Consumer Protection Act

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Name

Name of

of Team

Team Members

Members

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ollll Call

Call

Akhilesh

Akhilesh KKuummaarr 11

Munish

Munish KumarKumar BBaakksshhii 33

Mukesh

Mukesh CChheeeettaa 77

Balasaheb

Balasaheb DDeesshhmmuukkhh 99

Nawab

Nawab AbdullahAbdullah FFaakkiihh 1111

Sekhar

Sekhar GGhhaaggaass 1133

Dharmesh Dharmesh GGoohheell 1155 Mahaveer Mahaveer P.P. GGuuppttaa 1177 Yogesh Yogesh JJaaiinn 1199

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Baassiicc Need

Need for

for the

the Consumer

Consumer Protection

Protection Act

Act

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O

Ob

bjjeeccttiiv

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& purpose

purpose of

of the

the Act

Act

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phases &

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Evolution

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IIm

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definitions

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of Consumer

Consumer

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Diissp

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Settlement Three

Three tier

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Mechanism

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Government

Government initiatives

initiatives for

for protection

protection of

of

consumer

consumer ri hts

ri hts

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Caassee Studies

Studies

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Conclusion

Conclusion

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7.1.

7.1.

Issues

Issues to

to be

be addressed

addressed

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7.2

7.2

Future

Future prospects

prospects of

of consumer

consumer movement

movement in

in

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7.3

7.3

Suggestions

Suggestions and

and Opinions

Opinions

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Annexure

Annexure

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Source of

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Index

Index

India

India

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Aim

Aim ofof ConsumerConsumer ProtectionProtection ActAct (CPA)(CPA) isis toto addressaddress thethe grievancesgrievances ofof thethe consumers

consumers andand protecting protecting  themthem fromfrom thethe unethicalunethical practices/ practices/  behaviorbehavior oror unfair trade

unfair trade practicespractices ofof thethe manufacturer/ manufacturer/ supplier.supplier.

Earlier

Earlier thoughthough therethere werewere severalseveral legislationslegislations toto protectprotect thethe consumer,consumer, butbut the same

the same nevernever provedproved adequateadequate toto protectprotect consumerconsumer andand compensatecompensate themthem forfor their compliances.

their compliances.

CPA

CPA becomebecome statutorystatutory umbrellaumbrella whichwhich mademade thethe consumerconsumer feelfeel likelike aa king.king. CPA

CPA notnot onlyonly enhancesenhances thethe awarenessawareness andand educateeducate thethe consumerconsumer butbut alsoalso provide compensation

provide compensation toto themthem byby summarysummary andand inexpensiveinexpensive proceedings.proceedings. This

This keeps manufacturerkeeps manufacturer andand thethe tradertrader alert,alert, creativecreative andand innovative.innovative.

In

In thethe eraera ofof freefree competition,competition, marketmarket hashas becomebecome veryvery dynamicdynamic andand marginsmargins have squeezes

have squeezes out.out. TheseThese gavegave riserise toto adoptadopt otherother means/unfairmeans/unfair meansmeans oror practices

practices in executionin execution ofof transactions,transactions, whichwhich resultedresulted intointo increasedincreased grievances

grievances atat consumer front.consumer front. Hence,Hence, thethe needneed forfor thethe CPACPA hashas becomebecome moremore relevant

relevant thanthan thethe past,past, where monopolywhere monopoly waswas thethe keykey factor.factor.

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Today

Today ConsumerConsumer rightsrights areare anan integralintegral partpart ofof ourour liveslives likelike thethe consumeristconsumerist wayway of

of life.life.  We We havehave allall mademade useuse ofof themthem atat somesome pointpoint inin ourour dailydaily lives.lives. Market resources

Market resources andand influencesinfluences areare growing growing  byby thethe dayday andand soso isis thethe awareness

awareness ofof ones consumerones consumer rights.rights. TheseThese rightsrights areare wellwell defineddefined andand therethere are

are agenciesagencies likelike thethe

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Government,

Government, consumerconsumer courtscourts andand voluntaryvoluntary organizationsorganizations thatthat workwork towards safeguarding.

towards safeguarding. IfIf thesethese rightsrights areare wellwell defineddefined thenthen thethe basicbasic questionquestion isis why

why atat aalll l tthhee ccoonnssuummeerr nneeeeddss prrop otteeccttiioonn??,, iitt h

haass ttoo bbee ffoolllloowweedd bbyy tthhee manufacturers/suppliers.

manufacturers/suppliers. So

So letlet usus looklook atat fewfew reasonsreasons becausebecause ofof whichwhich consumerconsumer needsneeds protectionprotection

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1. IIllillitteerracyacy aanndd IInnoorraannccee:: ConsumersConsumers inin IndiaIndia areare mostlymostly illiterateilliterate andand ignorant. They

ignorant. They dodo notnot understandunderstand theirtheir rights.rights. AA systemsystem isis requiredrequired toto protect

protect themthem from unscrupulousfrom unscrupulous businessmen.businessmen. 2.

2. UUnnoorrgaganniizzeedd CoConsnsuummeerrss:: InIn IndiaIndia consumersconsumers areare widelywidely disperseddispersed andand areare not united.

not united. TheyThey areare atat thethe mercymercy ofof businessmen.businessmen. OnOn thethe otherother hand,hand, producers

producers and tradersand traders areare organizedorganized andand powerful.powerful. 3.

3. SSpupurriiououss GGooooddss:: ThereThere isis increasing increasing  supplysupply ofof duplicateduplicate products.products. ItIt isis very difficult

very difficult forfor anan ordinaryordinary consumerconsumer toto distinguishdistinguish betweenbetween aa genuinegenuine productproduct and

and its

its imitation.imitation. ItIt isis necessarynecessary toto protectprotect consumersconsumers fromfrom suchsuch exploitationexploitation byby ensuring 

ensuring compliancecompliance withwith prescribedprescribed normsnorms ofof qualityquality andand safety.safety. 4.

4. DDeecceeppttiivvee AdAdvveerrttiissiinng:g: SomeSome businessmenbusinessmen givegive misleading misleading  informationinformation aabboouut t qquuaalliittyy,, ssaaffeettyy aanndduuttiilliittyy ooff pprroodduuccttss..

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Coonnssuummeerrss aarree mmiisslleedd byby ffaallsse e aaddvveerrttiisseemmeenntt and

and dodo notnot knowknow thethe realreal qualityquality ofof advertisedadvertised goods.goods. AA mechanismmechanism is

is neededneeded toto preventprevent misleading misleading advertisements.advertisements. 5.

