stack up on tuna
Cans stacked from most
sustainable fishing practices (top)
to least sustainable (bottom)Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning organisation that acts to change attitudes and
behaviour, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace. For more information please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org March 2010
Out of Stock, out of excuses
How Australian supermarkets stack up on tuna sustainability
Global tuna stocks have been deci-mated since industrial fishing began in the 1950s1. Having fished tuna
stocks in other oceans to the point of serious decline or even collapse, countries are increasingly sending their fishing fleets to the Pacific to exploit the region’s stocks. The Greenpeace Canned Tuna Guide exposes the central role of supermarkets in the ocean crisis, which continue to sell us overfished tuna.
The guide helps consumers choose sustainable tuna and avoid brands that needlessly kill turtles and other marine animals with destructive fish-ing practices.
Out of Stock, out of excuses
Over half the world’s tuna comes from the Pacific. However, increasing demand for tuna, combined with illegal and wasteful fishing practices, is endangering our Pacific tuna stocks. Of the seven spe-cies of tuna in the Pacific, six are over-exploited. Stocks of Southern Bluefin Tuna have collapsed and Bigeye, Yellowfin and Albacore Tuna2 are overfished.
Skipjack Tuna is the only healthy tuna species remaining.
The problem is that all of these species continue to find their way onto supermarket shelves and into Australian homes - usually without consumer knowledge.
Destructive tuna fishing practices kill endangered sharks and turtles. They are also a threat to tuna populations because of the large catch of juveniles. Supermarkets must ensure that they do not source tuna that are caught with wasteful fishing methods.
Pirate fishing also continues to be rife and Pacific Island Countries are getting a raw deal from the lucrative tuna market.
Australian supermarkets have a key role to play in bringing an end to the overfishing crisis. They can help ease the crisis by correctly labelling tuna products to help consumers make an informed choice. Also by working with suppliers toward sustainable and equitable standards.
The good news is that there is an equitable avenue for supermarkets to buy tuna. Domestic pole and line tuna fisheries are being created in Pacific Island Countries. These are environmentally friendly and ensure that money and jobs remain in these developing coastal states.
If supermarkets want to continue selling tuna in the future, they need to remove overfished tuna from their shelves now.
1 Ransom A. Myers and Boris Worm 2003. Rapid Worldwide Depletion of Predatory Fish Communities,” Nature, vol. 423, 15 May 2003, pp. 280-83.
2 With the exception of Albacore Tuna from the South Pacific Hoyle S, Davies N (2009). Stock assessment of albacore tuna in the South Pacific. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) Scientific Committee, 5th Regular Session, 10-21 August 2009, Port Vila, Vanuatu. WCPFC-SC5-2009/SA-WP-6
Bycatch: canned tuna’s hidden catch
Fishing practices used by the tuna industry are contributing to the sharp decline of marine animal populations, including turtles, sharks and rays.
Destructive fishing methods
Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs)
The majority of canned tuna is caught using fish aggregating devices (FADs) with nets known as purse seines. FADs are floating or submerged objects that attract tuna to one area where they can be scooped up in huge nets. The nets – which can be as large as several city blocks – are laid in a circle around the FAD so that all marine animals inside are trapped and killed. The problem is that FADs attract not just the target tuna species – they also catch turtles, sharks and juvenile tuna. The world’s largest turtle, the critically endangered Leatherback, is caught this way. So are Green, Hawksbill, Loggerhead and Olive Ridely turtles3. More than three quarters of open ocean sharks
and rays are threatened with extinction as a result of these wasteful fishing practices4. On average,
every time a FAD is used, 10% of the fishing haul will be bycatch 5.
Juvenile tuna are also frequently found with FADs, which means they are removed before they have the chance to breed. One study showed that for every 1,000 tons of Yellowfin Tuna caught using FADs over three years, nearly 111,000 other individual animals are also killed 6.
FADs are also often lost or abandoned and can entangle and kill animals7. These ghost FADs
con-tinue to trap marine life, presenting an ongoing threat to their existence.
Longline fleets use fishing lines over 100km in length with up to 3,000 baited hooks. When tuna is caught using longlines, the bycatch rate as high as 35%8. Sharks, turtles and seabirds also take
the bait and get caught on the hooks. Around 250,000 Loggerhead Turtles and 60,000 Leather-back Turtles are caught on longlines each year as bycatch9.
This practice has resulted in the death of an estimated 1.4 million sharks annually in the world’s largest tuna fishery, the Western Central Pacific Ocean10.
