Surgery OSCE

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SURGERY – OSCE

FOLEY’S TWO WAYS URINARY CATHETER

1. What is the use of this object?  Drainage of urine from bladder.  Fluid management of patient.  Measure urine output. 2. What is x for?

 Passage of distil water through x & inflate the balloon located at the end of the tube in order

to keep the catheter inside the bladder. So we call it “self retaining catheter.”(silastic

catheter change every 3 months.)

3. What are the indications?

 Gastrostomy Pt, loss of ANS functions, in cardiac failure. 4. Disadvantages: -

 Connect the external and internal environment. Therefore infection can be spread to exterior to interior.

 Have to change daily 5. Advantages:-

 Balloon prevent self retaining

 Blunt end prevent irritation to mucous membrane x

Balloon(Prevent self retaining)

x

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A NASOGASTIC TUBE

1. What is the use of this?  For nasogastric feeding.

 To aspiration gastric secretions or contents before emergency surgeries & in bowel obstruction.  Gastric empty because emergency

surgery( Road traffic accident)

2. Why is the end of the tube blunt? o To make the tube easy to pass

through airway.

o To prevent mucous entering the tube & blocking the way – use of two opening in suction tube.

o There are metal boalls in the end to ensure the tube in correct place by using

X-ray

o By applying air we have to auscultate the bubbling sound to ensure the possition

INTERCOSTAL DRAINAGE WITH TROCAR

1.

What is the use of this?

 To do intercostals drain in pneumothorax, haemothorax, haemopneumothorax, pleural effusion & for peritoneal dialysis.

2. What are the advantage of “a” ?

 “a” is the trocar . a can be pass through a small cut in the skin to pleural space without damaging much tissues.

3. What is location you introduce it?  4th

intercostals space in mid axillary line.

a Air tube (metal tube)

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THE AMBU BAG

1. What are “a “s indications?

To give oxygen to a Pt. in emergencies lick,  Pulmonary oedema.

 Acute asthmatic attack.  Post operative Pt.  Pt. with chest injuries.

E.g.:- pneumothorax  Anaphylactic shock Pt.  Head injury Pt.

 To rehabilitees asthmatic Pt.

 To ventilate Pt. with respiratory depression. Eg: Morphine overdose

 To recover from anesthesia. 2. What is “b” for?

 To connect the ambu bag to the oxygen cylinder. 3. What is “c”?

 It is face mask it is use to give O2 from the cylinder or ventilate from the ambu bag and also to obtain a good seal.

4. Name “d” & “e”

 d- Valve to put air into the mask to it inflates. To obtain a good seal around the mouth.  e- Connecter. a b c d e

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CUFFED ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE

 What are the uses of this tube?

 To maintain Pt. air way in injured or unconscious Pts.

 To ventilate unconscious Pts.  To give anesthetic drugs.

e.g.:-halothane

 To ventilate pts. In intra oral surgeries.

 To prevention by use of cuff.

 What is the use of “a”?

 Inflation of “a” with air helps to keep the tube in position & prevent aspiration.

 How does this tube an adult differ from that of a young child?

 In children’s endotracheal tube is a 3.5 mm area which is radio opaque that help to detect the position of the tube in x-rays.

THE TRACHEOSTOMY TUBE

a

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5 | P a g e 1. What are the indications?

 Acute airway obstruction. e.g.:-forging body.

 To ventilate Pts following surgeries including oral cavity.  To protect the lower airway

e.g.:-aspiration of saliva in unconscious Pts.

 For Pt requiring artificial respiration – respiratory insufficiency.  Who has dead space depression 2. What are the advantages?

 Anatomical dead space is reduced.  Work of berating is reduced.  Alveolar ventilation is increases.

 Level of sedation needed for Pts comfort, is reduced.  Conscious pts also can apply

 Not damage to the vocal cords 3. What are the disadvantages?

 Loss of heat & moisture exchange performed in upper airway.  Desiccation of tracheal epithelium.

 Loss of ciliated cells & metaplasia.  Over production of mucous.

 Mucocilliary stream arrested.(Mucous secretion increase due to irritation)  Increase mucous may block the tube.

