The Encyclopedia of Gardening 1000114152

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THE

ENCYCLOP/EDIA

OF

GARDENING.

A DICTIONARY OF

CULTIVATED

PLANTS,

ETC.,,

GIVING IN

ALPHABETICAL

SEQUENCE

THE

CULTURE

AND

PROPAGATION

OF HARDY

AND

HALF-HARDY

PLANTS,

TREES

ANI"

SHRUBS,

ORCHIDS,

FERNS,

FRUIT,

VEGE-

TABLES,

HOTHOUSE

AND

GREENHOUSE

PLANTS,

Etc.,

INCLUDING

THEIR

SPECIFIC

"AND COMMON

NAMES.

BY

|ANDERS,

F.L.S..

F.R.H.S.

(Knight 0/ Pip6t Glass 0/the Royal Ordee of Wasa, Sweden),

Editor of "Amateur

Gardening"

and

"

Farm

and

Garden'

;

Author

of "The

Alphabet

of

Gardening,"

"Amateur's

Greenhouse."

"Vegetables

and their

Cultivation,"

"The

Flower

Cardan,"

Etc.

THIRTEENTH EDITION.

LONDON

:

W.

H.

"

L.

COLLINGRIDGE,

(8)

W. H. " L. COLLINGBIDGE, Printers, Aldersgate Street. London, E.C.

(9)

FOREWORDS

Ix

issuing

this,

a

thoroughly

revised edition of a work

which

has

previously passed

through

twelve

editions,

and

thus

abundantly

testified its value as a work of reference

on the culture of all the genera of

trees,

shrubs,

orchids,

ferns,

hardy plants,

hothouse and

greenhouse

plants,

and

vegetables worthy

of

a

place

in British

gardens,

the

Author desires to express his

gratitude

to the

many

persons who

have

written to him from time to time tc

point

out errors or

omissions

in

past

editions,

and to

saj-that he trusts every

purchaser

of

this

volume

will

find it

an

acceptable,

useful and

valued

guide

to the

successful

cultivation

of

plants

grown in their

gardens

and green-houses.

The

Author

begs

to

refer

the Reader to the latter

portion

of

his

introductory

remarks for information as

to the

general

features

of the work and the

improve-

ments

made

therein.

It is

only

needful to add here that the

Reader

wiU find

the

Anithor's "

Alphabet

of Garden-ing

"

an

excellent

companion

to the

present

volume. Therein he will find the

subjects

of

plant

life,

soils,

manures,

propagation,

pruning,

planting,

training,

and rotation of

crops

fully

dealt

with,

and in

all

cases

freely

illustrated

with

diagrams.

Furnished

with

these two

volumes,

the reader

will, indeed,

possess a

concise

library

on all

that

pertains

to the

growth

of

vegetation adapted

for

the

adornment of

garden

and

greenhouse

and

for

use

as

food,

at a

comparatively

small cost.

(10)
(11)

"^ "^

^

"8"

"#*"

"^

INTRODUCTION.

The

art

and

craft

of

gardening

is

unquestionably

the

oldest

of

all human

occupations.Holy

Writ

tells

us

that

when

the

Great

Architect

of the

universe

created

Adam,

the

progenitor

of

our race,

He

placed

him

in that

delightful

earthlyparadise,

the

Garden

of

Eden,

to

dress

and

to

keep

it.

We,

therefore,

who

have

adopted

the noble

profession

as a means of

existence

have

every

reason to feel

justly

proud

of

belonging

to so

ancient

and

honourable

a

craft,

while

those

who

have

adopted

other

professions,

and

who

practise

the

art

and

craft

as a

recreative

pursuit,

cannot but

share

a

similarly

grateful

appreciation

of

its virtues.

PRIMEVAL GARDENERS AND GARDENS.

In

the

long

vista

of

time

that

has

passed

since

the

first

grand

old

gardener practised

the

art,

first for

pleasure,

and

afterwards

as a means

of

subsistence,

gardening

has

never

failed

to

have

a

magic

fascination

for

rich. and

poor of all

ages.

Noah,

we are

told,

experienceddelight

in

cultivating

the

vine

;

Jacob

in

growing

the

vine,

fig,

and

almond

;

Solomon

in

making gardens,

orchards,

and

vineyards

;

and

the

ancient

Egyptians,Assyrians,

Chinese, Greeks,

and

Romans,

in the

fashioning

of

gardens,

or

the

cultivation

of fruits

and

vege-tables.

In

fact,

throughout

all ages and

all

time,

the

noble

art

and

craft

has

ever

been

a

popular

and

fascinating

pur-suit.

King

Solomon

must

have

been

an

enthusiastic

amateur

gardener,

since he

tells

us

in Ecclesiastes

that,

"

I

planted

me

vineyards

:

I

ma^e

me

gardens

and

orchards,

and

I

planted

trees in

them

of

all kind

of fruits

:

I made

me

pools

of

water,

to water

therewith

the

wood

that

bringeth

forth

trees."

The

gardens

of

that

period

were

enclosed

by

walls

(12)

INTROVUCTWX.

beasts,

and

the

crops grown

therein

were

the

vine,

fig,

pome-

granate,,

walnut,

a^ond,

medlar,

and

quince

;

lettuce,endive,

cucumbers,

onionsi

leeks,

garlic,

and

meilons;

and

roses,

galore.

In

the

hot,

dry

climate of

Palestine

watering

was.

an

indispensable

operation,

and

hence

reservoirs

and

con-duits

for

irrigating

the land

had

always

to be

provided.

In ancient

Persia

and

Assyria gardens

were

fashioned

and

maintained

on an

elaborate

style

in the

neighbourhood

of all

great

cities.

Not

only

were

all the

choicest

of

the

native

flora

utilised in

their

adornment,

but

others

obtained

fron"

far-off

climes.

The

famous

Hanging

Gardens

of

Babyloa

were

the wonder

of

the

then

civilised world.

These

consisted

of no

less than

twenty plateaux,

rising

one

above

the

other,

and

resting

on

walls

22ft. in

thickness,

and

each

planted

with

trees or other

vegetation,

kept

in

constant

growth

by

artificial

watering.

In

Egypt,

too,

gardens

were

elaborately

fashioned,

sculpture

and

masonry

enteringlargely

into

their

formation

and

decoration.