3 Molony, B. 2005. Estimates of the mortality of non-target species with an initial focus on seabirds, turtles, and sharks. WCPFC-SC1 EB WP-1. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Nouemea, New Caledonia
4 Dulvy, Baum, Clarke, Compagno, Cortés, Domingo, Fordham, Fowler, Francis, Gibson, Martínez, Musick, Soldo, Stevens and Valenti: 2008. You can swim but you can’t hide: the global status and conservation of oceanic pelagic sharks and rays. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.
5 D. Bromhead et al, 2003. Review of the impact of fish aggregating devices (FADs) on tuna fisheries Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry..
6 Martín Hall, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission reported in Forbes: www.forbes.com/technology/2008/07/24/dolphin-safe-tuna-tech-paperplastic08-cx_ee_0724fishing_2.html.
7 Delgado de Molina et al. 2005. Project on new FAD designs to avoid entanglement of by-catch species, mainly sea turtles and acoustic selectivity in the Spanish purse seine fishery in the Indian Ocean. WCPFC Scitntiofic Committee Working Paper.
8 Molony, B., (2007). Overview of purse-seine and longline bycatch issues in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. In: Oceanic Fisheries Programme, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Inaugural meeting of the Asia and Pacific Islands Bycatch Consortium. Honolulu, USA 15-16 February 2007. SPC: Noumea, New Caledonia.
9 Lewison, R. L., S. A. Freeman and L. B. Crowder. 2004. Quantifying the effects of fisheries on threatened species: the impact of pelagic longlines on loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles..Ecology Letters 7: 221–231
10 Molony, B. 2005. Estimates of the mortality of non-target species with an initial focus on seabirds, turtles, and sharks. WCPFC-SC1 EB WP-1. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Nouemea, New Caledonia.
“Killed alongside the Skipjack
Tuna that finds itself in your tin
is almost the entire cast list of
- Charles Clover, 2005 Author of End of the Line
Stolen fish, Stolen future: Unfair deals
in the Pacific
Most of Australia’s tuna comes from the Pacific Ocean where tuna stocks are plummeting. Tuna stocks are fished by foreign industrial fleets who pay a meager price to fish in the waters of Pacific Island countries. It is then canned in another country such as Thailand before it is sent to Australian shores.
Despite the fact that more than half of the world’s tuna comes from the Pacific, these Island nations gain little from the fishing in their waters. On average they receive a mere 5-6% of the value of the tuna caught in their waters11.
The majority of fishing vessels come from China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, the EU and the US, who strike up access agreements with Pacific Islands to fish in their economic exclusion zones. The agreed fishing fees pale in comparison to the enormous profit made from foreign nations selling Pacific tuna.
The highly inequitable operation has trig-gered Pacific Island Countries - in partic-ular the countries in Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA)12- to exercise their
power as custodians of these resources. They have proposed a suite of measures aimed at maximising economic profit-ability and the sustainable management of the region’s tuna fisheries.
Supermarkets should encourage fishing operations that support more job and income opportunities for Pacific Islands.
Far out at sea, it is easy for fishing vessels to flout laws and fish illegally. Globally more than US$4 billion is lost each year13. In the Pacific, up to 46% of all fish caught comes from pirate fishing14.
Pirate fishing increases the environmental damage from the destructive fishing already occuring in managed fisheries. This is because they operate, quite literally, off the radar of any enforcement. Pirate fishing can include:
•The transfer of fish at sea to other ships to avoid reporting oversized catches.
•Fishing without a licence.
•Catches that are illegal, unreported or unregulated (IUU).
Greenpeace has a blacklist of vessels and companies that have traded illegally.
Supermar-kets can use it to trace their tuna to the source and ensure they are complying with the law. This is the first step a supermarket can take to ensure none of the vessels and companies they trade with are blacklisted.
The Blacklist of Illegal Fishing Vessels is available at http://blacklist.greenpeace.org
11 Commonwealth of Australia 2007. Valuing Pacific fish - A framework for fisheries-related development assistance in the Pacific. AusAid Report.
12 The Parties to the Nauru Agreement are Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu.
13 Dorney S. 2010. Pacific countries name new fishing advocate. ABC Asia Pacific News.
14 Marine Resource Assessment Group (MRAG) and the University of British Columbia 2008. The global extent of illegal fishing. Final report.
The state of tuna worldwide
Bluefin, Bigeye, Yellowfin and Albacore Tuna are all overfished due to industrial tuna fishing. Skip-jack Tuna is now the only healthy tuna species left.