5. MMaallpprracacttiicceses offo BBuussiinessnessmmenen:: Fraudulent,Fraudulent, unethicalunethical andand monopolisticmonopolistic trade practices

trade practices onon thethe partpart ofof businessmenbusinessmen leadlead toto exploitationexploitation ofof consumers.consumers. Consumers often

Consumers often getget defective,defective, inferiorinferior andand substandardsubstandard goodsgoods andand poorpoor service.

service. Certain measuresCertain measures areare requiredrequired toto protectprotect thethe consumersconsumers againstagainst suchsuch malpractices.

malpractices. 6.

6. FFrreeeeddoomm ooff EEnntteerrpprriisese:: BusinessmenBusinessmen mustmust ensureensure satisfactionsatisfaction ofof consumers.consumers. In the

In the long long  run,run, survivalsurvival andand growthgrowth ofof businessbusiness isis notnot possiblepossible withoutwithout thethe support and

support and goodwillgoodwill ofof consumers.consumers. IfIf businessbusiness doesdoes notnot protectprotect consumers'consumers' interests, Government

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unfair

unfair trade practices.trade practices.

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7.

7. LLeeiittiimacymacy ffoorr EExxiissttenenccee:: BusinessBusiness existsexists toto satisfysatisfy thethe needsneeds andand desiresdesires of

of

consumers.

consumers. GoodsGoods areare producedproduced withwith thethe purposepurpose ofof selling selling  them.them. GoodsGoods will,will, inin the

the long long run,run, sellsell onlyonly whenwhen theythey meetmeet thethe needsneeds ofof consumers.consumers. 8.

8. TTrruusstteesheeshiipp:: BusinessmenBusinessmen areare trusteestrustees ofof thethe society'ssociety's wealth.wealth. Therefore,Therefore, they should

they should useuse thisthis wealthwealth forfor thethe benefitbenefit ofof people.people.

 While

 While wewe likelike toto knowknow aboutabout ourour rightsrights andand makemake fullfull useuse ofof them,them, consumer responsibility

consumer responsibility isis anan areaarea whichwhich isis stillstill notnot demarcateddemarcated andand itit isis hard

hard toto spellspell out thatout that allall thethe responsibilitiesresponsibilities thatthat aa consumerconsumer isis supposedsupposed toto shoulder.

shoulder.

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The

The basicbasic objective/purposeobjective/purpose ofof thisthis ActAct isis toto provideprovide forfor betterbetter protectionprotection ofof the

the interest

interest ofof thethe consumersconsumers andand forfor thatthat purposepurpose toto makemake provisionsprovisions forfor the establishment

the establishment ofof consumerconsumer councilscouncils andand otherother authoritiesauthorities forfor thethe settlement

settlement of consumer’sof consumer’s disputedispute andand forfor mattersmatters connectedconnected therewith.therewith. Hence,

Hence, thethe basic objectivebasic objective isis toto PROTECTPROTECT andand notnot toto provideprovide aa loopholeloophole and

and excusesexcuses toto well organizedwell organized traders,traders, producersproducers andand big big  businessbusiness houseshouses and

and manufacturesmanufactures on technicalon technical grounds.grounds. Educating Educating  thethe consumerconsumer regarding 

regarding  theirtheir rightsrights andand to propagateto propagate awarenessawareness aboutabout thethe ActAct andand thethe ethical

ethical practices/meanspractices/means waswas thethe other purposeother purpose ofof thethe act.act.

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In

In thethe earlyearly yearsyears whenwhen welfarewelfare legislatureslegislatures likelike thethe consumerconsumer protectionprotection ActAct diddid not

not exist,exist, thethe maximmaxim CaveatCaveat emptoremptor (let(let thethe buyerbuyer beware)beware) governedgoverned thethe market deals.

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During 

During  thethe BritishBritish regimeregime (1765-1947),(1765-1947), alsoalso knownknown asas thethe ‘‘CCoollooniniaall

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Erraa’, Government’s’, Government’s economiceconomic policespolices inin IndiaIndia werewere concernedconcerned moremore withwith protecting 

protecting  and promoting and promoting  thethe BritishBritish interestsinterests thanthan withwith advancing advancing  thethe welfare

welfare ofof thethe native population.native population. TheThe administration’sadministration’s primaryprimary per- per-occupation

occupation waswas withwith maintaining lawmaintaining law andand order,order, taxtax collectioncollection andand defense.defense. Accordingly

Accordingly muchmuch ofof thethe legalization enactedlegalization enacted during during  thethe BritishBritish regimeregime waswas primarily

primarily aimedaimed atat serving serving  thethe colonial rulerscolonial rulers intendintend ofof thethe natives.natives. ThereThere were,

were, however,however, somesome piecespieces ofof legislationlegislation which protectedwhich protected thethe overalloverall publicpublic interest

interest throughthrough notnot necessarilynecessarily thethe consumerconsumer interest. Prominentinterest. Prominent among among  thesethese were:

were: thethe IndianIndian PenalPenal code,code, 1860,1860, thethe salesale ofof GoodsGoods act,act, 1930,

1930, thethe dangerousdangerous drugsdrugs act,act, 19301930 andand thethe drugsdrugs andand cosmeticscosmetics act,act, 1940.1940. In

In a sense,a sense, thethe salesale ofof goodgood act,act, andand thethe principlesprinciples ofof thethe lawlaw ofof tortstorts werewere moremore for

for the protectionthe protection ofof thethe tradertrader thanthan thethe consumer.consumer.

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Growing 

Growing  urbanizationurbanization duedue toto heavyheavy industrializationindustrialization resultedresulted inin proliferation

proliferation of humanof human needs-ofneeds-of basicbasic necessariesnecessaries andand alsoalso ofof luxuries.luxuries. DueDue to

to thethe shortageshortage of certainof certain necessariesnecessaries andand eveneven theirtheir non-availabilitynon-availability atat reasonable

reasonable ratesrates with growing with growing  menacemenace ofof adulteration,adulteration, itit waswas foundfound necessary

necessary toto empowerempower the Governmentthe Government toto controlcontrol theirtheir production,production, quality,

quality, supply,supply, andand distribution. Thereforedistribution. Therefore thethe decadedecade ofof 1950s,1950s, rightright fromfrom the

the veryvery beginning,beginning, sawsaw thethe enactmentenactment ofof

aa numbernumber ofof lawslaws toto safeguardsafeguard thethe interestsinterests ofof thethe consumersconsumers fromfrom variousvarious angles.angles. The

The enactmentenactment ofof thethe Banking Banking  CompaniesCompanies Act,1949Act,1949 (later(later calledcalled TThhee

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Baannkkining g RReeg g uullaattiioonn AcActt)) toto amendamend andand consolidateconsolidate thethe LawLaw relatedrelated toto

banking 

banking  mattersmatters as wellas well asas thethe IInnddususttrriieess(D(Deevveellooppmmeenntt aanndd

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Reeg g uullaattiioonn))AcActt ,1951 ,1951 toto implementimplement the Ithe Innddususttrriiaall PPooliliccyy RReessoolluuttiioonn ooff 19481948

were

were among among  thethe earliestearliest stapesstapes takentaken byby the Nationalthe National GovernmentGovernment inin IndiaIndia inin the

the directiondirection ofof consumerconsumer protection.protection. As

As aa resultresult ofof thisthis changechange inin scenarioscenario businessbusiness hashas nownow comecome toto bebe substantially

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regulated

regulated byby GovernmentGovernment andand AuthoritiesAuthorities inin favourfavour ofof consumers.consumers.