In

these

they

grew

every

kind of

fruit,

vegetables,

and

flowers,

all of

which

had

to be

unceasingly

watered

by

irrigation

from

the

Nile,

or

by

the

hand

of th"

slave.

MEDIEVAL

GARDENING.

The

Grecians

also were

famous

gardeners.

They

seem

to-have

taken

special

delight

in

having

fine

expanses of

beautiful

greensward,

studded with

statuary

and

pavilions,

and fur-nished

with

shady

groves.

Fruit

trees were

lavishly

culti-vated,

and

lilies,

narcissi,

and

roses grown in

profusion

Id

these

gardens.

Not

less

magnificent

and

less

regal

in

splen-

dour

were

the

Roman

gardens.

The

Romans,

indeed,

were-keen

gardeners,

and

grew

many of

the

popular vegetables

of

the

present

day

with

great

success.

Moreover,

they fully

understood

the

art

of

manuring

and

forcing,

and

may

be

said

to

have

brought

the

arts of

horticulture

and

agriculture

to-their

highest

perfection

at

that

period

of

the

world's

history.

In

China, Mexico,

and in

India,

too,

gardening

was a

popular

pastime

with

rich

and poor

long

before

the

Christian

era.

So

far

as our own

country

is

concerned,

there

is little doubt

that

we owe

the

early

introduction

of

horticulture,

and

its

sister

art

agriculture,

to

the Romans.

When

they

had

finally

subjugated

the

ancient

Britons,

and

peace

prevailed,

history

tells

us

that

the

Roman

settlers

planted

vineyards

and

orchards

of

apples,

pears,

figs,

mulberries,

etc.,

as well a? grew corn, not

only

for home

use,

but

also

for

exportation.

(13)

INTRODUCTION,.

4^

In

the

twelfth

century

it is recorded

that

vineyards

flourished

in

the

vale of

Gloucester,

apple

orclyftrds

were

plentiful

in,

the

fertile

county

of

"Worcester,

marfcet

gardens

existed

at

Fulham,

and

that

gardens

.

attached

to

the

homes

of

th"

baron,

yeoman,,

and

hind

wer.e

fairly

common'

throughout

England.

But

these

gardens

were not

of the

neat

and

sym-

metrical

order

of

those,

of

the

present

day.

They

were,

simple:

patches

or

enclosures

within

walls,

planted

with

fruits,

vege-tables,

and

herbs.

The

monks

of the Middle

Ages

were

great,

gardeners.

Their

superior

education, peaceful

calling,

and.

general

habits

fitted them

to

undertake

the

culture

of pro-duce

in

the-cmtilage

of

their

monasteries.

Moreover,

they^

were

in

the

habit

of

travelling

a-

great deal,

and

had

the-,

opportunity

of

securing

new or

improved

forms

of

produce

to..

cultivate

in

their

gardens.

" -

-.

GENESIS

OF ENGLISH

GARDENING.

It was

in the

reign

of Edward

III.

that

the

art of

gardening,

began

to be

seriously

taken

in

hand.

Britons

then

began

to"

lay

out

their

gardens

on a inore

ornamental

plan

than

before,,

and

to

cultivate

plants

for

use

and

medicine

more

extensively..

The

first,

book

on

gardening,

entitled

" De

Yconomia

de-Housbrandia,"

by

Walter

de

Henley, appeared

in

the

16th

.

century,

and

others

soon

followed,

including

the

quaint

Thomas

Tusser,

who

detailed

the

work of

the

garden

and'

farm

in

pleasingrhyme.

In

Henry

VIII. 's

reign

the

gardens

o"'

Nonsuch,

and

Hampton

Court

were

laid

out

with

regal

splen-

dour,

and

in

Queen

Bess's

time the

potato,

tobacco,

tea,

and ai

number

of

other

useful

or

ornamental

plants

and

trees

were-introduced

from

foreign

climes

to

enrich

the

gardens

of

the-period.

Evelyn,

then

a.

great

writer

and

traveller,

did

a

great

deal

to

popularise

and

extend

the

art of

gardening

y

and

Gerard,

the

famous

surgeon

and

botanist,

published

his-esteemed

Herbal,

a

work

still

highly

valued

at

the

present-day.

John

Parkinson

later

on

published

his

"

Paradisi

in-

sole

Paradisus

terestris,"

a

valuable

work,

which

gave

great-impetus

to

furthering

the

art

of

gardening

at

the

time.

In

the

eighteenth

century

marvellous

strides

were

made

in"

the

progress

of

gardening.

People

of,

wealth

began

to

lay

out

gardens

oh; a-

mag-nificent

scale,

form

parks,

and

plant

trees

for

ornament "

and

use.

Botanic

gardens

were

formed

.

at

Chelsea,

Cambridge,

and

Kew,

and

greenhouses glazed'

(14)

INTRODUCTION.

practical

use at

that

period.

The

professional

gardener

of

the

18th

century

was,

however,

woefullylacking

in

skill and

intelligence.

He

could

cultivate

ordinary

crops,

but

failed

to possess

the

art or

initiative

of

growing

the

choicer

vege-

tables

and

fruit,

hence

these

had to be

imported

from

Holland

and

Flanders.

Later,

he

seems to

have

improved,

and

to

have

been able to

understand

the

art

of

securing

early

crops

and

ensuring

successional

supplies.

GARDENING

IN THE LAST CENTURY.

It was

in the

last

century

that

gardening

in all its

phases

made

the

most

rapid

strides,

thanks

to

the

efforts of

such

eminent

experts

as

Thomas

Andrew

Knight,

who

did

so

much

in

the

improvement

of

the

varieties

of our

hardy

fruits;

John

Claudius

Loudon,

in

the

designing

and

planting

of

gardens

and

in the

publication

of

his

remarkable

Encyclo-

paedia

of

Gardening,

and

Trees

and

Shrubs,

etc.

,

both

works

showing

a

unique

mental

capacity

and

an amount of per-sonal

industry

unequalled

to

the

present time;

Sir

Joseph

Paxton,

the talented

gardener

and

designer

of

the

gardens

of

Chatsworth

and

the

Crystal

Palace;

Charles

Darwin,

who

rendered

immeasurable

service

to

botany

and

the

improve-

ment

of

plantsby

his researches

and

studies

as to

the

origin

of

species;

Dr.