 Splitting of the larynx prevent normal swallowing and lead to aspiration. 4. How do you manage tracheostomy post operatively?

 Suction.  Humidification.

 Change of the inner tube & remove mucous plugging.  Physiotherapy.

 Position the tube & the Pts. 5. What is “a” & what is the use of it?

 Introducer.

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ANESTHESIA MASK & OXYGEN MASK

Anesthesia mask Oxygen mask

Its color is black. It is green and translucent

(Simple mask / open mask)

What are the uses of each?

 To give oxygen from cylinders and inhalation anesthetics (Halothane)  To ventilate a pt in an emergency (to a breathing Pt)

ex: pulmonary oedema, head injury, shock

IV CANULA

 Use to establish IV drips, Blood transfusion, Fluid transfusion, Nourishment

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LARYNGOSCOPE

 Use to examine the larynx, intubation( placing of tube in to hollow organ), removal of foreign bodies obstructing from larynx

THREE WAY TAP

What are the use of this tap?

 To aspirate blood from the pleural cavity as well as fluid without leaving any where.

 To give 2 IV drips together

 To measure central venous pressure  To measure arterial blood gases  To drain liver abscesses

 To drain pleural effusion

Can be A = Saline, B= Drugs or can be closed one tap B

A

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FLEXIBLE SUCTION CATHETER/ TUBE

1. For what is it use?

 To suck out secretion from trachea and bronchi  To remove the secretion in post operative sites

2. What is the location you introduce it?

 5th

6th 7th intercostals space in the mid axillary line Bulbous end present

BLOOD TRANSFUSION SET

1. Used for

Transfusion of blood

2. What is “a”?

The filter

3. What is the advantage?

Remove clot and clump formed due to breakdown of cells and rouleux (stock of RBC/ blood clot) formation

4. What is empty chamber?

Estimate the rate A

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OROPHARYNGEAL AIRWAY

What are the uses of it?

 To depress the tongue preventing the tongue falls back  To maintain a pts airway

 To keep air way pt until recovering from anesthesia

NASOPHARYNGEAL TUBE

 Keep to pt’s airway empty

Indication

 Epileptic pt(don’t put in mouth)

Contraindication

 Fracture of skull (Bone septa may damaged)

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LARYNGEAL MASK

To keep a pt’s airway

Ex: In an emergency

IV DRIP SET/INFUSION SET

1. What is it usage?

 To give electrolytes, colloids, antibodies

2. What is the use of empty chamber?

 To observe and estimate the amount going in a period of time

3. Why do you an IV drip?

 To keep the circulating volume constant (roughly 15 drop for 1ml)

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TONGUE DEPRESSOR

It is used for lowering down the tongue during oral surgeries or when the need is to visualize oropharynx

PERITONEAL DIALYSIS SET

1. What is the use?

 To dialysis the peritoneum (semi permeable membrane) in poisoning, acute renal failure, snake bite

2. Advantages

 Large amount can insert rapidly

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PACK OF SUTURE MATERIALS WITH NEEDLE

Sterile 4/0 cat gut absorbable suture material with round body needle 18G contain conditioning fluid

1. What are the uses of it? Cat gut:-

 Soft tissue suturing  Tracheostomy  Mucous membranes  Intestine

 Highly vascular tissue

Needle:-

 Soft tissue suturing  Blood vessel  Oral tissue

2. What are the advantage and disadvantage of suture material? Advantages

Can use in tissues where removal of suture is not done, in young children

Disadvantages

Can not suture tough tissue like bone and cartilage, can not use in tension tissues like skin Inflammatory tissue elicit a high tissue reaction

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A SYRINGE WITH A NEEDLE

 Giving drug by injection

 Subcutaneously or intradermally  Withdrawing blood

URINARY THREE WAY CATHETER

 Used for irrigation of the bladder by using normal saline after surgery  Metal catheter used in maternal ward

 Also used as gastrostomy tube Distil water to inflate Distil water input

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DEXTROSE

What are the indications of this?