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In

In spitespite ofof variousvarious provisionsprovisions providing providing protectionprotection toto thethe consumerconsumer andand providing providing  for

for stringentstringent actionaction againstagainst adulteratedadulterated andand substandardsubstandard articlesarticles inin thethe different enactments

different enactments likelike CriminalCriminal ProcedureProcedure Code,Code, 1908,1908, IndianIndian ContractContract Act,Act, 1972,

1972, SalesSales of Goodsof Goods Act,Act, 1930,1930, IndianIndian PenalPenal CodeCode 1860,1860, StandardStandard ofof  Weights Weights and

and MeasuresMeasures Act,Act, 1976

1976 andand MotorMotor VehicleVehicle Act,Act, 1988,1988, veryvery littlelittle couldcould bebe achievedachieved inin thethe areaarea of

of

consumer

consumer protection.protection. In

In orderorder toto provideprovide forfor betterbetter protectionprotection ofof thethe interestinterest ofof thethe consumersconsumers thethe Consumer

Consumer ProtectionProtection Bill,Bill, 19861986 waswas introducedintroduced inin thethe LokLok SabhaSabha onon DecemberDecember 5th5th 1986.

1986. TheThe CPACPA 19861986 waswas enactedenacted toto provideprovide forfor betterbetter protectionprotection ofof thethe interestinterest of consumer

of consumer andand forfor thethe purposepurpose toto makemake provisionsprovisions forfor establishmentestablishment ofof Consumers Councils

Consumers Councils andand otherother authoritiesauthorities forfor settlementsettlement ofof consumer’sconsumer’s dispute

dispute andand for mattersfor matters connectedconnected therewith.therewith. The

The CPACPA isis onlyonly oneone ofof thethe severalseveral LawsLaws framedframed toto protectprotect consumersconsumers fromfrom unfairunfair and

and undesirableundesirable practicespractices ofof businessbusiness communitycommunity suchsuch lawlaw becamebecame necessarynecessary duedue to

to growing growing  frustrationfrustration ofof consumersconsumers withwith substandardsubstandard qualityquality ofof goods,goods, unsatisfactory

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(i) AA consumer;consumer; oror (ii)

(ii) AnyAny voluntaryvoluntary consumerconsumer associationassociation registeredregistered underunder thethe CompaniesCompanies Act,Act, 19561956 (1

(1 ofof 1956)1956) oror underunder anyany otherother lawlaw forfor thethe timetime being being inin force;force; oror (iii)

(iii) TheThe CentralCentral GovernmentGovernment oror anyany StateState Government;Government; (IV)

(IV) OneOne oror moremore consumers,consumers, wherewhere therethere areare numerousnumerous consumersconsumers having having  the same

the same interest;]interest;]  Who

 Who oror whichwhich makesmakes aa complaint;complaint;

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iinttn "" meansmeans anyany allegationallegation inin writing writing  mademade byby aa complainantcomplainant

that-(i)

(i) AnAn unfairunfair tradetrade practicepractice oror aa restrictiverestrictive tradetrade practicepractice hashas beenbeen adoptedadopted byby anyany trader;

trader; (ii)

(ii) 'The'The goodsgoods boughtbought byby himhim oror agreedagreed toto bebe boughtbought byby himhim suffersuffer fromfrom oneone oror more

more defects;defects; (iii)

(iii) 'The'The servicesservices hiredhired oror availedavailed ofof oror agreedagreed toto bebe hiredhired oror availedavailed ofof byby him]

him] suffer

suffer fromfrom deficiencydeficiency inin anyany respect;respect; (iv)

(iv) aa tradertrader hashas chargedcharged forfor thethe goodsgoods mentionedmentioned inin thethe complaintcomplaint aa priceprice inin excessexcess of

of thethe priceprice fixedfixed byby oror underunder anyany lawlaw forfor thethe timetime being being inin forceforce oror displayeddisplayed onon the

the goodsgoods oror anyany packagepackage containing containing suchsuch goods;goods; (v)

(v) goodsgoods whichwhich willwill bebe hazardoushazardous toto lifelife andand safetysafety whenwhen used,used, areare being being  offered for

offered for salesale toto thethe publicpublic inin contraventioncontravention ofof thethe provisionsprovisions ofof anyany lawlaw for

for thethe time being time being  inin forceforce requiring requiring  traderstraders toto displaydisplay informationinformation inin regardregard to

to thethe contents, mannercontents, manner andand effecteffect ofof useuse ofof suchsuch goods,goods,

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mmeeaansnsaannyyppeerrssoonnwwhhoo

--((ii)) BBuuyyss anyany goodsgoods forfor selfself useuse oorr wwiitthh thethe approvalapproval ofof selfself person,person, butbut does not

does not includeinclude aa personperson whowho obtainsobtains suchsuch goodsgoods forfor resaleresale oror forfor anyany commercial purpose

commercial purpose oror

((iiii)) HHiirreess forfor availsavails ofof anyany servicesservices forfor selfself useuse oror whenwhen suchsuch servicesservices areare availed

availed withwith thethe approvalapproval thethe firstfirst mentionedmentioned person.person.

2.4.

2.4.

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"CoConsnsuummeerr ddiisspuputtee""meansmeans aa disputedispute wherewhere thethe personperson againstagainst whomwhom aa complaintcomplaint has

has beenbeen made,made, deniesdenies oror disputesdisputes thethe allegationsallegations containedcontained inin thethe complaint;complaint;

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"" "Trader"

"Trader" inin relationrelation toto anyany goodsgoods meansmeans aa personperson whowho sellssells oror distributesdistributes any goods

any goods forfor salesale andand includesincludes thethe manufacturermanufacturer thereof,thereof, andand wherewhere suchsuch goods

goods are soldare sold oror distributeddistributed inin packagepackage form,form, includesincludes thethe packerpacker thereof;thereof;

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IInntteerrnnaattiioonnaall CoConsnsuummeerr RRiihhttss::  Webster's

 Webster's dictionarydictionary definesdefines consumerismconsumerism asas "a"a movementmovement forfor thethe protectionprotection ofof the consumer

the consumer againstagainst defectivedefective products,products, misleading misleading  advertising,advertising, etc."etc." Limited consumer

Limited consumer protectionprotection waswas presentpresent untiluntil thethe 1950s1950s andand earlyearly 1960s.1960s. InIn the

the 1950s,1950s, a significanta significant breakthroughbreakthrough occurredoccurred withwith thethe establishmentestablishment ofof thethe product-liability concept,

product-liability concept, wherebywhereby aa plaintiffplaintiff diddid notnot havehave toto proveprove negligence

negligence butbut onlyonly hadhad to proveto prove thatthat aa defectivedefective productproduct causedcaused anan injury.injury. In

In hishis 19621962 speechspeech toto Congress, PresidentCongress, President  John John F.F. KennedyKennedy outlinedoutlined fourfour basic

basic consumerconsumer rights,rights, whichwhich later becamelater became knownknown asas thethe ConsumerConsumer BillBill ofof Rights.