Bluefin Tuna is critically endangered. Greenpeace is urging for an end to fishing and trade of North-ern and SouthNorth-ern Bluefin Tuna, and a listing in Annex I Convention on IntNorth-ernational Trade in Endan-gered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna
Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna are in dramatic decline. Retailers should stop selling Bigeye and Yellow-fin Tuna until fishing effort of these species is reduced to sustainable levels.
Albacore and other tuna species
With the exception of South Pacific Albacore Tuna, Albacore stocks are overfished. Supermarkets must examine their products and supply chain with prudence.
Skipjack is the only healthy tuna species left in the Pacific.
However, Skipjack Tuna is only considered sustainable if it is caught using selective fishing meth-ods. Skipjack caught by purse seiners using FADs has a high rate of bycatch. This includes Bigeye and Yellowfin juveniles, along with endangered turtles and sharks. Longline caught tuna has a bycatch rate as high as 35%15. It also kills endangered shark, turtles and seabirds.
Supermarkets must be vigilant to ensure their Skipjack Tuna has been sourced responsibly. Wide-spread illegal fishing means there is a large proportion of ‘stolen’ Pacific Skipjack on the market. The best option is for supermarkets to source Skipjack from well-managed domestic fisheries that use selective fishing techniques. When Skipjack is caught using pole and line or troll fishing, from healthy stocks along coastal states, it is considered both fair and sustainable.
15 Molony, B., (2007). Overview of purse-seine and longline bycatch issues in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. In: Oceanic Fisheries Programme, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Inaugural meeting of the Asia and Pacific Islands Bycatch Consortium. Honolulu, USA 15-16 February 2007. SPC: Noumea, New Caledonia.
How supermarkets can provide us with
sustainable and equitable tuna
Supermarkets play a key role in the tuna crisis
To ensure that tuna is caught in well-managed fisheries, supermarkets must be able to trace the chain of custody of the tuna they buy. This means knowing where, when, and how it was caught, and that a fair price was paid by the fishing operator.
To make informed decisions about the fish we eat, labelling on tuna cans needs to be complete and consistent. Most tuna brands currently available in Australia fail to tell us which species is in the can, or how and where it was caught.
Tuna brands should provide the following basic information:
On every can:
•The Standard Fish Name and scientific name of each seafood species in the product (e.g. Skip-jack Tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis).
•The Fisheries and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) catch area where the tuna came from, and the name of the stock (e.g. 71, Pacific, Western Central).
•The production method and fishing technique (e.g. wild caught, purse seine net with fish aggre-gating device (FAD))
On request or available on the supermarket’s website:
•The status of the stock (depleted, lightly exploited, fully exploited, over-exploited) according to the scientific body advising the relevant tuna commission. If a stock assessment has not been conducted it should be indicated.
•The identification number (ID) and the flag state of the vessel in a fishery with fully functioning monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) system, or; documentation from a small-scale fishery.
•The port and country of landing, as well as the country of processing for each seafood species contained in the product.
2. Corporate Social Responsibility: Protecting our
Supermarkets need to ensure tuna companies who fish in developing countries’ waters, such as the Pacific Islands, use fair access agreements. These must have strong sustainable and equitable standards.
The financial returns of the agreements need to be:
•30% or more of the value of the fishery;
•negotiated between flag and coastal states (no private company deals); and
•accompanied by effective means of monitoring, control and surveillance of the fishery opera-tions.
To fast track development, supermarkets can guarantee themselves as a purchaser of tuna caught using sustainable techniques, such as pole and line . Greenpeace encourages companies to demonstrate there is a market demand for better products by joining the “pre-order petition” for sustainable and equitable Skipjack Tuna products.
Companies in Europe have placed 75 million cans of pole and line
caught Pacific Skipjack Tuna on our pre-order list
3. An end to destructive fishing practices
For fishing methods other than pole and line, supermarkets must ensure purse seine vessels do not use FADs and have permanent observers on board. The vessels should also use all possible means to avoid bycatch of unwanted animals such as turtles and sharks. Longline vessels should have 100% observer coverage and best practice mitigation to avoid bycatch.
4. No more pirate fishing
Supermarkets must ensure they don’t sell tuna from illegal sources or operations that illegally trans-fer tuna at sea. The tuna operator should also guarantee 100% observer coverage on their vessels. Observers ensure compliance with conservation and management measures of tuna stocks.