5% dextrose

 To replace water deficits post operatively (Dehydration)  Fluid management

 Fasting

50% dextrose

 To produce with parental nutrition

 Infuse through CV catheter (Central venous catheter) to ovoid thrombosis, hypoglycemia, hyperkelemia, with insulin

 To reduce cerebral edema

Identify this described abnormality?

This is a skull x ray of a man with a bone eating malignant tumor.

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1. Name two natural & synthetic osmotic products.

 Natural:-

o Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) o Albumin 25%

 Synthetic:-

o gelatin solutions.

E.g.:- gelafundin, haemocoal. o Dextrans.

a. what are the indication for use?

 Sevier burns.

 Hypovolemic shock.  Hemorrhage.

b. What are the disadvantages?

 FFP; risk of disease transmission.

 Gelatin; allergic reactions. So that>2.5 l/d not infused.  Dextrans: interferes with cross matching of blood.

2. What are the indications?

 Hypovolemia.GI losses.  Vomiting.  Diarrhea.

Contra indications:

 Hypertensive patients.  Cardiac failure  Renal failure Colloid: crystalloid = 1:3

 When crystalloid given only 20% of fluid remains in the vascular comportment after 10 minutes. 0.9%

NaCl

HS

Hartman’s solution

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16 | P a g e a. By using 25% dextrose how to make 500 ml of 15% dextrose solution.

 500ml vial  100ml-25g  500ml-125g 500× 75=300 125  Needed  15g- 100ml  75g-500ml -300ml contains 75g -Dilute until 500ml

b. How do you make 500ml at 20% dextrose out of this vial using both?  20% dextrose in 500ml

 100ml – 29g 500 – 100g

c. How do you manage an anemic pt.?  Pre operative.

Take blood for testing & cross matching. Check for Hb , WBC, platelets.  Normal Hb level:-10-15 mg/dl

 Blood film:- MCV, MCHC, PCV  Treat according to the cause:-

 Nutrients – Fe deficiency anemia  Drugs FeSO4 200mg 8 hly  4-10 weeks orally

 Normal Hb level continue for 6 months.

 B12 & Folic acid can be given for emergency surgery. Can give blood packed cells emergency surgery blood grouping & cross matching – transfusion.

25% D

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17 | P a g e d. Pre- operative management of Diabetic pt.

Blood – check for sugar levels.

If oral hypoglycemic – convert to iv short acting insulin  Take first for surgery.

 Admit before few days.

 Maintain blood glucose above normal. Control with drugs.  Before surgery give small amount glucose as liquid.  Emergency- give insulin IV with dextrose & maintain it.

e.

I. 30 g ×1.5 used for infuse, Insulin

 Reduce pain

 Minimized mescal damage. Reduce risk of touching other vessels.

Used to give subcutaneously or intradermally.

II. 19G × 1.5 used to transfuse blood reduce rupturing of cells for rapid infusion.  To give large amount.

III. 25G*1.5 fine needle aspiration (biopsy)

 when the gauge increases the needle become smaller. e.g.

 In LA  Insulin  Vaccines.  Adrenaline.  Large needle used for:-

 Lumbar puncture.

 Aspiration fluid from cavities.  To withdraw blood.

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18 | P a g e f. Describe a malignant ulcer

 Site  Size  Shape  Margie  Edge  Floor  Base

 Regional lymph nodes  Surrounding areas

g. O2 & N2O cylinder

O2 cylinder N2O cylinder

Green in color

h. A 40 year old man patient presented with an ulceration lesion on his right leg above the ankle  Take history  Onset  Duration  Pain  Fever  Associated diseases

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19 | P a g e i. 70 kg man had an operation to remove a part of his mandible due to cancer. How do you

maintain fluid and electrolyte balance for the second day after surgery?  Fluid and electrolyte balance and fluid replacement

For 1st 10kg=100ml/kg

So 1st 10kg require 100X10=1000ml For 2nd 10kg =50ml/kg

So 10-20 kg require 50X10=500ml Rest of the body weight require 20ml/kg For 50kg 20X50=1000ml

Total fluid requirement =25000ml  Electrolyte balance

Na+ 1-2mmol/kg/g

70kg = 1-2X 70 = 70mmol/d 0.9%NaCl 500ml contains 70mmol of NaCl

So 5000ml of 0.9%NaCl is enough to replace Na+ requirement Remain fluid requirement is replaced by 5% dextrose 2000ml KCl 80-100need