Rights. Later,Later, inin 1985,1985, thethe UnitedUnited Nations endorsedNations endorsed Kennedy'sKennedy's ConsumerConsumer BillBill of

of RightsRights andand expandedexpanded itit toto covercover eight consumereight consumer rights.rights. ConsumerConsumer protection

protection cancan onlyonly survivesurvive inin highlyhighly industrialized countriesindustrialized countries becausebecause ofof thethe resources

resources neededneeded toto financefinance consumerconsumer interests.interests.

There

There areare twotwo hundredhundred andand sixtysixty consumerconsumer organizationsorganizations inin overover oneone hundred countries

hundred countries aroundaround thethe worldworld strivesstrives toto promotepromote aa fairerfairer societysociety throughthrough defending the

defending the rightsrights ofof allall consumers,consumers, including  theincluding  the poorpoor andand thethe marginalised,

marginalised, by supporting by supporting andand strengthening strengthening  membermember organisationsorganisations andand thethe consumer

consumer movementmovement in

in general;general; campaigning campaigning  forfor consumerconsumer rights'rights' toto bebe placedplaced atat thethe heartheart ofof

policy-making 

making  toto encourageencourage sustainablesustainable development.development. ThereThere areare eighteight keykey international consumer

international consumer rightsrights asas defineddefined byby thethe UnitedUnited NationsNations GuidelineGuideline for

for Consumer ProtectionConsumer Protection 1985.1985.

T

Theheyy cacannbbee ssiimmppliliffiieedd iinnttoo ttheheffoolllloowwiinng:g:

—TheThe rightright toto accessaccess toto basicbasic needsneeds —

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— —ToTo informationinformation — —ToTo choicechoice — —ToTo representationrepresentation —

—ToTo consumerconsumer educationeducation —

—ToTo redressredress —

—HealthyHealthy environmentenvironment

In

In IndiaIndia toto safeguardsafeguard consumerconsumer interest,interest, following following rightsrights werewere envisioned.envisioned.

Right

Right toto SafetySafety Right

Right toto InformationInformation Right

Right toto ChoiceChoice Right

Right toto bebe HeardHeard The

The RightRight toto RedressRedress The

The rightright toto consumerconsumer educationeducation The

The RightRight toto BasicBasic NeedsNeeds andand The

The rightright toto aa healthyhealthy andand sustainedsustained environment.environment.

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Access

Access toto food,food, waterwater andand sheltershelter areare thethe basisbasis ofof anyany consumer'sconsumer's life.life.   Without these

  Without these fundamentalfundamental amenities,amenities, lifelife cannotcannot exist.exist. InIn SeptemberSeptember 2001,2001, India's

India's stockstock of foodof food grainsgrains werewere aroundaround 6060 millionmillion tonnes,tonnes, yetyet oneone thirdthird ofof thethe Indian

Indian population livespopulation lives belowbelow thethe povertypoverty lineline andand consumersconsumers oftenoften gogo hungry

hungry oror remainremain severely malnourished,severely malnourished, leading leading  toto poorpoor health.health. TheThe recentrecent starvation

starvation deathsdeaths inin OrissaOrissa areare a casea case inin point.point. AA veryvery crucialcrucial objectiveobjective ofof thethe conceptualization

conceptualization andand existenceexistence of consumerof consumer rightsrights isis toto ensureensure thatthat consumersconsumers have

have anan assuredassured foodfood supply,supply, safesafe and permanentand permanent dwellings,dwellings, andand basicbasic amenitiesamenities of

of lifelife likelike sanitationsanitation andand potablepotable water, andwater, and powerpower supply.supply.

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Urbanizations

Urbanizations isis seenseen asas aa markmark ofof developmentdevelopment butbut forfor ruralrural migrantmigrant population,population, living 

living conditionsconditions inin citiescities isis veryvery poor.poor. TheThe populationpopulation ofof citiescities isis growing growing rapidlyrapidly in

in IndiaIndia andand afterafter 1988,1988, thethe percentagepercentage ofof urbanurban poorpoor hashas beenbeen moremore thanthan thatthat of the

of the ruralrural poor.poor. AroundAround 2020 toto 2525 perper centcent ofof thethe urbanurban householdshouseholds livelive inin slums, make-shift

slums, make-shift coloniescolonies oror refugeerefugee settlementssettlements duedue toto non-availabilitynon-availability ofof affordable and

affordable and decentdecent habitathabitat inin urbanurban areas.areas. .. According According  toto somesome estimates,estimates, inin urban

urban areas alone,areas alone, therethere isis aa housing housing shortageshortage ofof 1717 millionmillion units.units. ThisThis hashas ledled toto aa habitathabitat crisiscrisis

in

in IndianIndian cities.cities. InIn ruralrural India,India, thethe situationsituation isis equallyequally bad,bad, withwith aa largelarge partpart ofof the population

the population stillstill living living  inin make-shiftmake-shift dwellingsdwellings andand hutment.hutment.  With With non- non-permanent housing 

permanent housing  comescomes lacklack ofof sanitationsanitation facilitiesfacilities andand otherother amenitiesamenities likelike running 

running  water andwater and electricityelectricity supply.supply. DueDue toto burgeoning burgeoning  population,population, mostmost people

people dodo notnot have accesshave access toto drydry toiletstoilets inin ruralrural andand urbanurban areas.areas.

2.