Greenpeace Canned Tuna Guide
Australian tuna brands guilty of selling overfished tuna
No Australian tuna brand uses sus-tainable and equitably sourced tuna. The widespread use of FADs in even the top ranked brands means the tuna sold in Australia is associated with the wasteful bycatch of turtles and endangered sharks.
The good news is Coles, Greenseas, Paramount and John West have ended their trade in overfished Yellowfin Tuna. Aldi is now selling a tuna range using a selective fishing method – trolling.
However, most brands continue to source from overfished stocks and use destructive fishing techniques that kill turtles and sharks. Alarmingly for consumers, brands are hiding information about which species is in the can or how it was caught.
Time and tuna are running out!
This June, international tuna commissions from around the world
will meet in Brisbane to discuss conservation strategies for
over-fished tuna. Their focus is on reducing the number of fishing
ves-sels and bycatch. You can play a big part by urging supermarkets
to remove the worst tuna from their shelves and to commit
stock-ing sustainably caught pole and line tuna before June 1.
The UK did it. Why can’t Australia?
The poor rating of Australian brands means urgent action is required to improve tuna procurement. In the UK, supermarkets have taken responsibility for the tuna in their stores. Waitrose, Sainburys and Marks and Spencer have all moved to pole and line caught tuna. The Co-op supermarket went even further, collecting 300,000 signa-tures in support of marine reserves.
Click here to read more about the progress made by supermarkets worldwide http://www.greenpeace.org/international/press/reports/taking-stock-of-tuna
How does your supermarket rank?
Bycatch and fishing methods: Greenseas Skipjack Tuna is caught by FADs and purse seine
nets that can trap and kill unwanted animals like turtles and sharks.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: Greenseas only use Skipjack Tuna from the
Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Greenseas’ commitment to improving this Pacific fishery includes contributions to researching tuna
sus-tainability in the region. Greenseas claim to be working toward an internal sustainable seafood procurement policy.
Traceability and labelling: Greenseas will label
its complete range with ‘Skipjack Tuna’ by March 2010. To date there is no mention of the use of FADs on its website. Greenseas can trace its product to the vessel and can assure consumers it does not source from black listed vessels.
Support for marine reserves and equitable
fishing: Greenseas is yet to ask its suppliers to
avoid sourcing from proposed marine reserves or express public support for their establishment. No information has been provided on attempts to ensure its suppliers make a fair deal with the coastal states whose resources it exploits.
Verdict: Greenseas use sustainable Skipjack
Tuna and are improving its labelling. As leaders on sustainability we hope it will provide consum-ers with a sustainable pole and line caught tuna range to avoid unnecessary bycatch.
Bycatch and fishing methods: Coles
Skip-jack Tuna is caught with FADs and purse seine nets that can trap and kill unwanted animals like turtles and sharks.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna:
Coles is committed to sourcing its canned tuna from sustainable stocks in the Indian and West-ern and Central Pacific Ocean.
Traceability and labelling: Coles’ entire range
is labelled with ‘Skipjack Tuna’. However, Coles does not provide consumer information about the fishing technique or origin of the tuna it sources. This information is available on request and Coles can trace its products back to the vessel.
How does your
supermarket stack up
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: Coles has not expressed public
sup-port for the establishment of marine reserves. While Coles participates in government reviews in Australia on food standard regulations, it does not have a sustainable seafood procurement policy. Coles also doesn’t have an equitable sourcing policy for tuna.
Verdict: Coles use Skipjack Tuna and are good on traceability and labelling. The next step Coles
can take is to introduce a sustainable seafood policy that rules out the use of FADs to catch tuna.
Bycatch and fishing methods: Aldi introduced a premium canned Albacore Tuna range caught
using a selective fishing technique - trolling. This was in recognition of the use of FADs in its range, which causes unwanted bycatch.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: Both the Northern Pacific Albacore Tuna and the
Yellowfin Tuna from the Indian and Pacific Oceans in its ‘Ocean Rise’ range are overfished. It is important Aldi moves to sustainable sources of tuna as it has done for its entire ‘Port View ‘ range. The ‘Port View’ range contains Skipjack Tuna sourced from the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Aldi aims to move its seafood range to sustainably caught products when it is available. But for now, Aldi does not have a publicly available sustainable seafood procurement policy and has overfished stock in its tuna range.
Traceability and labelling: Aldi will be leaders in Australia on canned tuna labelling. It aims to
la-bel its seafood range with the common name, scientific name, production method and FAO catch area by the end of 2010. Aldi is able to trace its product to the vessel. Aldi has a large number of suppliers, it is important it ensures all suppliers are off the blacklist.
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: Aldi is yet to express public support for
the establishment of marine reserves. However, it plans to continue promoting sustainable seafood with information in their store and on the Internet. Aldi does not have an equitable sourcing policy for tuna.
Verdict: Aldi has shown leadership by introducing a troll caught tuna and providing consumer
information. However, it must end its trade in overfished Yellowfin and Albacore Tuna to move up the ranking.
Bycatch and fishing methods: Woolworths doesn’t provide information on the fishing method it
uses. It is essential it examines the fishing methods used for each tuna product. Woolworths must only use tuna from sustainable stocks, which also avoids bycatch.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: Woolworths uses overfished Yellowfin Tuna in its
‘Select’ range. Its ‘Select’ and ‘Homebrand’ range consists of more sustainable Skipjack. To date, this large supermarket does not have a sustainable seafood procurement policy.
Traceability and labelling: Woolworths does not have consistent labelling for its canned tuna.
The cans of overfished Yellowfin Tuna in their ‘Select’ range contain the species name on the label, while its remaining ‘Select’ and ‘Homebrand’ range doesn’t label the contained species. Positively, Woolworths is able to provide information about the traceability of its product using its internal quality assurance system. This excludes sourcing from IUU vessels.
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: Woolworths has an ethical sourcing policy
that seeks to address environmental degradation and exploitation of workers. We are keen to learn how this will affect its tuna suppliers who source from developing coastal states. Woolworths has made no indication it supports the establishment of marine reserves.
Verdict: Woolworths sells overfished Yellowfin Tuna and has inconsistent labelling. Woolworths’
credibility on sustainability and equitability depends on working with suppliers to improve its tuna ranking.
Bycatch and fishing methods: Safcol doesn’t provide information on the fishing method it uses
or provide information about bycatch rates.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: Safcol uses Longtail Tuna from the depleted fishing
grounds of the South China Sea for which there is no reliable stock assessment. It uses Albacore, Yellowfin, and Skipjack Tuna from fishing fleets in the Gulf of Thailand, Southern Ocean, Western Pacific and Indian Ocean.
Traceability and labelling: Safcol does not label its cans with the species of the tuna inside. It
doesn’t provide a connection between the information on the product’s origin and which species it catches in that area.
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: Safcol does not have a sustainable
sea-food procurement policy. It also has not indicated whether it supports fair and equitable fishing or marine reserves.
Verdict: It is an embarrassing report card for Safcol. Safcol does not label its cans or provide
use-ful information on the true chain of custody of its products.
Bycatch and fishing methods: Paramount doesn’t provide information on the fishing method it
uses or provide information about bycatch rates.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: Paramount uses sustainable Skipjack Tuna.
Traceability and labelling: Paramount does label its cans with the tuna species. The location
of their canneries was provided on their website. However, no information is provided about the source of its tuna or the fishing method used.
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: Paramount does not have a sustainable
seafood procurement policy. It has not indicated whether it supports fair and equitable fishing or marine reserves.
Verdict: Paramount must provide information on their chain of custody. Paramount ended
their distribution of canned Skipjack Tuna early in 2010 - the last of their cans are now sold in supermarkets.
Bycatch and fishing methods: John West doesn’t provide information on the fishing method it
uses or provide information about bycatch rates.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: John West sources its tuna from sustainable
stocks. John West is committed to avoiding Yellowfin Tuna in its products. Instead, it mostly use Skipjack Tuna. However, no information is provided about the other species it uses.
Traceability and labelling: John West cans are not labelled with the species name. No information
is provided about the source of the tuna, or their ability to trace back to the vessel to avoid IUU tuna.
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: John West claims it works with its suppliers
toward sustainable tuna procurement. However, John West does not have a sustainable or equi-table seafood procurement policy. John West has not indicated whether it supports marine reserves.
Verdict: John West does not let consumers know what is in the can. If it is truly committed to
sustainability, it will provide a bycatch free product using selective fishing methods like pole and line for its range.
Bycatch and fishing methods: Sole Mare doesn’t provide information on the fishing method it
uses or provide information about bycatch rates.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: Sole Mare exclusively uses overfished Yellowfin in
its products. We hope it will switch to a sustainable tuna like Skipjack.
Traceability and labelling: No information is provided on the source of the tuna it uses. Naming
its supplier and location of its cannery on the Sole Mare website is no consolation.
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: Sole Mare does not have a sustainable
seafood procurement policy. Sole Mare does not support marine reserves critical to ensuring the long-term viability of tuna and other fish stocks. Also, it has not indicated whether it supports fair and equitable fishing.
