotechnology produced materials are of various types at nanoscale level. Recent advanced

studies in the field of science and technology, particularly nano technology, have lead to the

development of a new concept of synthesizing nanosized particles of desired size and

shape.[1] One dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires, nanorods, nanofibres of various

metal oxide materials has been growing an interest due to their potential applications in

various functional devices and their fundamental scientific interest.[2-5] Metal Oxide

nanoparticles are found to have unique physical and chemical properties due to their size and

Volume 7, Issue 07, 285-294. Conference Article ISSN 2277–7105

Article Received on 12 Feb. 2018,

Revised on 05 March 2018, Accepted on 26 March 2018

DOI: 10.20959/wjpr20187-11615

*Corresponding Author

Preethika M.

Department of Chemistry,

Anna Adarsh College for

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www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 286

high density corner. Particle size is expected to influence important groups of basic properties

in any material. The first one comprises the structural characteristics, namely the lattice

symmetry and cell parameters.[6] The second important effect of size is related to the

electronic properties of the oxide. An important factor to consider when dealing with the

electronic properties of a bulk oxide surface are the long-range effects of the Madelung field,

which are not present or limited in a nanostructured oxide.[7-9] The implications of these

materials on fields such as medicine, information technology, catalysis, energy storage and sensing

has driven much research in developing synthetic pathways to such nanostructures.[10] MgO

nanoparticles has been used in wide range of applications such as catalysis, catalyst supports,

toxic waste remediation, refractory materials and adsorbents, additive in heavy fuel oils,

reflecting and anti-reflecting coatings, superconducting and ferroelectric thin films as the

substrate, super-conductors, lithium ion batteries etc.[11-12] It is used in medicinal field for the

relief of heartburn, sore stomach, bone regeneration and tumor treatment.[13]

Green synthesis of nanoparticles is of significant interest in recent years and has become one

of the most desired methods for the production of metal oxide nanoparticles. Bio-synthesis

have several advantages such as simple, inexpensive, good stability of nanoparticles, less

time consumption, non-toxic byproducts and hence it can be used in large-scale synthesis[14]

.It is an attractive technique for preparation of nanomaterials predominantly owing to its

eco-friendliness. when the green synthesis of nanoparticles is successfully scaled up, they are cost

effective compared to chemical and physical methods.[15]

The present study focused on the synthesis of Magnesium oxide nanoparticles using

Ocimumsantum extract by sol-gel process.

2. Experimental

2.1 Materials

All the chemicals used in this synthesis were of analytical grade and purchased from

HIMEDIA.

2.2 Methods

a) Preparation of Ocimumsanctum extract

The fresh leaves of Ocimumsanctum collected in and around Chennai. 25g of the leaves were

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www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 287

beaker and boiled for 5minutes and cooled. The extract was filtered using whatman filter

paper and stored in the freezer.

b) Synthesis of Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticle using Ocimumsanctum extract

Magnesium Nitrate Hexahydrate and Sodium Hydroxide pellets of AR grade of high purity

used in this work. Initially the Magnesium Nitrate Hexahydrate of weight 5.21g (0.2 M) was

dissolved in 200ml of distilled water and 5.21g of Ocimumsanctum extract added and mixed

well. This solution was kept under magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes. Then 200ml of (0.2M)

NaOH solution was added in solution of Magnesium nitrate drop-wise with constant stirring.

The solution kept on the magnetic stirrer for 2 hours the precipitate formed at the bottom of

the beaker was filtered and washed several times with double distilled water. The precipitate

was kept in vacuum oven at 80°C for one and half hour. Finally the dried powder of MgO

nanoparticle is calcined at 400°C for 3hr .The synthesised MgO nanoparticles was stored for

further characterization and application.

3. Characterisation

The synthesised Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Vis, FTIR and

XRD studies. Morphological study of Magnesium oxide nanoparticles was done by FESEM.

3.1 UV-Visible spectroscopy

The UV-Vis spectrum of the synthesized nanoparticle was taken from the model

SHIMADZU 1650 PC.The spectrum shows that the peak at 244 nm confirms the presence of

[image:3.595.145.451.540.730.2]

Magnesium oxide nanoparticles[16] and shown in Fig-1.