KCl comes as vials which contain 20mmol of KCl given for 500ml Total vial requirement = 4 vial for 2000ml dextrose

Pt at ICU does not give K because due to tissue destruction it can be released to out

j. How do you insert an endotracheal tube?  1st

give suxamethonium

 Give emla cream or lignocaine spray

 Depress the tongue with the use of the laryngoscope  Turn the tongue to left lateral position

 Then put the endotracheal tube and inflate the cuff

BUTTERFLY NEEDLE

 What is used for?

 To deliver IV drug to children

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20 | P a g e k.

I. What is and what are the use of this? o Monnitol is a diuretic

Used to replace depleted volume specially a head injury pt where there is increased intra cranial pressure- to keep the fluid in the intravascular compartment

After a crush injury there is extensive muscle damage and release of myoglobins from tissues. they can block the renal tubules. Monnitol push the myoglobin and relieves obstruction.

o To measure glomerular filtration rate. II. What are the contraindications?

o Less than 5 month babies

o Because Monnitol tend to accumulate in the body.

l. Adrenaline-1:8000 concentration I. What are the uses?

 Cardiac arrest pt 1:1000  Anaphylactic shock pt 1:1000

 Local anesthesia 1:8000 (dental procedure)  As a treatment of glaucoma

 Hypertensive pt are not given II. How it give?

 IM III. Why?

 IV administration cause arrhythmias

m. Atropine-Antimuscarinic parasympathetic blocker

What are the uses?

 Premedication for anesthetic procedure to reduce secretion  Organophosphate poisoning

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21 | P a g e n.

I. What are the complications of giving dextrose?  Infections

 Thrombosis

 Electrolyte imbalance II. How do you prevent them?

(IV drip infections)

 Do not give only for one hand  Change the site other hand

 Should give IV nutrition or vitamins o. Ulcer

 Site  Margin  Base

 Discharge- present, absent, color, smell  Size  Edge  Surrounding areas- lymph nodes  Shape  Floor

p. Calculate the 1st 12 hours fluid requirement in this pt  Normal daily requirement = 2.5l

 Fluid loss from burns =2 X bodyweight X surface area of burns =2 X 70 kg (18+6+1+9+9+9)

=2 X 70 X46 9% =8940ml

 Total requirement per day = 25000+ 6440 38% = 8940ml

 For the 1st

8 hours = ½ X 8940ml 9% 1% 9% =4470ml

 Next ½ is for the next 16 hours

 So for the next 4 hours = 4470/16 X 4 = 1117.5ml 18% 18%  So for 1st

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22 | P a g e q. How many calories do 25ml of 5% dextrin caries energy?

 100ml of dextrose =5g

 So in 25ml = 5/100 X 25 = 1.25g  1g of sugar carries 4 Kcal  So 1.25g = 1.25 X 4 = 5 Kcal

Ampule Vial

r. How many vials do you need to replace daily requirement of calories for a 50kg weight pt? 5Kcal/kg/day needed

 Total daily calorie requirement =calories /kg/day X weight =35 X 50

=1750 Kcal

 One vial of 50% dextrose carries o 50g dextrose in 100ml

o In 25ml – 50/100 X 25 = 12.5g o 1g = 4 Kcal

o So that 12.5g = 50Kcal

 Require number of vials = 1750Kcal/50Kcal

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23 | P a g e s. What are the differences between crystalloids and colloids?

Crystalloids (normal saline) Colloids ( Monnitol)

o Cheap o Expensive

o No allergic reaction o Elicit allergic reaction o Do not interfere with blood o Interferes with blood

o Grouping and direct testing o Get blood and match before infusion

o Require volume is more o Fever amount needed

o Risk of pulmonary edema o No risk of pulmonary edema

t. How to recognize a fracture? Eg mandible

 See along lower border and upper border  If there is any discontinuing of the border  There is a fracture

Sumith Ruwan Gunawardane D/07/023

Hashan Lakshitha Wijethunge D/07/091

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