Reacciones Adveras a Los Medios de Contraste

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EQUIPO 1

EQUIPO 1

-BRIONES REYES RAUL

-BRIONES REYES RAUL

-VILLARUEL HUERTA ANGEL

-VILLARUEL HUERTA ANGEL

-COPADO NARANJO ENRIQUE 

-COPADO NARANJO ENRIQUE 

-PAYDON NEGRETE HASSAEL

-PAYDON NEGRETE HASSAEL

-SOSA GARCIA GILBERTO ROMAN 

-SOSA GARCIA GILBERTO ROMAN 

CONTRASTE 

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TIPOS DE REACCIONES ADVERSAS POR LOS

TIPOS DE REACCIONES ADVERSAS POR LOS

MEDIOS DE CONTRASTE.

MEDIOS DE CONTRASTE.

Las diversas consecuencias clínicas no deseadas consecutivas a la

Las diversas consecuencias clínicas no deseadas consecutivas a la

administración de MCR pueden ser clasificadas según

administración de MCR pueden ser clasificadas según

su mecanismos en:

su mecanismos en:

TOXICAS

TOXICAS

PSEUDOALERGI

PSEUDOALERGICAS

CAS O

O

ANAFILACTOIDEAS

ANAFILACTOIDEAS

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TOXICAS

TOXICAS

Se producen por acción de la estructura química del compuesto

Se producen por acción de la estructura química del compuesto

sobre células de los

sobre células de los

vasos sanguíneos, proteínas circulantes y sistemas enzimáticos, provocando cambios

vasos sanguíneos, proteínas circulantes y sistemas enzimáticos, provocando cambios

hemodinámicos en dichos órganos y

hemodinámicos en dichos órganos y

estructuras. Si bien pueden ocurrir en todas las

estructuras. Si bien pueden ocurrir en todas las

personas, resultan más frecuentes cuando existen enfermedades asociadas que puedan

personas, resultan más frecuentes cuando existen enfermedades asociadas que puedan

predisponer al daño renal o cardíaco. Tales reacciones están en relación con la cantidad 

predisponer al daño renal o cardíaco. Tales reacciones están en relación con la cantidad 

de contraste inyectado y suelen ser reversibles,

de contraste inyectado y suelen ser reversibles,

salvo por daño grave en enfermedad 

salvo por daño grave en enfermedad 

preexistente.Las enfermedades asociadas con potencial afectación renovascular son:

preexistente.Las enfermedades asociadas con potencial afectación renovascular son:

-Diabetes.

-Diabetes.

-Hipertensión.

-Hipertensión.

-Colagenopatías

-Colagenopatías

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Estas pueden

Estas pueden

ocurrir En todas

ocurrir En todas

las personas por 

las personas por 

acción sobre

acción sobre

células y tejidos

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PSEUDOALERGICAS O

PSEUDOALERGICAS O

ANAFILACTOIDEAS

ANAFILACTOIDEAS

Son reacciones que ocurren en algunas personas por acción directa de los

Son reacciones que ocurren en algunas personas por acción directa de los

MCR sobre células del organismo que almacenan mediadores químicos que,

MCR sobre células del organismo que almacenan mediadores químicos que,

al liberarse, pueden provocar manifestaciones de tipo alérgicas como

al liberarse, pueden provocar manifestaciones de tipo alérgicas como

urticaria, edema, asma, rinitis y shock.

urticaria, edema, asma, rinitis y shock.

En las reacciones alérgicas verdaderas o anafilácticas, el anticuerpo

En las reacciones alérgicas verdaderas o anafilácticas, el anticuerpo

responsable de la liberación de las sustancias es la inmunoglobulina E (IgE).

responsable de la liberación de las sustancias es la inmunoglobulina E (IgE).

En las reacciones alérgicas provocadas por la penicilina, sulfamidas y otros

En las reacciones alérgicas provocadas por la penicilina, sulfamidas y otros

fármacos, este anticuerpo persiste en la sangre y se puede detectar 

fármacos, este anticuerpo persiste en la sangre y se puede detectar 

mediante las pruebas cutáneas adecuadas, y aun medir en el suero.

mediante las pruebas cutáneas adecuadas, y aun medir en el suero.

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Estas ocurren en

Estas ocurren en

algunas personas por 

algunas personas por 

liberación de

liberación de

histamina desde los

histamina desde los

mastocitos de un

mastocitos de un

modo independiente

modo independiente

de la inmunoglobulina

de la inmunoglobulina

e (ige)

e (ige)

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Las reacciones adversas, según la

Las reacciones adversas, según la

SEVERIDAD DE LAS REACCIONES

SEVERIDAD DE LAS REACCIONES

ADVERSAS

ADVERSAS

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LEVES

LEVES

: Son las más

: Son las más

frecuentes, con el 99 % del 

frecuentes, con el 99 % del 

total de las reacciones.

total de las reacciones.

Incluyen síntomas tales

Incluyen síntomas tales

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MODERADAS:

MODERADAS:

Significan

Significan

el 1 % del total de las reacciones

el 1 % del total de las reacciones

adversas. Se presentan como

adversas. Se presentan como

urticaria difusa, edema,

urticaria difusa, edema,

broncoespasmo leve y vómitos.

broncoespasmo leve y vómitos.

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GRAVES

GRAVES

: Se trata de

: Se trata de

de

de

urticari

urticaria

a

generalizada,

generalizada,

urticari

urticaria

a

generalizada,

generalizada,

edema de

edema de

edema de laringe,

edema de laringe,

laringe,

laringe,

hipotensión

hipotensión

hipotensión, broncoespasmo

hipotensión, broncoespasmo

, broncoespasmo

, broncoespasmo

o shock 

o shock 

o shock.

o shock.

Pueden aparecer en

Pueden aparecer en

aproximadamente el 0.1 %

aproximadamente el 0.1 %

del total de las reacciones y 

del total de las reacciones y 

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GRUPOS DE RIESGO DE LAS

GRUPOS DE RIESGO DE LAS

RACCIONES ADVERSAS

RACCIONES ADVERSAS

Los grupos con riesgo incrementado de sufrir una reacción adversa son:

Los grupos con riesgo incrementado de sufrir una reacción adversa son:

A- Pacientes que tienen una historia previa de reacción

A- Pacientes que tienen una historia previa de reacción adversa moderada o grave por 

adversa moderada o grave por 

MCR.

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