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www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 288 3.2 FTIR spectroscopy

The FTIR spectrum of the synthesized Magnesium oxide nanoparticle was taken from IR

affinity-1 model of SHIMADZU IR 1650 PC and shown in Fig-2. The characteristic

absorption peaks at 3666 cm-1, 3425 cm-1 corresponding to the O–H stretching mode of

hydroxyl groups were present on the surface due to moisture. The sharp absorption peak at

1438 cm-1 implies the presence of an aromatic ring.[16] The band at 464 cm-1 confirmed the

[image:4.595.154.452.232.410.2]

metal- oxide linkage (MgO).[17-18]

Fig 2: FTIR spectrum of MgO nanoparticles.

3.3 X-Ray Diffraction studies

The XRD studies of a synthesized Magnesium oxide nanoparticles was carried out using GE

inspection 3003 TT model made in Germany. The 2θ values was kept ranging from 10 to 80°

using CuKα radiation at λ = 1.5406Å. The XRD spectrum is shown in Fig-3 and the average

crystallite size was calculated using Debye-Scherrer formula.

The average crystallite size of Magnesium oxide nanoparticles was found to be in the range

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[image:5.595.150.447.72.243.2]

www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 289

Fig 3: XRD spectrum of MgO nanoparticles.

3.4 FESEM Analysis

Morphological study of the synthesized Magnesium oxide nanoparticle was carried out with

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) of model FESEM DST- nano

emission given in Fig-4 & 5. The surface morphology of the SEM images depicts that

nanoparticles were aggregated and dense sharp edged flakes. The FESEM image shows that

the size of Magnesium oxide nanoparticles was in the range 50-100 nm.

[image:5.595.145.452.420.641.2]
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[image:6.595.143.453.73.299.2]

www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 290 Fig 5: FESEM image of Mgo nanoparticles.

4. Antibacterial activity

The antibacterial activity of the synthesized Magnesium oxide nanoparticle was evaluated by

agar- well diffusion method and the values were shown in Table-1 & Fig 6 &7. Sterile

Nutrient agar plates were prepared and wells of 6 mm were punctured using a well

borer.0.1ml inoculum of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were swabbed

uniformly over the surface of the agar. About 100µl of the sample was loaded into the well

and the plates were kept for incubation at 37°C for 24 hours. The antibacterial activity was

evaluated in terms of zone of inhibition (millimeters). The effect of magnesium oxide

nanoparticles using Ocimumsanctum extract showed very minimum antibacterial activity.

Table 1: Antibacterial Activity of MgO nanoparticles.

Zone of Inhibition in mm

Samples E. coli S. aureus

C-Control 17 14

Mgo 10 8

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[image:7.595.180.417.72.236.2] [image:7.595.188.409.275.440.2]

www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 291 Fig 6: Escherichia coli.

Fig 7: Staphylococcus aureus.

4.1 Anti-Oxidant activity

The antioxidant activity of the synthesized Magnesium oxide nanoparticle was determined by

DPPH method using gallic acid as standard and shown in Table-2. Various concentration

such as 20, 40, 60, 80, 100µg/ml of magnesium oxide nanoparticle were prepared in 50%

ethylene glycol. 1ml samples of above concentration was mixed with equal volume of 0.1ml

of DPPH . Gallic acid solution of various concentration such as 20, 40, 60, 80, 100µg/ml was

used as standard. After incubation for 20 minutes in dark, absorbance was recorded at 517

nm. Experiment was performed and scavenging was calculated by using the following

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www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 292

The percentage inhibition at different concentration is shown in Table-2 & Fig 8. The IC50

value was used to categorize antioxidant sample. A sample that has IC50 less than 50 µg/ml is

a very strong antioxidant, 50-100 µg/ml is strong antioxidant while IC50 greater than 150

µg/ml is a weak antioxidant. The IC50 value (62.96) shows that the synthesised magnesium

[image:8.595.166.435.205.506.2]

oxide nanoparticles posses strong antioxidant activity.[19]

Table 2: Percentage inhibition of MgO nanoparticles by DPPH.

% inhibition % inhibition

Conc µg/ml MgO Std.Gallic acid

20 19.05 21.34

40 16.86 35.52

60 46.3 45.74

80 68.21 69.43

100 84.91 90.21

IC50 62.96 61.5

Fig 8: Percentage inhibition of MgO nanoparticles by DPPH.