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For

For urbanurban consumers,consumers, environmentenvironment meansmeans parks,parks, gardens,gardens, andand deteriorating deteriorating  air and

air and waterwater quality.quality. MostMost urbanurban areasareas areare bereftbereft ofof anyany wildlifewildlife andand people

people are unawareare unaware ofof thethe biodiversitybiodiversity aroundaround them.them. OnOn thethe otherother hand,hand, ruralrural consumers

consumers relyrely on

on theirtheir environmentenvironment forfor fulfillmentfulfillment ofof theirtheir basicbasic needs.needs. The

The needneed forfor environmentalenvironmental conservationconservation isis seenseen asas aa necessarynecessary defencedefence against deteriorating 

against deteriorating  qualityquality ofof lifelife world-wide.world-wide.  We We areare allall victimsvictims ofof contaminated

contaminated food andfood and waterwater supply,supply, pesticide-riddenpesticide-ridden food,food, adulteratedadulterated milkmilk and

and choking choking  exhaust fumesexhaust fumes emitting emitting  fromfrom vehicles.vehicles. According According  toto aa  World World Bank

Bank report,report, IndiaIndia isis being pushedbeing pushed backback duedue toto itsits highhigh environmentalenvironmental costs.costs.  We

 We loselose aroundaround RsRs 24,50024,500 crores everycrores every yearyear inin termsterms ofof airair andand waterwater pollutionpollution alone.

alone. IfIf youyou livelive inin aa city,city, youyou must havemust have experiencedexperienced airair andand waterwater pollutionpollution atat some

some pointpoint ofof time.time. ChildrenChildren oftenoften fallfall ill

ill duedue toto pollutedpolluted environments,environments, itit leadsleads toto increasedincreased healthhealth costscosts andand discomfortdiscomfort for

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environment

environment andand living living conditions.conditions. ConsumersConsumers needneed toto understandunderstand thatthat onlyonly aa safesafe environment

environment cancan ensureensure thethe fulfilmentfulfilment ofof theirtheir consumerconsumer rights.rights. International

International StandardsStandards forfor Safeguarding Safeguarding RightRight toto SafeSafe EnvironmentEnvironment Consumers

Consumers InternationalInternational (a(a nodalnodal agencyagency ofof consumerconsumer organisationsorganisations fromfrom allall over the

over the world)world) hashas mademade certaincertain guidelinesguidelines forfor ensuring ensuring  consumers'consumers' rightright to

to safe environment.safe environment.

Co

Consnsuummeerrss shshououlldd bbeepprrootteecctteeddffrroomm enenvviirroonnmmenenttaall popolllluuttiioonnbby:y: 1.

1. Promoting Promoting thethe useuse ofof productsproducts whichwhich areare environmentallyenvironmentally sustainable.sustainable. 2.

2. Encouraging Encouraging recycling recycling  3.

3. Requiring Requiring  environmentallyenvironmentally dangerousdangerous productsproducts toto carrycarry appropriateappropriate warnings and

warnings and instructionsinstructions forfor safesafe useuse andand disposal.disposal. Promote

Promote thethe useuse ofof non-toxicnon-toxic productsproducts by:by: 1.

1. Raising Raising consumerconsumer awarenessawareness ofof alternativesalternatives toto toxictoxic productsproducts 2.

2. Establishing Establishing  proceduresprocedures toto ensureensure thatthat productsproducts bannedbanned overseasoverseas dodo notnot enterenter national

national markets.markets. 3.

3. EnsureEnsure thatthat thethe socialsocial impactsimpacts ofof pollutionpollution areare minimized.minimized.

44.. PPrroommoottee eetthhiiccaall,, ssoocciiaallllyy aanndd eennvviirroonnmmeennttaallllyy reresspoponsnsibiblele prpracactiticecess byby producers

producers andand supplierssuppliers ofof goodsgoods andand services.services.

Rural

Rural consumersconsumers areare invariablyinvariably closercloser toto theirtheir environmentenvironment thanthan urbanurban consumers. Their

consumers. Their livelihoodslivelihoods andand wayway ofof lifelife dependdepend onon thethe environmentenvironment around

around them.them. Their firewoodTheir firewood andand sourcessources ofof energyenergy comecome fromfrom trees,trees, manuremanure for

for fieldsfields comescomes from livestock,from livestock, waterwater isis procuredprocured eithereither fromfrom undergroundunderground water

water supplysupply oror fromfrom rivers, therivers, the cropscrops heavilyheavily dependdepend onon annualannual rainfall,rainfall, even

even pesticidespesticides forfor safeguarding safeguarding  of cropsof crops andand storagestorage alsoalso comecome fromfrom treestrees like

like neem.neem. InIn short,short, thethe ruralrural lifelife revolves aroundrevolves around naturalnatural resources.resources. ForFor them,

them, thisthis dependencedependence onon thethe environmentenvironment is completeis complete andand theythey havehave aa stake

stake inin itsits preservation,preservation, whetherwhether itit isis forfor building building their houses,their houses, fodderfodder forfor theirtheir cattle

cattle etc.etc.

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3.

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Consumer

Consumer rightright toto safetysafety isis asas vastvast inin itsits purviewpurview asas thethe marketmarket reachreach itself.itself. It applies

It applies toto allall possiblepossible consumptionconsumption patternspatterns andand toto allall goodsgoods andand services.services. InIn the context

the context ofof thethe newnew marketmarket economyeconomy andand rapidrapid technologicaltechnological advancesadvances affecting affecting  the market,

the market, thethe rightright toto safetysafety hashas becomebecome aa pre-requisitepre-requisite qualityquality inin allall productsproducts and services.

and services. ForFor e.g.e.g. somesome IndianIndian productsproducts carrycarry thethe ISIISI mark,mark, whichwhich isis aa symbol

symbol of satisfactoryof satisfactory qualityquality ofof aa product?product? Similarly,Similarly, thethe FPOFPO andand AGMARKAGMARK symbolise standard

symbolise standard qualityquality ofof foodfood products.products. TheThe marketmarket hashas forfor long long  mademade consumers believe

consumers believe thatthat byby consuming consuming  packagedpackaged foodfood oror mineralmineral water,water, consumers

consumers can safeguardcan safeguard theirtheir health.health. ThisThis notionnotion hashas beenbeen provedproved wrong wrong timetime and

and againagain duedue to rampantto rampant foodfood adulterationadulteration inin marketmarket products.products. RightRight toto foodfood safety

safety isis anan important consumerimportant consumer rightright sincesince itit directlydirectly affectsaffects thethe healthhealth andand qualityquality of

of lifelife ofof consumers. Earlier,consumers. Earlier, thethe interpretationinterpretation ofof thethe rightright toto safetysafety waswas limitedlimited toto electronic

electronic products andproducts and otherother suchsuch products.products. Now,Now, itsits definitiondefinition hashas expandedexpanded aa lot

lot toto includeinclude safety aspectssafety aspects ofof newnew technologiestechnologies likelike GMGM food,food, foodfood labeling,labeling, chemical

chemical ingredientsingredients in foodin food productsproducts etc.etc. InIn today'stoday's scenarioscenario ofof globalisation,globalisation, consumers

consumers havehave nono control overcontrol over wherewhere thethe productsproducts oror commoditiescommodities theythey use,use, come

come from.from. ForFor instance,instance, the chocolatesthe chocolates oror syrupssyrups wewe consume,consume, maymay bebe manufactured

manufactured inin countriescountries asas farfar asas the U.S.the U.S. oror Australia.Australia. ConsumersConsumers inin IndiaIndia would

would havehave nono controlcontrol overover oror knowledgeknowledge of theof the manufacturing manufacturing practicespractices ofof thosethose countries

countries andand willwill havehave toto relyrely completelycompletely on importon import regulationsregulations ofof thethe IndianIndian government

government andand foodfood labelling.labelling. ThisThis makesmakes the consumerthe consumer rightright toto safetysafety aa veryvery important

important andand criticalcritical issueissue forfor consumers.consumers.

