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SOLUCIONES DE INTERCONEXION BASADAS EN REDES DE ACCESO – FIBRA OPTICA

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Haga clic para modificar el estilo de

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subtítulo del

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patrón

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4/15/12

4/15/12

MODULO 4

MODULO 4

SOL

SOLUCIONES DE I

UCIONES DE INTERCONEXION BASADAS

NTERCONEXION BASADAS

EN REDES DE ACCESO – FIBRA OPTICA

EN REDES DE ACCESO – FIBRA OPTICA

FFélix Gonzál

élix González Martínez

ez Martínez

Cuenca, enero de 2011

Cuenca, enero de 2011

11

11

(2)

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La luz en el transporte de la

La luz en el transporte de la

información

información

La historia de la comunicación por la fibra óptica es relativamente

La historia de la comunicación por la fibra óptica es relativamente

corta. En 1977, se instaló un sistema de prueba en Inglaterra; dos

corta. En 1977, se instaló un sistema de prueba en Inglaterra; dos

años después, se producían ya cantidades importantes de pedidos

años después, se producían ya cantidades importantes de pedidos

de este material.

de este material.

Antes, en 1959, como derivación de los estudios en física enfocados

Antes, en 1959, como derivación de los estudios en física enfocados

a la óptica, se descubrió una nueva utilización de la luz, a la que se

a la óptica, se descubrió una nueva utilización de la luz, a la que se

denominó rayo láser, que fue aplicado a las telecomunicaciones con

denominó rayo láser, que fue aplicado a las telecomunicaciones con

el fin de que los mensajes se transmitieran a velocidades inusitadas

el fin de que los mensajes se transmitieran a velocidades inusitadas

y con amplia cobertura.

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La luz en el transporte de la

La luz en el transporte de la

información

información

En los años 70 se verificó que era posible

En los años 70 se verificó que era posible

confiar un haz luminoso en una fibra

confiar un haz luminoso en una fibra

transparente flexible y proveer así un

transparente flexible y proveer así un

análogo óptico de la señalización por

análogo óptico de la señalización por

alambres electrónicamente.

(6)

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Estructura básica de la fibra óptica

Estructura básica de la fibra óptica

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Estructura básica de la fibra óptica

Estructura básica de la fibra óptica

El núcleo

El núcleo que consiste de vidrio, tiene un índice de refracción más

que consiste de vidrio, tiene un índice de refracción más

alto que el revestimiento de vidrio, o plástico que lo rodea. A su vez

alto que el revestimiento de vidrio, o plástico que lo rodea. A su vez

la superficie del revestimiento esta protegida por una cubierta

la superficie del revestimiento esta protegida por una cubierta

primaria de acrilato. La fibra esta protegida contra esfuerzos

primaria de acrilato. La fibra esta protegida contra esfuerzos

mecánicos debidos al cableado, instalación, cambios de

mecánicos debidos al cableado, instalación, cambios de

temperatura, ya que usualmente se coloca libre en el tubo que

temperatura, ya que usualmente se coloca libre en el tubo que

forma la cubierta secundaria

forma la cubierta secundaria

Los aspectos principales para la propagación de luz en las fibras

Los aspectos principales para la propagación de luz en las fibras

ópticas son dos:

ópticas son dos:

(10)

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Características generales de la fibra

Características generales de la fibra

óptica

óptica

Una baja atenuación por Km. cuando

Una baja atenuación por Km. cuando

se transmite por las llamadas

se transmite por las llamadas

ventanas de transmisión, que están

ventanas de transmisión, que están

ubicadas en

ubicadas en torno a los valores

torno a los valores

siguientes de longitud de onda: 850

siguientes de longitud de onda: 850

nm, 1310 nm y 1550 nm.

(12)

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Características generales de la fibra

Características generales de la fibra

óptica

óptica

La capacidad de transmisión de información que tiene una fibra

La capacidad de transmisión de información que tiene una fibra

óptica depende de tres características fundamentales:

óptica depende de tres características fundamentales:

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Características generales de la fibra

Características generales de la fibra

óptica

óptica

Es necesario disponer de cubiertas y protecciones de calidad

Es necesario disponer de cubiertas y protecciones de calidad

capaces de proteger a la fibra. Para alcanzar tal objetivo hay

capaces de proteger a la fibra. Para alcanzar tal objetivo hay

que tener en cuenta su

que tener en cuenta su

sensibilidad a la curvatura y

sensibilidad a la curvatura y

microcurvatura

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Propiedades de la fibra óptica

Propiedades de la fibra óptica

Atenuación

Atenuación

La figura 2 muestra el espectro de la curva de atenuación de una

La figura 2 muestra el espectro de la curva de atenuación de una

típica fibra óptica hecha de sili

típica fibra óptica hecha de silicio. La curva tiene tres características

cio. La curva tiene tres características

principales. Una gran tendencia de atenuarse conforme se incrementa

principales. Una gran tendencia de atenuarse conforme se incrementa

la

(18)

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Propiedades de la fibra óptica

Propiedades de la fibra óptica

Dispersión cromática

Dispersión cromática

La dispersión cromática describe la tendencia para diferentes

La dispersión cromática describe la tendencia para diferentes

longitudes de onda que viajan a diferentes velocidades en una

longitudes de onda que viajan a diferentes velocidades en una

fibra. En longitudes onda donde la dispersión cromática es alta, los

fibra. En longitudes onda donde la dispersión cromática es alta, los

(20)

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Propiedades de la fibra óptica

Propiedades de la fibra óptica

La dispersión cromática de una fibra consiste de dos

La dispersión cromática de una fibra consiste de dos

componentes,

componentes, material

material y

y guía

guía de

de onda,

onda, el

el componente

componente

material depen

material depende de las

de de las características de dispersión de l

características de dispersión de los

os

dopante

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Fibra óptica

Fibra óptica

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