5. CONCLUSION

The current study focussed on the green synthesis of Magnesium oxide nanoparticles using

Ocimumsantum extract. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR,

XRD and FESEM studies. The FESEM study shows that the size of the nano particle was

found to be in the range of 50-100 nm. The antibacterial activity of the Magnesium oxide

nano particles was determined against E.coli and S.aureus bacterial strains. The antioxidant

activity was determined by DPPH method. The IC50 value proved that the synthesized

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www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 07, 2018. 293 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are thankful to the management of Anna Adarsh College for Women, Chennai

-40 for their continuous support in completing the study. A special thanks to Nano technology

centre, Anna University, Chennai and Instrumentation centre, Ethiraj college for women,

Chennai for providing lab facilities.

REFERENCES

1. Nalwa, H.S.(2000). Handbook of nanostructured materials and nanotechnology.

2. G.Yu, A.Cao, C.M.Liber. Nat. Nanotech, 2007; 372.

3. B.Tian, X. Zheng, T.J. Kempa, Y.fang, G.Yu.J.Huang, C.M.liber., Nature, 2007; 449:

885.

4. W.Lu, C.M. Liber, Nat. Mater, 2007; 6: 841.

5. M.Fernandez-Garcia, A.Rodriguez. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles, encyclopedia of

Inorganic chemistry, 2009.

6. Ayyub, P.; Palkar, V.R.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Multani, M.; Phys. Rev. B, 1995; 51: 6135.

7. Pacchioni, G.; Ferrari, A.M.; Bagus, P.S. Surf. Sci, 1996; 350: 159.

8. Mejias, J.A.; Marquez, A.M.; Fernandez-Sanz, J.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Ricart, J.M.;

Sousa, C.; Illas, F. Surf. Sci, 1995; 327: 59.

9. Fernández-García, M.; Conesa, J.C.; Illas, F.; Surf. Sci, 1996; 349: 207.

10.pubs.rsc.org/en/content/chapter/bk9781849734356-00180/978-1-84973-435-6.

11.L. Bertinetti, C. Drouet, C. Combes, C. Rey, A. Tampieri, S. Coluccia, and G. Martra,

“Surface characteristics of nanocrystallineapatites: Effect of MgO surface enrichment on

morphology, surface hydration species, and cationic environments”, Langmuir, 2009; 25:

5647-5654.

12.C. M. Boubeta, L. Bacells, R. Cristofol, C. Sanfeliu, E. Rodriguez, R. Weissleder, S.

Piedrafita, K. Simeonidis, M. Angelakeris, F. Sandiumenge, A. Calleja, L. Casas, C.

Monty and B. Martinez, “Selfassembled multifunctional Fe/MgO nano-spheres for

magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia”, Nanomedicine, 2010; 6: 362-370.

13.D. R Di, Z. Z He, Z. Q. Sun, and J. Liu, “A new nanocryosurgical modality for tumor

treatment using biodegradable MgO nanoparticles”, Nanomedicine, 2012; 8: 1233-1241.

14.P.Ouraipryvan, T. Sreethawong and S.Chavadej, “Synthesis crystalline MgO nanoparticle

with mesoporous-assembled structure via a surfactant modified sol-gel process”.

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15.K.D.Arunachalam, S.K.Annamalai, A.M. Arunachalam and S.Kennedy, Asian. J. Chem,

2013; 25: S311.

16.Green Synthesis of Magnesium oxide Nanoparticles using Aloe Vera and Its

Applications- Ashwini Anantharaman, S. Sathyabhama, Mary George, Paper

ID: IJSRDV4I90087 Published in, 4(9) Publication Date: 01/12/2016 Page(s): 109-111.

17.Mehran Rezaei, Majid Khajenoori and Behzad Nematollahi, Synthesis of high surface

area nanocrystalline MgO by pluronic P123 triblock copolymer surfactant, Powder

Technol, 2011; 205: 112-116.

18.Guolin Song, Sude Ma, Guoyi Tang and Xiaowei Wang, Ultra-sonic-assisted synthesis of

hydrophobic magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles, Colloids Surf. A, 2010; 364: 99-104.

19.Blois MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of stable free radicals. Nature, 1958; 181:

Figure

Fig 1: UV-Vis spectrum of MgO nanoparticles.
Fig 2: FTIR spectrum of MgO nanoparticles.
Fig 3: XRD spectrum of MgO nanoparticles.
Fig 5: FESEM image of Mgo nanoparticles.
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References

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