Lindley,

who

did

so

much

for us in

regard

to

plant

physiology

and

botany

;

and

Dr.

Maxwell

Masters,

in

regard

to

coniferse

"

all

men

of noble

character,

high

ideals,

and

the widest

scientific

and

practical

attainments,

who

have,

alas I

gone

to

their

well-earned

rest,

and

left

behind

them

records

of

greatness

that

will

never

die

out so

long

as

horti-

culture

exists.

It

would,

indeed,

be

an

impossible

task

to

mention

even a

tithe

of

those,

living

or

dead,

who

have,

during

the

past

"

century,

done

so

much

for

the

art

of

horticulture,

either

by

pen

or

deed.

The

long period

of

peace

which

we

have

enjoyed,

the

more

widely

diffused

education

which

has

pre-vailed,

the

immense

help

which

the

plethora

of

societies

has

rendered,

and

the

marvellous

increase

of

literature

on

the

subject,

have

all

been

conducive

to

extending

a

love

of

horti-

culture

far

and

wide

throughout

the

kingdom.

It may

truly

be

said

that

there

is

hardly

a

house

outside

our

congested

cities that

does

not

possess

a

garden,

and

even

in

towns

where

garden

space

does

not

exist,

the

love

of

(15)

ISTHOD

UGTION.

garden

on

the

roof,

or

to

grow

flowers

on

the

window-sill.

Commercially,

too,

gardening

has

made

rapid

strides

during

the

last

fifty

years.

Thousands

of

acres are

devoted

to

grow-

ing

produce

for

market,

and

hundreds

of

acres are

covered

"with

glass

houses

to

force

early

crops

to

feed

the

evei-increasing

population

of

this

country.

Commercial

horticul-

ture

is,indeed,

a

great

industry,

and

is

likely

to

become

still

more so

in

years

to come.

The

latest

new

phase

of

the

industry

"

the

intensive

system

of

growing

early

crops

in

frames,

as so

successfully

practised

in France

"

is

now

being

tried

in

this

country,

and

if it

should

prove

a

practical

and

financial

success,

we

shall

in

due

course see

this island

converted

into

a

colony

of

gardens.

TASTE

IN

GARDENING.

As

regards

taste

in

gardening,

a

wonderful

change

has

taken

place

in

this

respect

during

the

last

half

century.

Our

own

memories

carry

us

back

to

forty

years

ago,

and

since

that

time

we

have

witnessed

a

remarkable

revolution,

not

only

in

the

fashioning

of

gardens,

but

in

the

manner

of

planting,

and

the

kinds

of

plants

grown.

For

example,

our

earliest

experience

of flower

gardening

was

the

strictly

geometrical

in

design,

and

the

planting

of

beds

in

a

similarly

rigid

fashion

"

^known

as

carpet

bedding.

In

those

days

the

flaring

zonal,

and

the

tricolored,

bronze,

golden,

and

silver-leaved

pelargonium,

the

gaudy yellow

calceolaria,

and

pyre-thrum,

and

the

brilliant

blue

lobelia,

were

the

favoured

plants

for

bedding,

and

hardy

herbaceous

plants

and

annuals

were

regarded

as

but

of

secondaryimportance.

Every

young

gardener

in

those

days

regarded

a

knowledge

of

geometry

as one

of the

essential

accomplishments

of

his

training,

and

many

an

hour

was

spent

in

devising

intricate

designs

of

a

mosaic

character

for

planting

the beds

the

next

season.

Plants

with

beautiful

or

richly-coloured

foliage

were

much

in

demand

for

filling

in the

designs,

and

no amount

of labour

and

expense

was

incurred

in

endeavouring

to

produce

elaborate

and

ornate

designs

in the

way

of

carpet

or

mosaic

bedding.

This

style

soon

satiated

the

palate

of

the

wealthy,

and

then

followed

the

even more

costly

rage

of

subtropical

bedding,

plants

of noble

stature,

richly-ooloured

foliage,

or

exquisite

blossoms

from

tropical

climes,

being

used

extensively

for

decorating

the

flower

garden.

Eventually

an

apostle

of Nature

came

upon

(16)

INTRODUCTION.

to see

that

every

subject

was

presented

in

alphabetical

sequence,

or as

fully

as we

should

otherwise

have

done.

However,

a

strong request

was

made

by

readers

for

the

publica-

tion

of

the

text

in

volume

form,

and

we

acceded

to

it,

not

without

misgivings

that

it

was as

perfect

as we

could

wish.

Edition

after

edition

being

called

for,

the

necessity

eventually

arose

for

the

entire

work

to

be

reset

in

new

type,

and

then,

with

the

full

concurrence

of

the

publishers,

we

decided

to

undertake

the laborious

task

of

thoroughly

revising

the details

and

nomenclature,

and

remedying

the

one

weak

point

in the

volume,

namely, adding

lists

of the

species

belonging

to

each

genus.

This

work

we

have

happily

finished,

and

we are

sufficiently

self-conscious

to

believe that

the work

in

its

present

form

will

be

considered

as

perfect

as

human

foresight,

diligence,

and

care

could

possibly

expect.

We

do

not

go

so

far

as to

say

it is

absolutely

free

from

error.

Anyone

who

has

had

any

experience

in the

compilation

of

a

dictionary

"

and

there

are

very

few, indeed,

who

have

"

^knows

full well

the

immense

difficulties that

have

to

be

encountered

in

collecting

and

arranging

the

data,

and

in

the

subsequent

reading

of

the

proofs.

Still,

the task

has

been

a

pleasant

one, as

the Author

knows

from

past

experience

that

his

efforts will

be

appre-

ciated

heartily

by

thousands

.of enthusiastic

amateur

gar-

deners,

not

only

in Great

Britain,

but

beyond

the

seas.

It will

be

well,

perhaps,

to

give

a

general

idea

of

the

improvements

that

have

been

made

in

the

present

volume.

First

of

all,

we

have

broken

up

the

somewhat

solid

nature

of the

text

which

existed

in

previous

editions

by

dividing

the

subject

into

several

paragraphs,

so as to

make

each

cultural

feature

distinct.

Secondly,

we

have

added

considerably

to

the cultural

data,

giving,

in the

case

of

vegetables

and

fruit,

more

especially,

the

main

points

about

the

market

culture

of

these

crops.

Thirdly,

we

have

added

the

species

and

hybrids

in

general

cultivation

with

their

respective

colours,

time

of

flowering,

height,

and

native

countries,

these

being

classified

as

hardy,half-hardy,

annuals, biennials,

perennials,

trees

and

shrubs,

green-house

or

hot-house

plants,

so

that

the

reader

may

perceive

at a

glance

the

sections under

which

a

species

is classified.

Fourthly,

we

have

thoroughly

revised

the

nomenclature

of

the

genera,

so as to

bring

them

up-to-date.

Thus,

modern

botanists

now

class

the

azaleas

with

(17)

rho-INTRODUCTION.

danthes

with

the

helipterums,

and so on.

This

arrangement

we

have

followed,

so

far

as

placing

the

species

and

cultural

details

are

concerned.

By

means of cross

references,however,

we

have

placed

the

old

familiar

names

in

their

proper

sequence,

so

that

the

reader

can

easily

get

a

clue

to

the

facts

he

requires. Fifthly,

cultural

details

are

given

under

the

generic

name

only,

as

the

apple

and

pear

under

Pyrus;

the

plum

and

cherry

under

Prunus;

the

cabbage,

broccoli,

etc.,

under

Brassica;

carrot

under

Daucus;

auricula

t'.nd

poly-

anthus

under

Primula,

and

so on.

Lastly,

we

have

included

in

alphabetical

order

all

the

common names

in

general

use.

As

regards

the

genera

included

in the

present

volume,

they

are

those

in

general

cultivation

in

gardens.

Those

only

of

botanical

interest,

or

little

grown,

are

excluded,

because

we are

desirous,

in

conjunction

with

the

publishers,

that

the

volume

shall

be

issued

at a

price

within

the

means of

all

classes

of

amateur

gardeners.

It

has

been

suggested by

many

readers

that

we

should

give

the

pronunciation

of

the

generic

and

specific

names

included

in the

work.

We

certainly

did

entertain

the

idea,

but

eventually

found

the

task

an

insuperable

one.

Authorities

vary

so

much

in

their

ideas

as to

the

correct

pronunciation,

that

had

we

attempted

the

task,

even

with

the

aid

of a

good

friend

and

a

distinguished

classical

scholar,

we

should

have

laid

ourselves

open to severe

criticism.

Besides,

the

expense

involved

in

setting-

up

the

accentuations

would

have

pre-

vented

the^work

being

issued

at a

popular price.

A LAST WORD TO THE READER.

Now

we

close

this

introduction,

embracing

a

brief,

general

survey

of the

progress

of

gardening

from

the

earliest

to

the

present

period,

and

of

the

general

features

of

the

volume,

with

a

sincere

hope

that

the

busy

man,

who

requires

a

fund

of

information

in

a

small

compass,

will

find

this

work

"

^the

reflex of

fortyyears'practical

and

scientific

study

and

experi-

ence,

including

twenty-one

years' specialacquaintance

with

the

needs

of

amateur

gardeners

as

Editor

of

"

Amateur

Gar-

dening

"

" a

real

friend,

guide,

and

counsellor

in

all

that

appertains

to

the

culture

of

vegetation

in

the

garden

and

greenhouse.

(18)

Brevity is the soul of yf'A.^ Shakespeare. A short saying oft contains much wisdom.

" Sophocles. It is with words as with sunbeams ; the more they are

condensed ihe daeper they bum.

"

(19)

ENCYCLOPAEDIA

OF

GARDENING.

Aaron's Beard

(Hypericum

calyciuum).

" See

Hypericum.

Aaron's Rod (Verbascum

Thapsua).

" See Verbascum.

AbChasi^n

Hellebore

(Helleborua

abchasicus)."

See Helle-borua.

Abele Tree

(Populua

alba)."

See Populus.

Abelia. " Ord.

Caprifoliacese.

Half-hardy

flowering

ahrubs.

Evergreen and deciduoua. Firat introduced 1842.

CDLTtrRE : Compoat,

equal

parta peat, loam, sand. Poaition, warm,

sheltered walls outdoors. Plant,

April

or Oct. Prune

slightly

after

flowering.

Propagate

by

layers

in March, or

cuttings

of firm shoots

in cold frame in July.

GREENHOUSE CULTURE :

Compost,

equal

parts loam, peat,

leaf-mould " silver sand. Position, well-drained pota in

aunny, cold house.

Pot in Oct. Store in cold frame till Jan. Water moderately at first,

freely when in full growth. Give little water

during

winter. Prune

straggly

growths after

flowering.

Stand outdoors

during

summer.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. florfbunda,rosy-purple, March, 3 ft., Mexico;

Ohmensis (Syn. A. rupestris), pink, fragrai^t, Sept., 5 ft., China; triflora, white

and pink, Sept., 5 ft., Himalayas.

Abies

(Deal;

Silver

Fir).

" Ord. Couiferae.

Hardy

coniferous ever-green

trees. First introduced 1603.

CULTURE : Soil,

sandy

loam. Position,

high,

dry,

open from sea

coast. Plant, Oct. or

April.

A.

pectinata

(Common Silver Fir or Deal

Tree), a

good

species

to

plant

in mixed woods as shelter for game.

Timber valuable for

joists,

rafters, and floor boards. Tree grows

rapidly

after first few years. Propagate by seeds sown |^in. deep in

sandy loam in a temp. 55", March, or outdoors in

April.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. amabilis (Ked Fir), 100 to 150 ft.,British Columbia;

balsamea (Balsam Fir), 70 to 80 ft., N. America; brachyphylla, 120 ft., Japan;

braoteata, 150 to 200 ft., California; cephalonlca, 80 to 100 ft., G-reece; concolor,

100 to 150 ft., California; flrma, 100 ft., Japan; Fraseri, 60 to 80 ft., Carolina;

g^randis, 200 ft., California; lowiana (Low's Silver Fir), 300 ft.,Carolina ; magnifica,

200 ft., N. California; Mariesi, 90 to 100 ft., Japan; nobilis, 200 ft., California;

nordmanniana (Nordman's Fir), 80 to 100 ft., Caucasus; pectinata, 80 to 100 ft.,

S. Europe; Finsapo, 60 to 80ft., Spain; religiosa, 60 to 70 ft., Mexico;

sachalin-ense, 130 ft., Isle of Saohalin; Teitchi, 120 to 140 ft., Japan; webbiana, SO to

90 ft., Himalayas. See also Picea.

Abobra (Scarlet-fruited)." Ord. Cucurbitaceae.

Half-hardy

climb-ing,

tuberous-rooted

perennial.

Deciduous. Fruit,

egg-shaped,

scar-let;

Sept. " Oct.

CULTURE : Soil, sandy. Position, south wall. Plant, June ; lift

tubers Oct. " store in frost-proof

place.

Propagate

by seeds sown in

leaf-mould, loam " sand, temp. 65", March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED : A. viridiflora,green, fragrant, summer, 6 ft.,S. America,

Abroma. " Ord. Sterculiacese.

Stove-flowering

plants.

Ever-green.

First introduced 1770.

CULTURE:

Compost,

equal

parts loam, peat, sand. Pot " prune,

(20)

enoyclopjEdia of oabdening.

March. Water freely in summer,

moderately

in winter.

Temp.,

March to

Sept.

70" to

80"; Sept.

to March 60" to 65".

Propagate

by

seeds

sown 1-16 in.

deep,

or

cuttings

of firm

shoots,

in fine

sandy

soil,

March,

temp.

65" to 75".

. ,

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. angusta, purple,Aug., 8 to 10 ft., Asia; orbioularlB,

purple, June.

Abronia

(Sand Verbena)."

Ord.

Nyctaginaceae.

Half-hardy

trail-ing

plants.

First introduced 1823. Flowers

fragrant.

CULTURE :

Soil,

sandy

loam.

Position,

exposed

rockery

or elevated

warm border.

Plant,

June.

Propagate

by

seeds sown 1-16 in.

deep

in

sandy

soil,temp.

55" to

65", March;

perennials

by cuttings

of young shoots in similar soil "

temp.

A.

umbellata,

good greenhouse plant.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. arenaria, lomon-yellow, July,9 to IS ins.; fragrans,

white, July, I to 2 It.; umbellata, rosy-pink,June and July, 6 to 18 in. Katiyes of California,

Abrus

(Paternoster;

Eosary

Pea; Crab's

Eyes;

Weather

Plant).

"

Ord.

Leguminosse.

Stove climber. Orn.

foliage.

Deciduous. First

introduced 16S0.

CULTUEE :

Compost,

two

parts

loam,

one

part peat

" sand. Pot "

prune March. Water

freely

spring

" summer,

moderately

in autumn " winter.

Temp.,

March to

Sept;.

TO" to 80^ ;

Sept.

to March 60" to 65".

Propagate

by

seeds sown \ in.

deep,

or

cuttings

of firm shoots in

sandy

loam, temp. 75" to

i-5",

Feb.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. preeatorius, pale purple. May, 9 to 12 ft.,E. Indies,

S"eda ficarlet and black.

Abutilon

(Indian

Mallow).

" Ord. Malvacete. Greenhouse ever-green

shrubs.

CULTUEE :

Compost,

two

parts

loam,

one

part

peat

" sand. Posi-tion,

sunny

greenhouse.

Pot " prune March.

Temp.,

March to

Sept.

55" to

65";

Sept.

to March 50 to 55". Water

freely

in

spring

" sum-mer,

moderately

in autumn " winter.

May

be used for

bedding

in

summer.

Propagate

by

seeds sown

J

in.

deep,

or

cuttings

in

light

rich

soil,

temp.

70", March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. aurantiacum, orange, spring and summer, 3 to 6 ft.,

Brazil; bedfordianuni, red and yellow, autumn, 3 to 6ft., Brazil; esculentum, yellow,

summer, 3 to 6 ft.,Brazil ; floritnndum, orange-red,summer, 5 ft.; graveolens,

orange-red, Asia; insigne,white and carmine, Jan., 5ft., Kew Granada; megapotamicum

(Syn.

vexiilarium),

yellow and scarlet,4 to 8ft.,summer, Brazil ; po^oniflorum,pink,

Jan., 5ft.,Brazil; pulchellum, white, May, 3 to 4ft., N.S.Wales; striatum,

orange-red,all year round, 6 to 10 ft.,Brazil ; sellovianum marmoratum, mottled foliage,

Brazil; Thompsoui, mottled leaves; yenosum, orange-red, July, 3 to 4 ft.;

viti-folium, white, July,Chili,nearly hardy. Popular varieties: Boule de Neige, white; Delicatum, rose; Louis Van Houtte, purple; Queen of Tellows, yellow.

Abyssinian

Banana

(Musa

ensete).

" See Musa.

Abyssinian

Primrose

(Primula

verticillata)."

See Primula. Acacallis. " Ord. Orchidacese. Stove

epiphytal

orchids. Cul-ture

and

propagation

as advised for

Agansia.

SPECIES CULTIVATED : A. oyanea, light bine, summer, 1 ft.,Brazil.

Acacia

(Wattle;

Gum;

Myrrh

trees).

" Ord.

Leguminosae.

Green-house

flowering

plants.

Evergreen.

First introduced 1656.

CULTUEE:

Compost,

equal

parts peat, loam,

sand. Pot " prune, Feb. or March. Water

freely

in

spring

" summer,

moderately

in

autumn " winter.

Temp.,

March to

Sept.

55" to

65";

Sept

to March

50" to 55".

Propagate

by

seeds sown

^in. deep,

or

cuttings

of firm

shoots, in

sandy peat,

well-drained

pots, temp.

75" to

85",

March.

SPECIES CUL'riVATED: A. armata, yellow, spring, 6 to 10 ft., Australia;

cordata, yellow, spring, 12 to 18 ins., Australia; dealbata

(Mimosa), yellow,

spring, 10 ft., Australia; Drummondii, yellow, April, 10 ft.,Australia; leprosa, yellow, April,C to 10 ft.,Australia; lougifolia angustifolia, yellow, March, 10

ft.|

(21)

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OAEDENING.

Australia; pubescens, yellow, April, 6 to 12 ft., Australia; pulchella, yellow, Marcli, 3 to 6 ft.,Australia; riceana, yellow. May, 20 ft., Tasmania; verticillata, yellow, March, 6 to 20 ft.,Australia. "e" also the genud Albizzia and Bobinia.

Acaena,

(New

Zealand

Bur).

" Ord. Eosacese.

Hardy

herbaceous

trailing

perennials. Evergreen.

First introduced 1828.

CULTUKE :

Soil,

sandy

loam.

Position, moist,

open, or

shady

rockery. Plant,

Oct. to

April. Propagate

by

seeds sown 1-16 in.

deep

in

March,

temp. Go";

cuttings

in cold frame in

Aug.

; division of roots

in

April

; all in

sandy

soil.

SPECIES CtTLTITATED : A. adsoendens, purple, summer, Patagonia;

micro-phylla, orimson spines. New Zealand; puloliella,bronzy foliage.New Zealand;

sericea,greenish,-Ohili ; splendens, hairy foliage.Chili.

Acalygsha

(Three-sided

Mercury;

Copper-leaf}."

Ord.

Euphor-biaceae. Stove

plants.

Orn.

foliage. Evergreen.

First introduced 1866.

Leaves,

orange,

red,

green, crimson.

CTJLTUEE :

Compost,

equal

parts

leaf-mould,peat,

loam,

sand. Pot

" prune, Feb. or March. Water

freely

in

spring

and summer,

moderately

in autumn " winter.

Temp.,

March to

Sept.

70" to

80";

Sept.

to March 60" to 65". Suitable for summer or

subtropical

bed-ding.

Propagate by cuttings

in

sandy

soil,

temp. 80",

Feb. or March.

SPECIES CTTLTITATED': A. hispida, 6 to 10 ft.. New Guinea; musaioa,

6 to 10 ft.,Polynesia; godsef"ana, 1 to 3 ft..New Guinea; wilkesiana, 3 to 4 ft.,

Fiji; tricolor (see wilkesiana); Sander! (see hispida).

Acantholimon

(PricklyThrift).

" Ord.

Plumbaginaceae. Hardy

perennials.

Evergreen.

First introduced 1851.

CULTURE ;

Soil,

sandy

loam.

Position,

sunny

rockery

or warm

border.

Plant,

Oct to

April. Propagate

by

layering

shoots in

Aug.,

similar to carnations ;

cuttings

in cold frame in

Sept.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. aceroseum, rose, July and Aug., 6 in.,Asia Minor; glumaceum, rose, July, 6 in.,Armenia; Kotschyi, white, July,Asia.

Acanthopanax.

" Ord. Araliaceae.

Hardy

ornamental-leaved

evergreen shrubs

formerly

included in the genus Aralia.

CULTUEE :

Soil,rich,

well drained loam.

Position,

warm, sheltered

shrubberies,

or corners of lawns. Plant in

Sept.

or

April.

Increased

by

seeds sown in heat in

spring

;

cuttings

of

ripened

shoots in autumn ;

suckers at any time.

SPECIES .CULTIVATED: A. rioinifolium (Syn. Aralia Maximowiozii), leaves

castor-oil like, elegant, Japan ; sessiliflorum, leaves wrinkled, large, Japan ;

spinosum (Syn. Aralia pentaphylla), elegant foliage, Japan; spinosum variegata,

leaves edged with creamy-white.

AcanthophCieniX

(Prickly

Date

Palm)."

Ord. Palraaceae. Stove

plants.

Orn.

foliage. Evergreen.

First introduced 1861.

CULTUEE :

Compost,

two

parts peat,

one

part

loam " sand.

Eepot,

Feb. Water

freely

in summer,

moderately

other times.

Temp.,

March to

Sept.

70''^

to 85" ;

Sept

to March 60" to 65".

Propagate by

seeds sown 1 in.

deep

in

light

soil,temp.

80",

Feb. or March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. crinita,6 to 10 ft.,Seychelles; rubra, 6 to 12 ft.,

Madagascar.

Acanthorhiza^ " Ord. Palmaceae. Stove

palms.

Orn.

foliage.

Evergreen.

First

introduced,

1864.

CULTUEE:

Compost,

two

parts

loam,

one

part

leaf-mould " sand.

Eepot,

Feb. Water

moderately

in summer, very little other times.

Temp.,

March to

Sept.

70" to

85";

Sept.

to March 60" to 65". Pro-pagate like

Acanthophoenix.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. aculeata. Central America.

Acanthus

(Bear's

Breech;

Bear's

Foot).

" Ord. Acauthacese.

Hardy

herbaceous

perennials.

Orn.

foliage.

Deciduous. First intro-duced

1548.

(22)

ENOrCLOFMDIA OF GABDENING.

CULTURE:

Soil,

sandy

loam.

Position,

warm sheltered border.

Plant,

Oct. to

April.

Propagate

by

seed sown

^

in.

deep

in

light

soil;

division of roots in Oct. or March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. longifolius,rosy-purple,June, 3 to i ft., Dalmatia;

candelabrum, purple, July, 3 ft.; hirsutus, rose, July, 2 to 3 ft.. Orient; mollis,

white, rose, lilac,3 to 4 ft., S. Europe; mollis latifolius, a superior Tariety;

spinosus, purplish, July,2 to 4 ft.,Levant; spinosus spinosissimum, rosy-flesh,July,

3 ft.,Dalmatia.

Acer

(Maple).

" Ord.

Sapindacese. Hardy

trees. Orn.

foliage.

De-ciduous.

OULTUKE :

SoO,

well-drained loam.

Position,

shrubberies or open

spaces ;

Japanese

kinds in warm borders or in

pots

in cool

greenhouse.

Plant,

Oct. to March.

Propagate

by

seeds sown

J

in.

deep

m sheltered

position

Oct.;

grafting

March;

budding

Aug.

for choice

Japanese

and

variegated

kinds;

layering

Oct.

USEFUL DATA : Common

Maple (Acer campestris)

will grow to an

altitude of 1,200 ft., and the

Sycamore

(Acer

pseudo-platanus)

to

1,500 ft. above sea level. Timber reaches

maturity

at 40 years of age.

Average

lifeof trees, 500 to 700 years. Timber of

Sycamore,

used for

making

pattern

moulds, stair

rails,

turnery,

etc. ; that of common

species

and

Sugar

or Bird's

Eye

Maple

(A. sacchariuum)

for cabinet

work.

Average

weight

of cubic foot of

Sycamore

wood,

41 lb.; number

of cubic feet in a ton. 54.

Average

weight

of cubic foot of

Maple

wood,

421b.;

number of cubic feet in a ton, 50.

Average

value of

Sycamore

wood

per

cubic

foot.

Is. to Is. 6d. ;

Maple,

Is. to Is. 9d. Number of seeds in a

pound,

5,000. Number of

Maple

seeds

required

to

plant

an acre of

ground,

14 lb. ;

Sycamore,

30 lb.

Sycamore

best tree for

hilly

exposed

positions.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. argutum, Japan; campestre (Common Maple),

Britain ; campestre variegatum, leaves white and yellow, Britain, 20 ft.;

oarpini-folium, 50 ft.,.Japan; oiroinatum, leaves scarlet in autumn, 5 to 6 ft,, N.W.

America; dasyoarpum, 40 ft.,N. America;

dasyoarpiuu

aureo-marginatum, leaves

mottled yellow; japonicum, 20 ft. Japan; japonicum aureum, golden leaved;

japonicum laciniatum, finelycut leaves; japondcum rufinerve albo-lineatum, leaves

edged creamy white; Negundo (Box Elder), 20 to 40 ft.,N. America; Negundo

crispum, curled leaves; Kegundo laciniatum, finelycut leaves; Kegundo

variega-tum, silveryleaves ; palmatum, 10 to 20 ft., Japan ; palmatum aureum, yellow and scarlet-tinted foliage; palmatum albo-marginatum, leaves edged with white ; pal-matum

atropurpureum, bronzy-purple leaves; palmatum rosea-marginatum, leaves

edged with rose;' palmatum septemlobum atropurpureum, purple foliage; palma-tum

septomlobum bicolor, leaves carmine tinted; palmatum septemlobum elegans,

leaves finelycut, red and bronze tinted; palmatum septemlobum fiavescens,leaves yellow tinted; palmatum disseotum ornatum, leaves fern-like and bronzy purple

tinted; palmatum disseotum roseo-marginatum, leaves tinted with rose and white;

platanoides (Norway Maple), 60 ft.,Europe; platanoides, aureo-variegatum, leaves

blotched with yellow; platanoides laciniatum, leaves finely cut; platanoides variegatum, leaves blotched with white; pseudo-platanus (Sycamore) 30 to 60 ft..

Central Europe ; psuedo-platanus, albo-variegatum, leaves green and white ; rubruni

(Scarlet Maple), 20 ft.,Canada, scarlet flowered; sacchariuum (Bird's Eye or Sugar Maple), 40 ft.,N. America.

Aceras

(Green-man

Orchis).

" Ord. Orchidacese.

Hardy

terres-trial

tuberous-rooted orchid. Deciduous. Nat. Britain.

CULTURE :

Soil,

chalky

loam.

Position,

open and

dry.

Plant,

Oct. to March.

Propagate

bv division of tubers Oct. or March

SPECIES CULTIVATED : A.

An'throphora,

green, June, 6 to 10 ins.

Achillea

(Milfoil;

Yarrow;

Sweet Maudlin'." Ord.

Compositie.

Hardy

herbaceous

perennials.

CULTURE :

Soil,

ordinary.

Position,

dwarf

species

on

rockery,

tall

ones in open borders. Plant Oct. to

April. Propagate by

seeds

sown

(23)
(24)

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GARDENING.

wards.

Syi'inge

daily,

April

to

Sept.

Shade from sun.

A^ply

weak

stimulants

occasionally;

May

to

Sept.

Prune,

Feb.,

shortening

strag-

gling

shoots

only.

Temp., April

to

Oct.,

60" to

70";

Oct. to

April

50"

to 55".

Propagate

by cuttings

inserted in

light

peaty

soil under

bell-glass

in

temp.

55",

spring

or summer.

SPECIES OtrLTIVATED : A. speotabilis(Syn.ToxioopWrea speotabilis),white,

fragrant, winter, 4 to 6 ft.,S. Africa.

Aconite

(Aconitum Napelhis).

" See Aconitum.

Aconitum

(Wolf's-bane; Monk's-hood).

" Ord. Eanunculacese.

Hardy

herbaceous

perennials.

Deciduous.

CULTUEE:

Soil,

ordinary.

Position,

partially

shaded borders.

Plant,

Oct. to March.

Propagate

by

seeds sown

J

in.

deep

in warm

position

outdoors

April,

or in boxes of

light

soil in cold frame in

March;

division of flesh roots Nov. or March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. album, white, Aug., 4 to 5 ft.,LeTant;

augusti-folium, blue, June, 2 to 3ft., Siberia; Anthora, yellow, July, 1 to 2 ft.,Pyrenees;

barbatum, yellow, July, 2 to 4 ft.,Siberia ; biflorum, blue, June, 6 in., Siberia :

Fortunel (Syn. obinense), blue, July to Sept.,4 to 6 ft.,China; eminens, blue, June,

2 to 4 ft., Europe; Fisoheri (Syn. antumnale), purple, July to Oct., Europe and

N. America; Halleri, violet, June, 4 to 6 ft.,Switzerland; japonicum, flesh, July

to Sept., 3 to 6 ft.,Japan; lycootonum, creamy yellow, July and Aug., 4 to 6 ft..

Europe; Napellus, blue, July to Sept.,3 to 4 ft., England; variegatum, blue and

white, July and Aug., 3 to 5 ft., Europe.

Acorus

(Sweet

Flag;

Myrtle

Grass).

" Ord. Araceae.

Hardy

aquatics.

Evergreen.

First introduced 1796. Leaves and roots

fragrant.

CULTUEE:

Soil,

muddy.

Position,

margins

of

ponds.

Plant,

March.

Propagate

by

division of roots March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. Calamus, 3 ft.,N. Hemisphere; Calamus variegatus,

leaves striped, golden yellow; gramineus, 2 ft., Japan; gramineus yariegatus,

leaves variegated.

Acroclineum. " See

Helipterum.

Acrophyllum.

" Ord.

Saxifragacese.

Greenhouse

flowering

shrub.

Evergreen.

First

introduced,

1838.

OULTUEE:

Compost,

equal

parts

peat

"

loam,

little sand. Pot

und prune, Feb. Water

freely spring

" summer,

moderately

other times.