Safety

Safety ofof naturalnatural foodfood productsproducts isis alsoalso aa problemproblem ofof growing growing concernconcern sincesince duedue to increased

to increased chemicalchemical inputsinputs inin farms,farms, ourour foodfood supplysupply isis being being  contaminated

contaminated with pesticideswith pesticides andand chemicals.chemicals. ThisThis posesposes aa gravegrave dangerdanger toto consumer

consumer health.health. ForFor non- vegetarians,non- vegetarians, thethe problemproblem isis eveneven moremore seriousserious since

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anti-biotics

anti-biotics toto fightfight diseasesdiseases among among animalsanimals andand boostboost theirtheir growth.growth. ThisThis cancan havehave serious

serious repercussionsrepercussions onon consumerconsumer health.health.

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Right

Right toto informationinformation meansmeans thethe rightright toto bebe givengiven thethe factsfacts neededneeded toto makemake an informed

an informed choicechoice oror decisiondecision aboutabout factorsfactors likelike quality,quality, quantity,quantity, potency,potency, purity standards

purity standards andand priceprice ofof productproduct oror service.service. TheThe rightright toto informationinformation now

now goes beyondgoes beyond avoiding avoiding  deceptiondeception andand protectionprotection againstagainst misleading misleading  advertising, improper

advertising, improper labelling labelling  andand otherother practices.practices. ForFor e.g.e.g. whenwhen youyou buybuy aa product

product oror utiliseutilise

aa service,service, youyou shouldshould bebe informedinformed aboutabout a)a) howhow toto consumeconsume aa productproduct b)b) the adverse

the adverse healthhealth effectseffects ofof itsits consumptionconsumption c)c)  Whether Whether thethe ingredientsingredients used

used are environment-are environment- friendlyfriendly oror notnot etcetc .. Due

Due toto thethe everever increasing increasing  influenceinfluence ofof thethe marketmarket andand thethe everever changing changing  scene with

scene with priceprice warswars andand hard-sellhard-sell techniques,techniques, thethe consumer'sconsumer's rightright toto information becomes

information becomes eveneven moremore important.important. TheThe rightright toto informationinformation meansmeans much

much moremore than simplethan simple disclosuredisclosure ofof thethe product'sproduct's weightweight oror price.price. AA consumer

consumer hashas thethe rightright to knowto know howhow thethe productproduct hashas beenbeen prepared,prepared, whetherwhether itit has

has beenbeen testedtested oror animalsanimals or not,or not, ifif environmentally-soundenvironmentally-sound techniquestechniques andand resources

resources havehave beenbeen usedused inin its productionits production processes,processes, whatwhat kindskinds ofof chemicalschemicals are

are usedused intointo itsits manufacturing manufacturing and whatand what couldcould bebe theirtheir impactimpact onon consumerconsumer health.

health. Clearly,Clearly, aa consumerconsumer hashas to considerto consider aa lotlot ofof factorsfactors beforebefore s/hes/he buysbuys aa product.

product. Ideally,

Ideally, aa consumerconsumer shouldshould havehave knowledgeknowledge ofof thethe entireentire ‘cradle‘cradle toto grave'grave' journeyjourney of

of thethe productproduct toto determinedetermine whetherwhether itsits safesafe andand beneficialbeneficial forfor useuse oror no.no. The

The ‘cradle

‘cradle toto gravegrave journey'journey' refersrefers toto thethe processesprocesses aa productproduct goesgoes through-through- fromfrom the time

the time ofof itit being being  mademade outout ofof rawraw material,material, thethe processesprocesses ofof itsits moulding 

moulding  intointo its finalits final shape,shape, transportation,transportation, labour,labour, ingredientsingredients used,used, toto thethe form

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up

up onon marketmarket shelves.shelves. ItIt isis onlyonly whenwhen aa consumerconsumer isis awareaware ofof thethe historyhistory ofof the product

the product thatthat hehe cancan makemake informedinformed choices.choices.

An

An exampleexample ofof thisthis isis thethe GMGM foodfood controversy.controversy. GMGM foodfood isis promotedpromoted asas the answer

the answer toto world'sworld's hungerhunger andand malnutritionmalnutrition butbut itsits safetysafety forfor consumersconsumers and

and the environmentthe environment isis yetyet toto bebe proved.proved. DespiteDespite strong strong  lobbying lobbying  byby pro-GMpro-GM groups

groups and theand the market,market, consumersconsumers inin EuropeEurope havehave campaignedcampaigned effectivelyeffectively against

against thethe entryentry of GMof GM foodfood intointo theirtheir foodfood chainchain andand markets.markets. ThereThere areare information

information andand publicity campaignspublicity campaigns thatthat havehave mademade consumersconsumers rallyrally behindbehind aa commoncommon consumerconsumer stand againststand against GMGM food.food. AsAs aa result,result, thethe governmentsgovernments and

and thethe EuropeanEuropean UnionUnion have placedhave placed strictstrict restrictionsrestrictions onon thethe trialtrial usesuses ofof GM

GM technologytechnology inin thethe marketmarket oror in agriculture.in agriculture. Recently,

Recently, itit hashas comecome toto lightlight thatthat mostmost cosmeticscosmetics likelike lipsticks,lipsticks, kajalkajal andand mascaramascara are

are testedtested onon animalsanimals inin laboratorieslaboratories toto seesee whetherwhether theythey havehave anyany adverseadverse effectseffects on

on themthem oror no.no. ThereThere waswas alsoalso aa controversycontroversy aboutabout howhow NikeNike shoeshoe companycompany was using 

was using  sweatsweat labourlabour inin SouthSouth AsianAsian countries,countries, paying paying  itsits workersworkers abysmally

abysmally low wageslow wages forfor manufacturing manufacturing  shoes.shoes. Similarly,Similarly, therethere waswas aa ‘McLibel'

‘McLibel' casecase against McDonald'sagainst McDonald's alleging alleging  thatthat McMc Donald'sDonald's generatedgenerated aa lotlot lot

lot ofof unwantedunwanted wastewaste duedue to

to itsits excessiveexcessive packaging packaging andand harmedharmed thethe environment.environment.