Verdict: Sole Mare trades in the overfished species Yellowfin. It needs to end its trade in this
spe-cies and provide consumers with truly sustainable tuna.
IGA, Franklins and SPAR
Bycatch and fishing methods: IGA’s ‘Signature’, ‘Sea Point’, and ‘Way of Life’ ranges, Franklins’
‘No Frills’ and SPAR’s ‘Fabulous’ tuna receive poor marks in all areas. They don’t provide informa-tion on the fishing method they use or provide informainforma-tion about bycatch rates.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: Each supermarket fails to provide the name of the
tuna species used.
Traceability and labelling: It is not possible for consumers to find out which tuna species IGA,
Franklins or SPAR use or where it comes from.
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: These supermarkets make no
com-mitment to fair and equitable fishing. They don’t support marine reserves where fish stocks and marine animals can be given a chance to recover from overfishing.
Verdict: It is shameful that these three supermarkets cannot provide the most basic consumer
information about the tuna in their products. They need to clean up their act and be honest about their tuna trade.
Bycatch and fishing methods: Sirena is also one of the worst offenders when it comes to its
canned tuna. Sirena doesn’t provide information on the fishing method it uses or provide informa-tion about bycatch rates.
Commitment to sourcing sustainable tuna: Again no commitment to sustainable tuna is made
as the brand fails to disclose which species is used.
Traceability and labelling: Sirena fails to provide consumers with the name of the species in the
can. It doesn’t provide information on traceability it avoids when sourcing from overfished stocks or IUU vessels.
Support for marine reserves and equitable fishing: Sirena does not have a sustainable
sea-food procurement policy or indicates whether itsupports marine reserves. Sirena does not have an equitable sourcing policy.
Verdict: Sirena is an irresponsible company that does not even let consumers know which tuna is
Criteria for the canned tuna ranking
The Greenpeace Canned Tuna Guide enables consumers to choose the most sustainable and equitable tuna available in Australia.
The brands were ranked according to the following:
•If the brand sourced tuna from overfished stocks.
•If the brand sourced tuna from transhipments, or Illegal, Unreported or Unregulated (IUU) vessels and companies.
•If the brand labels canned tuna with the Standard Fish Name, scientific name, FAO catch area and catch method.
•If the brand uses tuna fishing methods that result in high levels of bycatch (eg. FADs and longline fishing).
Brands were also ranked on their policies to:
•Recognise marine reserves as essential for conservation and commit to not source tuna from proposed marine reserves.
•Seek products originating from coastal state owned and operated fisheries and processing facilities.
Marine reserves: protecting the future of tuna
Fishing not only reduces target species populations but can
also alter marine food webs and has cumulative impacts on the
marine ecosystem, undermining the productive capacity of
Diverse and intact ecosystems are more productive, healthier
and more resilient than degraded ones. …We need to restore the
abundance of sea life and give marine ecosystems a chance to
repair themself if the planet is to remain healthy17
Unless we preserve critical areas from fishing altogether, fish stocks and marine animals will not recover from rampant overfishing. The solution is to create a global network of marine reserves. Marine reserves will help sustain fisheries, protect biodiversity and restore tuna stocks to a healthy state18.
Overfishing of tuna is a serious concern in the Pacific. In response, Pacific Island Countries agreed in 2009 to close two high seas areas to purse seine fishing. These developing countries aim to close all four high seas areas to any fishing in 2010 to conserve their precious tuna resources. Supermarkets can help this by refusing to buy and sell tuna from the proposed marine reserves.
16 Smith et al. 2010. Sustainability and Global seafood Science vol. 327 12 February 2010
17 Roberts 2007. The Unatural History of the Sea The past and future of humanity and fishing. Island Press 2007.
18 Roberts C. 2007. The Unnatural History of the Sea - The past and future of humanity and fishing Roberts 2007 Island Press.
Minami Tori Shima
Wake Papua New Guinea
Solomon Islands New Caledonia Vanuatu Fiji Tonga Norfolk Mathew & Hunter New Zealand Australia Niue Tuvalu Nauru Kiribati Kiribati Phoenix Tokelau Johnston Hawaii French Polynesia Pitcairn Amer. Samoa Samoa Wallis & Futuna Cook Islands Marshall Islands Guam Northern Marianas
Federated States of Micronesia
Palmyra Jarvis Line Islands Howland Baker ©GREENPEACE Indonesia