Temp.,

March to

Sept.

55"" to

60";

Sept

to March 45" to 50".

Propagate

by

cuttings

of Arm shoots in

sandy

peat

under

bell-glass

in a cool house in summer.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. venosum, pink. May, 6 ft.,Australia.

AcrostiChum

(Elephant's Ear).

" Ord. Filices. Stove and

greenhouse

fern.

Evergreen.

First introduced 1793.

CULTUEE :

Compost,

equal

parts

peat, loam,

"

leaf-mould,

sand "

charcoal.

Pot,

Feb. or March. Water

freely

spring

" summer,

moderately

other times.

Temp.,

stove

species,

March,

to

Sept.

70" to

85",

Sept.

to March 60" to

65";

greenhouse species,

March to

Sept.

55" to

60",

Sept

to March 45" to 50".

Propagate by

division of roots

at

potting

time,

or

by

spores in

spring.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: (Stove kinds)" A. aonminatum, 1 to 2 ft., Braiil;

apiifolium,2 to 6 in., Philippine Inlands; appendiculatum, 6 to 13 in.; Aubertii,

1 ft., Natal, Guatemala, etc.; aureum, 1 to 2 ft.,Tropics; auritum, 1 to 2 tl..

Malaya; cervinum, 2 to 4 ft.,Tropical America; confornie, 6 in..Tropica; crini-tum

(Elephant's

Ear Fern),4 to 18 in..West Indies; deooratum, 1 ff.,W. Indies;

drynarioides, 1 to 2 ft.,Penang; flagelliferum,1 ft.,Tropica; Hermineri, 1 to 2 ft.

W. Indies; magnum, 1 to 2 ft.,British Guiana; muscosum, 6 to 12 in..

Tropica!

Amerioa; uicotiansefolium, 1 to 2 ft., Cuba; osmundaceum, 2 to 3 ft., Ecuador;

peltatum, 2 to 6 in., Tropical America; scandens, 1 to 3 ft.,China, Ceylon, eto. "

scolopendrifolium, 1 ft., Brazil; virens, 1 ft.. Tropical Asia; viscosum, G to

*12in*

(25)

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GARDENING.

GREENHOUSE SPECIES: A. blumeanum, 4 to 6 in.,Assam; oanalioulatum,

3 to 4 ft.,olimbing, Venezuela; Csenopteris,2 to 3 ft. climbing, Mexico.

Actaea

(Toad-root;Bane-berry;

Herb

Christopher).

" Ord.

Eanun-culacese.

Hardy

herbaceous

perennials.

Berries,

red, white,

or

black,

poisonous.

CULTURE:

Soil,

ordinary.

Position,

shady

border.

Plant,

Oct.

to March.

Propagate

by

seeds sown in

garden

April;

division of

roots March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. alba, wUte, May, 12 to 18 in., N. America;

spioata,white, May, 1 ft.,Britain ; spicata rubra, red, N. America.

Actinella,

(Pigmy

or Dwarf

Sunflower).

" . Ord.

Composita).

Hardy

herbaceous

perennial.

CULTURE :

Soil,

light sandy.

Position,

rockery

or open sunny

border.

Plant,

Oct to March.

Propagate by

division of roots in March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. grandiflora, yellow, summer, G in.. Rocky Moun-tains.

Actinidia. " Ord. Ternstroemiaceae.

Hardy

climbing

shrubs.

Deciduous.

CULTURE :

Soil,

light

rich loam.

Position,

south or south-west wall.

Plant,

Oct. to March.

Propagate

by

seeds sown in

pots

in cold frame

April; layering^

shoots in Nov.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. polygama, white, fragrant, sammer, tlapan;

Tolubilis,.white,,Tune, .Japan. A, polygama bears edible berries.

ActiniopteriSi

" Ord. Filices. Stove "

greenhouse

ferns.

Evergreen

.

CULTURE:

Compost, equal

parts

peat,

loam,

charcoal,

potsherds,

Sc

silver sand.

Pot,

F'eb.or Slarcn. Good

drainage

" clean

pots

essential.

Water

moderately

all seasons "

keep atmosphere

moist.

Temp.,

March

to

Sept.

70" to

80";

Sept.

to March 60" to 70" for A.

radiata;

and 60"

to 70" March to

Sept.,

and 55"

Sept.

to March for P. radiata australis.

Propagate

by

spores similar to Adiantum.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. radiata, 3 in., India, requires stOTe treatment;

radiata australis,6 in.,Hascarene Islands,greenhouse kind.

Actinomeris

(North

American Sunflower). " Ord.

Com.positae.

Hardy

herbaceous

perennial.

First introduced 1640.

CULTURE:

Soil,

ordinary.

Position,

open border.

Plant,

Oct. to

April.

Propagate

by

seeds sown

Jin.

deep

outdoors

April;

division

of roots March.

SPECIES CULTIVATED : A. sqnarrosa, yellow, July,3 ft.,N. America.

ActinotUS

(Flannel Flower).^

" Ord. UmbelliferiE. Greenhouse

or

half-hardy

herbaceous

perennial.

INDOOR CULTURE :

Compos-t,

equal parts

loam "

peat,

with a

liberal addition of silver sand.

Position,

sunny

part

of cool green-house.

Pot,

March or

April.

Water

freely

March to Oct. ;

moderately

afterwards.

Temp.,

March to

Sept.

55" to

65";

Sept.

to March 45"

to 55".

OUTDOOR CULTURE :

Soil,

ordinary. Position,

sunny. Sow seeds in

temp,

of 65" in March or

April.

Harden off

seedlings

gradually,

and

plant

out at the end of

May.

Propagate by

seeds sown in a

temp,

of 65 in

spring

; or

by

division at the roots at

potting

time.

SPECIES CULTIVATED: A. Helianthi, white, June, 2 ft.,Australia.

Ada.. " Ord. OrohidaceEB. Greenhouse orchid.

Evergreen.

First

introduced 1S63.

CULTURE :

Compost,

equal parts

peat

"

sphagnum

moss.

Position,

pots

in shade.

Repot

when new

growth

begins.

Water

freely

during

season of

growth,

moderately

afterwards.

Renting period,

none.

Figure

Updating...

References

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