The

The advertising advertising  techniquestechniques ofof manymany products,products, directlydirectly targeting targeting  andand featuring children

featuring children havehave alsoalso beenbeen questioned.questioned. ManyMany parentsparents don'tdon't eveneven know

know thatthat their childrentheir children areare being being  targetedtargeted byby marketmarket surveyorssurveyors toto determinedetermine their

their consumption habitsconsumption habits byby collecting collecting  datadata throughthrough surveys,surveys, interviewsinterviews andand byby offering 

offering freefree samplessamples of

of products.products. It

It isis notnot justjust thethe consumersconsumers whowho useuse informationinformation gathering gathering  oror disseminating techniques

disseminating techniques andand toolstools toto protectprotect theirtheir consumerconsumer rights.rights. InformationInformation dissemination

dissemination is alsois also usedused veryvery extensivelyextensively byby advertisersadvertisers andand thethe marketmarket toto get

get theirtheir message acrossmessage across toto thethe consumer.consumer. ToolsTools andand agenciesagencies ofof informationinformation like

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media,

media, televisiontelevision andand thethe InternetInternet areare utilisedutilised byby marketing marketing  ofof consumerconsumer products and

products and services.services. ThisThis hashas mademade advertising advertising  aa multi-millionmulti-million dollardollar industry

industry inin India andIndia and alsoalso world-wide.world-wide.

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Competition

Competition isis thethe by-productby-product ofof thethe marketmarket economy.economy. Everyday,Everyday, manufacturers are

manufacturers are discovering discovering  newernewer waysways ofof cheating cheating  andand duping duping  consumers.

consumers. Unscrupulous marketUnscrupulous market practicespractices areare finding finding  theirtheir wayway intointo consumer

consumer homes,homes, violating violating  consumer rightsconsumer rights andand jeopardising jeopardising theirtheir safety.safety. ItIt is

is toto protectprotect consumerconsumer interestsinterests that consumersthat consumers havehave beenbeen givengiven thethe rightright toto obtain

obtain redress.redress. InIn India,India, wewe havehave aa redress machineryredress machinery calledcalled ConsumerConsumer CourtsCourts constituted

constituted underunder thethe ConsumerConsumer Protection ActProtection Act (1986),(1986), functioning functioning  atat nationalnational state

state andand districtdistrict levels.levels. ButBut itit hashas notnot been madebeen made completecomplete useuse ofof underunder due

due toto lacklack ofof awarenessawareness ofof basicbasic consumerconsumer rights among rights among  consumersconsumers themselves.

themselves.  While

 While inin thethe developeddeveloped world,world, rightright toto redressredress isis perhapsperhaps thethe mostmost commonly

commonly exercised

exercised consumerconsumer right,right, inin developing developing  countries,countries, consumersconsumers areare stillstill warywary of getting 

of getting  involvedinvolved inin legallegal redressredress system.system. ThereThere areare consumerconsumer courtscourts inin IndiaIndia where any

where any consumerconsumer cancan lodgelodge aa casecase ifif s/hes/he thinksthinks hehe oror sheshe hashas beenbeen cheated.

cheated. The detailsThe details ofof howhow toto lodgelodge aa complaintcomplaint havehave beenbeen explainedexplained elsewhereelsewhere in

in thethe manual.manual.

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Consumer

Consumer educationeducation empowersempowers consumersconsumers toto exerciseexercise theirtheir consumerconsumer rights.rights. ItIt is perhaps

is perhaps thethe singlesingle mostmost powerfulpowerful tooltool thatthat cancan taketake consumersconsumers fromfrom theirtheir present disadvantageous

present disadvantageous positionposition toto oneone ofof strengthstrength inin thethe marketplace.marketplace. Consumer education

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hands-on hands-on andand

16 16

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practical

practical experience.experience. ForFor instance,instance, aa womanwoman whowho makesmakes purchasepurchase decisionsdecisions forfor the household

the household andand doesdoes thethe actualactual buying buying  inin thethe marketplacemarketplace wouldwould bebe moremore educated about

educated about marketmarket conditionsconditions andand ‘best‘best buys'buys' thanthan aa personperson whowho educateseducates himself

himself about theabout the marketmarket withwith thethe helphelp ofof newspapersnewspapers oror television.television. Also,Also, today,today, it

it isis notnot justjust the marketthe market oror productsproducts thatthat aa consumerconsumer needsneeds toto educateeducate himhim about

about butbut s/hes/he also needsalso needs toto knowknow aboutabout companycompany profile,profile, governmentgovernment policies

policies andand introductionintroduction of newof new technology.technology. Market

Market influencesinfluences havehave growngrown soso muchmuch that,that, notnot justjust wholesalewholesale andand retail sellers

retail sellers butbut eveneven medicalmedical practitionerspractitioners areare falling falling  preyprey toto theirtheir pressures.

pressures. The pharmaceuticalThe pharmaceutical industryindustry isis oneone suchsuch example.example. India,India, withwith itsits 11 billion

billion population andpopulation and largelylargely uneducateduneducated consumers,consumers, isis aa veryvery lucrativelucrative market

market forfor thisthis iinndduussttrryy. . TThhee phphaarrmmaacceeuuttiiccaall iinndduussttrryy,, ttoo b

boooosstt iittss ssaalleess,, ooffffeerrss ffrreeee ssaammpplleess ooff medicines,

medicines, freebies,freebies, andand eveneven freefree luxuryluxury holidaysholidays toto physiciansphysicians toto influenceinfluence them

them to

to useuse theirtheir brandsbrands andand givegive themthem preferencepreference overover otherother brandbrand names.names. ThereThere havehave been

been manymany instancesinstances whenwhen drugsdrugs bannedbanned inin countriescountries likelike US,US, havehave been prescribed

been prescribed toto IndianIndian consumersconsumers andand areare readilyreadily availableavailable asas over-the- over-the-counter drugs.

counter drugs. ItIt isis aa sadsad exampleexample ofof grossgross violationviolation ofof consumerconsumer trusttrust by

by medical practitioners.medical practitioners. ThisThis situationsituation isis rampantrampant notnot justjust inin ruralrural areasareas but

but alsoalso among educatedamong educated urbanurban consumers.consumers. TheThe reasonreason whywhy thethe market,market, inin connivance

connivance with physicians,with physicians, isis ableable toto exploitexploit consumersconsumers isis thatthat IndianIndian consumers

consumers areare notnot awareaware of theof the prevailing prevailing  situationsituation andand dodo notnot keepkeep themselves

themselves abreastabreast withwith latest developmentslatest developments taking taking  placeplace aroundaround them.them. Consumer

Consumer educationeducation cancan playplay aa crucial rolecrucial role inin protecting protecting  consumersconsumers againstagainst such

such dangers.dangers. In

In thethe IndianIndian context,context, sustainabilitysustainability andand traditionaltraditional knowledgeknowledge cancan playplay aa

vital

vital rolerole inin empowering empowering  consumersconsumers butbut consumersconsumers areare unableunable toto connectconnect toto their knowledge

their knowledge base.base. ConsumerConsumer education caneducation can rejoinrejoin thethe brokenbroken linklink and

and make traditionalmake traditional knowledgeknowledge accessibleaccessible toto consumersconsumers again.again. SomeSome sources

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information

information disseminationdissemination byby

17 17

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government

government agenciesagencies andand NGOs,NGOs, classroomclassroom teaching teaching  byby teachersteachers andand informalinformal lessons

lessons byby parents.parents.

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The

The ConsumerConsumer ProductionProduction ActAct providesprovides forfor aa threethree tiertier systemsystem ofof redressalredressal agencies:

agencies: (1)

(1) DistrictDistrict levellevel knownknown asas DistrictDistrict Forum,Forum, (2)

(2) StateState levellevel knownknown asas 'State'State Commission',Commission', andand (3)

(3) NationalNational levellevel knownknown asas 'National'National Commission'.Commission'. A

A complaintcomplaint isis toto bebe mademade toto thethe districtdistrict forumforum ofof thethe concernedconcerned districtdistrict wherewhere thethe value

value ofof goodsgoods andand servicesservices andand compensation,compensation, ifif any,any, isis upup toto RsRs 2020 lakhs.lakhs.

A

A complaintcomplaint isis toto bebe mademade toto thethe 'State'State Commission'Commission' betweenbetween RsRs 2020 lakhslakhs andand RsRs 100

100 lakhs.lakhs.

A

A complaintcomplaint isis toto bebe mademade toto thethe NationalNational CommissionCommission forfor moremore thanthan RsRs 100100 lakhs.lakhs.

Interestingly,

Interestingly, therethere isis provisionprovision forfor appealsappeals againstagainst thethe ordersorders ofof aa particularparticular redessal

redessal forumforum byby thethe aggrievedaggrieved partyparty beforebefore thethe nextnext higherhigher echelonechelon andand eveneven from

from thethe findingsfindings ofof thethe NationalNational CommissionCommission beforebefore thethe SupremeSupreme Court.Court.

C

COONNSSUUMMEERR DDIISSPPUUTTEESSRREEDDRREESSSSALAL AAGGENENCCIIEESS

1)

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Commpopossiittiioonnooff ttheheDDiissttrriiccttFFoorruum.m. —

1.

1. EachEach DistrictDistrict ForumForum shallshall consistconsist of,—of,— (a)

(a) PPrreessiiddeenntt:: aa personperson whowho is,is, oror hashas been,been, oror isis qualifiedqualified toto bebe aa DistrictDistrict  Judge, Judge,

who

who shallshall bebe itsits President;President;

((bb)) M M eemmbbeerr:: twotwo otherother members,members, oneone ofof whomwhom shallshall bebe aa woman,woman, whowho shallshall havehave the

the following following qualifications,qualifications, namely:—namely:—

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((ii)) bbee notnot lessless thanthan thirty-fivethirty-five yearsyears ofof age,age, (ii)

(ii) PossessPossess aa bachelor'sbachelor's degreedegree fromfrom aa recognizedrecognized university,university, (iii)

(iii) bebe personspersons ofof ability,ability, integrityintegrity andand standing,standing, andand havehave adequateadequate knowledge and

knowledge and experienceexperience ofof atat leastleast tenten yearsyears inin dealing dealing  withwith

p

prroobblleemmss rreellaattiinn ttoo eeccoonnoommiiccss,, llaaww,, ccoommmmeerrccee,,

aaccccoouunnttaannccyy,, iinndduussttrryy,, ppuubblliicc aaffffaaiirrss oorr administration:

administration: Every

Every appointmentappointment underunder sub-sectionsub-section (I)(I) shallshall bebe mademade byby thethe StateState GovernmentGovernment on

on thethe recommendationrecommendation ofof aa selectionselection committeecommittee consisting consisting  ofof thethe following,following, namely:—

namely:— (i)

(i) TheThe PresidentPresident ofof thethe StateState CCoommmmiissssiioonn —— Chairman.Chairman. (ii)

(ii) Secretary,Secretary, LawLaw DepartmentDepartment ofof thethe SSttaattee —— Member.Member. (iii)

(iii) SecretarySecretary inin chargecharge ofof thethe DepartmentDepartment dealing dealing withwith Consumer

Consumer affairsaffairs inin thethe SSttaattee —— Member.Member.

2.

2. EveryEvery membermember ofof thethe DistrictDistrict ForumForum shallshall holdhold officeoffice forfor aa termterm ofof fivefive yearsyears oror up

up toto thethe ageage ofof sixty-fivesixty-five years,years, whicheverwhichever isis earlier:earlier:

 J

 Juurriissddiiccttiioonn ooff ttheheDDiissttrriiccttFFoorruum.—m.—

1.

1. MMoonenettaarry: Districty: District ForumForum shallshall havehave jurisdictionjurisdiction toto entertainentertain complaintscomplaints wherewhere

the

the valuevalue ofof thethe goodsgoods oror servicesservices andand thethe compensation,compensation, ifif any,any, claimedclaimed ''does''does not

not exceedexceed rupeesrupees ttwwenenttyyllaakkhhss.. 2.

2. TTeerrrriittoorriiaall:: AA complaintcomplaint shallshall bebe institutedinstituted inin aa DistrictDistrict ForumForum withinwithin thethe locallocal limits

limits ofof whosewhose jurisdiction,—jurisdiction,—

aa )) TheThe oppositeopposite partyparty oror eacheach ofof thethe oppositeopposite partiesparties ,actually ,actually andand voluntarilyvoluntarily resides

resides b

b)) AnyAny ofof thethe oppositeopposite parties,parties, wherewhere therethere areare moremore thanthan one,one, atat thethe timetime ofof the institution

the institution ofof thethe complaint,complaint, actuallyactually andand voluntarilyvoluntarily resides,inresides,in suchsuch cases, either

cases, either thethe permissionpermission ofof thethe DistrictDistrict ForumForum isis givengiven oror thethe consent

consent ofof the oppositethe opposite partyparty isis necessary.necessary. c)

c) IfIf thethe disputedispute isis pending pending thethe civilcivil court,thecourt,the consumerconsumer forumforum hashas nono jurisdictionjurisdiction to

to entertainentertain thethe same.same.

22 22

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :