Technology Solutions for Global Health

62  Download (0)

Full text

(1)
(2)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

For the past 30 years, PATH has managed multiple projects focused on technology solutions to health needs. Working in many developing countries, PATH improves health by assessing needs and developing affordable and appropriate health, nutrition, and reproductive health technologies to solve them. Activities are carried out through effective partnerships with public-sector agencies (i.e., the World Health Organization) and private-sector companies. Involving the commercial private-sector improves the chances of developing low-cost, widely available, sustainable products. Technologies range from simple products which can be manufactured by small, local industries to highly sophisticated technologies produced with state-of-the-art industrial processes and materials.

PATH’s areas of expertise include: • Needs assessment

• Technology design and development • Technology assessment and evaluation • Technology transfer

• Local introduction, training and advancement of new technologies • Technology-related technical assistance • Commercialization and business development To improve the safety and effectiveness of immunization services, PATH works on vaccine delivery devices and cold chain technologies. A vaccine heat-exposure indicator has been advanced and methods of stabilizing vaccines are being investigated. Injection devices include autodisable

syringes with features which prevent reuse; a prefill, single-dose syringe with an attached needle; and a needle-free injector. Technologies to deal with medical waste—especially used needles and syringes—are being developed and advanced, as are various refrigeration technologies to keep vaccines and pharmaceuticals cool throughout the distribution channels.

To improve maternal health and child health, low-cost technologies designed for use by low-literate health workers include a home birth kit, a portable scale to screen for low birthweight, and safe injection delivery devices for antibiotics for neonatal infections and for treatment of mothers with postpartum hemorrhage.

To improve reproductive health, new versions of diaphragms and female barriers are being designed and developed to protect women against HIV/ AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy. Work on effective delivery systems for microbicides is also a focus.

In the area of nutrition, PATH is working on a method of food fortification and low-cost ways of improving surveillance of vitamin A deficiency and other micronutrients among populations.

To improve diagnosis of major diseases, easy-to-use, low-cost test kits for tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, fevers (including malaria), sexually transmitted infections, and cervical cancer for use at the point of care are being developed and advanced. For treatment of HIV/AIDS patients, low-cost methods of monitoring disease status are underway.

For further information, please contact: info@path.org

In the developing world, the difference between sickness and health for millions of babies and mothers can be as simple as a sterile needle and syringe, a reliable refrigerator for storing vaccines, or a diagnostic test at point of care. In reality, needles are not easily sterilized; refrigerators are expensive, require fuel, or are difficult for rural health workers to maintain; and laboratories where urine and blood are analyzed for infectious disease often are found only in major cities.

More than 30 health technologies are currently at some point of development and another 20 are already commercialized and available on the market. Suggestions for new technologies are welcome. PATH’s work in this area is supported by a wide variety of funders including the United States Agency for International Development under the HealthTech program, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, and others. Not included in this booklet are descriptions of PATHs work on vaccine development and advancement.

(3)

Technology Solutions Portfolio at PATH

Technologies being developed and advanced at PATH

address needs for:

Immunization and Safe Injection

Maternal and Child Health

Reproductive Health

Nutrition

Diagnostics for Infectious Diseases

(4)
(5)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2010

“With Uniject anybody

can inject the vaccine. An

illiterate midwife who’s

never been trained in

medicine or birthing can

do an absolutely perfect

job.”

Dr. Francois Gasse, UNICEF,

Reuter’s Health, July 2002.

Vaccines in the Uniject

TM

Injection

System

Health need

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in some countries the percentage of injections given with syringes or needles reused without sterilization is as high as 70 percent. At the same time, the use of multidose vials often leads to 50 percent of vaccine being wasted or children being turned away due to reluctance to open a vial for just one child.

Technology solution

Two decades ago, prefilled syringes were too costly for use in developing-country public-sector health programs, and no prefilled syringe on the market offered an autodisable feature. In collaboration with the United States Agency for International Development, WHO, and many others, PATH developed a compact prefilled autodisable injection system known as the UnijectTM injection system, initially for use with vaccines.

Uniject simplifies the act of giving an injection, makes the unsafe reuse of the syringe impossible, and reduces the burden on logistics systems by making medicament, needle, and syringe available at the same place and time. It eliminates the wastage commonly associated with multidose vials. Today, Uniject is licensed to BD, the world’s largest manufacturer of injection equipment, for commercial production and distribution. BD sells the empty Uniject to pharmacuetical and vaccine producers, who then fill their products into it and sell the finished, prefilled drug or vaccine in Uniject to both public health programs and private-sector health channels.

Current status and results

Today, BD produces Uniject in Singapore with a fully automated, high-volume production line and markets them globally to pharmaceutical companies. WHO has prequalified PT BioFarma’s tetanus toxoid (TT) and hepatitis B vaccines in Uniject. Crucell, a major multinational vaccine producer, has announced plans to make its liquid pentavalent (DTP-HepB-HIB) vaccine available in Uniject with initial launch anticipated in 2013. At least one Indian vaccine producer markets its hepatitis B vaccine in Uniject.

Operational research to assess the potential of incorporating TT in Uniject into immunization programs was conducted in Afghanistan, Ghana, and Mali in 2003. Hepatitis B vaccine in Uniject has been used nationwide in Indonesia for birth dose immunization since 2005 and is in use in the private sector in India.

Uniject is a trademark of BD.

Availability

Uniject and the associated

equipment for filling and packaging are available to vaccine and pharmaceutical companies from BD Pharmaceutical Systems, New Jersey, USA

Roderick Hausser, Tel: (201) 847-5185, Fax: (201) 847-4869. Hepatitis B vaccine and tetanus toxoid are available from manufacturers in India and Indonesia.

For more information regarding this project, contact Steve Brooke at sbrooke@path.org.

Donor support

Funding for this project has

been provided by the United

States Agency for International Development under PATH’s HealthTech program. UNI CEF/H Q020263/G iaco m o P iro zzi

Compact prefilled

autodisable injection

device filled with vaccine.

(6)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

SoloShot

Health need

Although sterile, disposable syringes and needles offer the best protection against transmission of bloodborne diseases, they are often reused in the developing world. Each year, more than 12 billion injections are administered worldwide; in the past in developing countries 50 percent of injections were estimated to be unsafe. A primary source of transmission of disease has been the reuse of contaminated needles and syringes. To be completely safe, single-use injection devices must be designed to automatically and irrevocably inactivate after a single cycle of filling and injection. The World Health

Organization/Expanded Programme on Immunization (WHO/EPI) called for the design of such devices in 1987.

Technology solution

In response to WHO’s call, PATH designed one of the first feasible approaches to nonreusable syringes for immunizations: an autodisable (AD) syringe with a fixed needle that automatically locks after a single injection. When the syringe is filled to the preset 0.5-ml level, the plunger stops and cannot be pulled back further. After the vaccine is injected, the plunger automatically locks so that the syringe and needle cannot be reused. Known as the SoloShot syringe, this technology was licensed to and is now manufactured and marketed by BD, one of the world’s leading syringe manufacturers. Third-party field validations of the device in Pakistan in the early 1990s demonstrated the acceptability and usability of the design. PATH also has assisted several other manufacturers of AD syringes to ensure a wide variety of products are available and to facilitate the lower pricing that accompanies increased competition and production volume.

Current status and results

Since commercial introduction in 1992, 6 billion vaccinations have been delivered using SoloShot syringes by public health programs in more than 40 developing and emerging countries. United Nations Children’s Fund— which has already distributed hundreds of millions of AD syringes to EPI programs—now provides only AD syringes to countries requesting disposable syringes, many of which are SoloShot syringes. BD continues to supply the syringes to national and international public health agencies at low cost. In fact, the syringe was one used in the recent PATH- and WHO-sponsored meningitis vaccine campaign in West Africa where millions of people were immunized. The price of AD syringes is dropping rapidly and is currently within two cents of the price of disposable syringes. PATH is also assisting USAID-supported family planning agencies with the introduction of a 1-ml AD syringe to be bundled with injectable contraceptives.

AD syringes are now routinely used in immunization programs throughout the world. They can be used safely by vaccinators regardless of past experience or training. The devices are quicker to use than a conventional syringe and are preferred over a conventional syringe by vaccinators due to the speed and ease with which a correct vaccine dose can be drawn.

SoloShot is a trademark of BD.

Availability

This technology has been licensed and is available from BD Pharmaceutical Systems, New Jersey, USA,

Michael Garrison michael_garrison@bd.com.

Donor support

Funding for this project has

been provided by the United

States Agency for International Development under PATH’s HealthTech program.

An autodisable,

single-use syringe.

“The autodisable

syringe, which is now

widely available at

low cost, presents the

lowest risk of

person-to-person transmission of

bloodborne pathogens.”

WHO-UNICEF-UNFPA Joint Statement, 2003.

(7)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2010

Technologies for Immunization Safety

Health need

Each year, more than 16 billion injections are administered worldwide. In some regions, 17 to 75 percent are estimated to be with reused, unsterilized injection equipment. It is estimated that unsafe reuse causes 20 million hepatitis B infections, 2 million hepatitis C infections, and 260,000 HIV infections annually. In addition, needlestick injury is estimated to cause 40 percent of hepatitis B, 40 percent of hepatitis C, and 2.5 percent of HIV/ AIDS infection among the estimated 35 million health workers worldwide. Immunization programs have been proactive in introducing technologies and practices for injection safety, notably with autodisable syringes, sharps disposal boxes, and needle-removal systems. Opportunities remain to further increase immunization safety by reducing the use of sharps and improving safety of other steps of vaccination. As new vaccines such as

Haemophilus influenzae type b, human papillomavirus, pneumococcal, and rotavirus vaccines are rolled out in developing countries, children may be subjected to an increased number of injections. It is critical that immunization systems maintain a focus on safety to ensure that these children reap the maximum health benefits with minimal associated risks.

Technology solution

There are a number of technologies available to improve injection safety in developing-country settings. Retractable-needle syringes have been used in industrialized countries for many years, but their relatively high cost has limited introduction in low-resource countries. As technology and market development lead to less-expensive options in this category, the value assessment is changing, and opportunities are growing for developing-country use. Needle removers separate the needle from the syringe

immediately after giving an injection, containing the dangerous sharp waste in a small container for safe disposal. Syringe melters compact syringe waste volume, trap and disinfect needles, and facilitate recycling. Safety boxes, currently imported from Europe or Asia, may be able to be manufactured in Africa or other low-resource settings using innovative coatings and materials to meet international quality standards.

Current status and results

PATH has been a leader in developing, identifying, and promoting appropriate solutions for safe injections and waste management. In 2008 PATH published a resource page on the web on the subject of medical waste, available at http://www.path.org/projects/health_care_waste_resources.php. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) published product specifications and a test protocol for needle cutters as part of their

Performance, Quality, and Safety program. This established a standard for WHO prequalification which then facilitates procurement of quality devices by the United Nations Children’s Fund and other international and

national organizations.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact Joanie Robertson at

jrobertson@path.org.

Donor support

Funding for this project has

been provided by the United

States Agency for International Development under PATH’s HealthTech program and

from the Bill & Melinda

Gates Foundation.

“Recognizing the

importance of

needle-removal to improve the

safety of sharps waste

management, it is

recommended that the

process of assessment

and introduction be

accelerated in African

countries.”

GAVI/Implementation task force workshop on the management of

biomedical waste,Senegal, 2003.

Ro

ber

t M

alet

ta

Needles and sharps

waste are dangerous to

the community.

(8)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2012

Availability

For more information on HEATmarker VVMs, contact TEMPTIME Corporation 116 American Road Morris Plains, NJ 07950, USA Tel: (973) 984-6000

Fax: (973) 984-1520

website www.temptimecorp.com e-mail tedp@temptimecorp.com. For more information regarding this project, contact

Debra Kristensen at dkriste@path.org.

Donor support

Funding for this project has

been provided by the United

States Agency for International Development under PATH’s HealthTech program.

Labels on vaccine

products to indicate

heat exposure.

“Used properly, this

[vaccine vial monitors]

can be a miracle tool

to reduce wastage and

prevent the use of heat

damaged stock.”

Umit Kartoglu, WHO Department of Vaccine and

Biologicals. GAVI Immunization

Focus, July 2003.

Vaccine Vial Monitors

Health need

Vaccines require careful storage and transport to the point of use to avoid harmful heat exposure. In the past, there was no way to detect whether individual vials had been exposed to heat, so national immunization programs adopted conservative guidelines for vaccine handling and disposal of vaccines when heat exposure was suspected. In 1985, PATH launched a search for suitable technologies that could indicate exposure to heat. An appropriate technology used for the food industry was discovered; PATH worked with the manufacturer to adapt it for vaccines, resulting in a product known as the vaccine vial monitor (VVM).

Technology solution

VVMs are small, circular indicators, printed directly on vial labels or adhered to the tops of vials. The inner square is chemically active and changes color irreversibly from light to dark with exposure to heat over time. By comparing the color of the inner square to the reference color, a health worker can determine whether the vaccine has been exposed to heat. Important decisions on whether to use or discard vaccine and which vials should be used first are now clear due to the VVM. VVMs can be manufactured for a variety of heat-exposure specifications suitable for use with any vaccine, including BCG, diphtheria, hepatitis B, Hib, HPV, measles, oral polio, pertussis, pneumococcal, rabies, rubella, tetanus, and yellow fever vaccines.

Current status and results

Since introduction in 1996, VVMs have helped to ensure that only potent vaccine is used to immunize children and to extend the reach of services thus raising coverage. The presence of VVMs made it possible for the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement the “multi-dose vial policy” that allows health workers to use opened vials of some liquid vaccines for more than one day. This has markedly reduced vaccine wastage, saving millions of dollars in immunization programs

throughout the world. VVMs are also used to help manage and improve vaccine distribution.

VVMs are manufactured by TEMPTIME Corporation in New Jersey

under the product name HEATmarker

™*

and are sold to vaccine

producers throughout the world. WHO requires that all vaccine purchased through the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) be labeled with VVMs. A WHO/UNICEF joint policy statement urges all vaccine self-procuring countries, donor agencies, and international organizations to include VVMs among the minimum requirements for vaccine purchase agreements and donations. Since their introduction in 1996, over 3 billion VVMs have been used on vaccine vials. WHO and UNICEF estimate that the use of VVMs is saving the global health community at least US$5 million per year.

(9)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2012

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact Dexiang Chen at dchen@path.org.

Donor support

Support for this project has been provided through funding from private foundations and

individual donors to the Health

Innovation Portfolio at PATH

and the Bill & Melinda Gates

Foundation.

Novel methods to induce

mucosal immunity.

“The best defense

against these

predominantly mucosal

pathogens would be

vaccines, preferably

mucosal vaccines

capable of inducing

both systemic and

mucosal immunity.”

van Ginkel F, Nguyen H, McGhee J. Vaccines for mucosal immunity to combat emerging infectious diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(2):123–132.

Mucosal Immunization Technologies

Health need

AIDS, tuberculosis, acute respiratory-tract infections, and diarrheal diseases account for millions of deaths annually worldwide. All are caused by pathogens that enter the body via the mucosa, tissue linings found in the oral cavity and the reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts. Vaccines administered directly to the mucosa can trigger key antibodies and preferentially activate specific cells. Yet, mucosal vaccines face significant barriers to success due to in situ dilution and dispersion, interference from inert food and dust particles, enzymatic degradation, and low pH in the stomach. These and other factors can limit the ability of the vaccine to reach its target immune cells, resulting in a suboptimal immune response. To more effectively protect people from pathogens that enter the body via the mucosa, new technological approaches are needed.

Technology solution

PATH recently developed a mucosal immunization technology platform— viable in two formats—that builds on several proven formulation,

adjuvant, and delivery technologies that enable the efficient sublingual administration of subunit vaccines. The first format is a liquid solution at room temperature that transforms into a gel upon contact, enabling it to adhere to mucosal surfaces. Its gel matrix also protects the vaccine antigen from degradation caused by salivary enzymes. The second is a fast-dissolving tablet (FDT) that disintegrates instantly in a small amount of saliva. The FDT can also be reconstituted in diluents or a buffer and then is administered orally with a liquid dropper. As each format is needle-free, the technology platform also promises to improve the safety of vaccination.

Current status and results

PATH recently demonstrated the thermoresponsive properties of the technology platform and its enhanced permeability of the epithelium barrier. Tests also revealed tolerability by cultured epithelium cells. In animal models, the gel format demonstrated desirable gelation, spreading, and retention (>20 minutes) on the sublingual mucosa, maximizing the proportion of antigen gaining access to target cells. Tetanus toxoid vaccine gel elicited a high level of relevant antibodies in serum and in the secretions of the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts of mice. PATH has applied the FDT format to a candidate enterotoxigenic E. Coli vaccine, producing a lead formulation that is stable at 12 months under refrigeration. Next steps include developing a formulation that is stable at room temperature for four weeks in a glass vial and then adapting it into a tablet. Additional assessments are under way as PATH continues to research the two formats as value-added product presentations for human and veterinary vaccines.

PA TH/S co tt A rem an

(10)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

February 2010

Cold Chain Technologies

Health need

Eff ective vaccine distribution and storage are critical to achieving immunization coverage and impact. As new and more expensive vaccines become available, greater capacity is needed in the cold chain to accommodate the new vaccines, and the loss of vaccine due to heat or freeze damage is becoming less tolerable due to greater fi nancial risk. Innovative cold chain technologies can help improve the reliability of vaccine distribution, reduce unnecessary wastage of valuable vaccines, and help strengthen the overall immunization system.

Technology solution

PATH is working to advance technologies that improve the cold chain; for example, “smart” refrigerators that keep vaccines cold without freezing, and lower-cost solar refrigerators without batteries that provide aff ordable refrigeration for more health clinics as well as facilitate immunization services in remote settings. PATH is also working on soft ware solutions to update the management systems that underlie the cold chain

infrastructure. A new tool is being developed for tracking country-wide inventories of cold chain equipment and improving the ability of managers to plan over multiple years to accommodate new vaccines.

Current status and results

In 2008, PATH and the United Nations Children’s Fund introduced the cold chain equipment management soft ware (CCEM) version 1. Workshops were conducted in Seattle and Panama to train immunization managers and global experts. Version 2 is expected by mid-year 2009. PATH is working to advance solar refrigerators that do not require traditional batteries for energy storage. Direct-drive solar refrigerators and new long-life batteries developed for the hybrid automobile market hold the promise of reducing operating costs while expanding the reach of vaccine refrigeration. In 2009 we will likely see the World Health Organization (WHO) prequalify the fi rst device in the direct-drive class. PATH is assisting WHO in the development of new specifi cations for refrigerators and cold chain monitoring equipment that will encourage manufacturers to create innovative products that fi t developing-country needs.

PATH continues to work on global policy that will help countries adopt new technologies and practices to preserve vaccine in the cold chain. For example, we are working with WHO to add specifi cations under their product qualifi cation system that will allow new technologies, such as transport containers with new cooling technologies. We are also helping the global community study the possibility of removing some heat-stable vaccines from the cold chain in some locations.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact Joanie Robertson at jrobertson@path.org.

Donor support

Funding for this project has

been provided by the United

States Agency for

International Development

under PATH’s HealthTech

program and from the Bill &

Melinda Gates Foundation.

“Vaccines are sensitive

to heat and freezing

and must be kept at the

correct temperature

from the time they are

manufactured until

they are used.”

Immunization in Practice. A Practical Resource Guide for Health Workers. WHO, 2004.

Appropriate and

innovative technologies

for vaccine cold chain.

PA TH/C ar ib N els on May 2009

(11)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2010

An Improved Passive Vaccine Carrier

Health need

Evidence from the field indicates that when vaccines are transported from health centers to remote populations, temperatures inside vaccine carriers are often maintained with frozen ice packs, putting the vaccines at risk of freezing. Many of the common vaccines containing aluminum adjuvants are sensitive to freezing, including those that are more costly such as human papillomavirus, pneumococcal, liquid rotavirus, and cholera vaccines. If frozen, these vaccines lose their potency, leaving those vaccinated at risk of disease, costing lives, damaging the reputation of vaccination programs, and wasting valuable health dollars. In spite of documented evidence of vaccine freezing, current World Health Organization (WHO) Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS) specifications for passive vaccine carriers do not require the demonstration of freeze prevention.

To protect vaccines from being exposed to freezing temperature conditions, WHO policy recommends the use of cool water packs. Alternatively, if ice packs are used, they must be conditioned or allowed to warm from -20°C to +0°C. Conditioning is not an exact science, and experiments have documented the freezing of vaccines even when they are stored in a cold box with conditioned ice packs.

Technology solution

PATH is proposing to address the problem of vaccine freezing at the periphery of the health system by incorporating an inner vaccine box made of engineered phase-change material (EPCM) into vaccine carriers. When used with non-conditioned ice packs, the EPCM vaccine box will protect vaccines stored within the carrier from exposure to temperatures below 0°C, preventing the freezing of vaccines. Other primary advantages of the proposed modified vaccine carrier design are longer holdover time than cool water packs, adaptability to existing vaccine carriers, low training burden, and low cost compared to other freeze-prevention carrier designs.

Current status and results

Vaccine carriers retrofitted with the EPCM liner and filled with frozen ice packs have been tested at various ambient temperatures, successfully demonstrating freeze protection. Temperatures have dropped below 0°C for up to 19 hours in the same carriers but without the EPCM liner. To understand the performance of the improved vaccine carrier design in a field setting, preliminary data on prototype designs will be gathered in Vietnam in 2012. Temperature loggers will be placed inside and outside the vaccine carriers to monitor internal and ambient temperatures during transport. In addition to collecting information on current vaccine outreach practices and frequency of freezing in the use of passive vaccine carriers, feedback on the improved vaccine carrier design, ease of use, and holdover time will also be collected. Laboratory data and potential manufacturing approaches are being discussed with several manufacturers of low-cost, PQS-prequalified vaccine carriers to determine their interest in modifying their products with an EPCM liner.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact Nancy Muller at nmuller@path.org.

Donor support

Funding for this project has

been provided by the United

States Agency for

International Development

under PATH’s HealthTech program, from private foundations and individual

donors to the Health Innovation

Portfolio at PATH, and from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through a Grand Challenges Exploration grant.

“Vaccines are sensitive

to heat and freezing

and must be kept at the

correct temperature

from the time they are

manufactured until they

are used.”

Immunization in Practice. A Practical Resource Guide for Health Workers. Geneva: WHO; 2004.

Vaccine carrier

containing

phase-change material liner.

PA TH/S ha w n M cG uir e April 2012

(12)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2010

Assessing Retrofit Solutions to Improve

Domestic Refrigerator Performance for

Vaccine Storage

Health need

The World Health Organization (WHO) advises against storing vaccines in refrigerators that do not meet WHO Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS) performance standards. However, many clinics, including most of those in Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States, continue to store vaccines, often valued in the thousands of dollars, in untested domestic refrigerators because they are cheaper and easier to purchase. These domestic refrigerators pose a significant threat to a clinic’s valuable vaccines.

Technology solution

PATH seeks to identify a set of low-cost technological modifications to domestic refrigerators with the potential to prevent the economic loss and unnecessary health risks from compromised vaccine storage conditions. The team is investigating simple and affordable technological modifications that will provide improved temperature control in domestic refrigerators. These modifications include the following components:

• Continuous temperature monitoring of refrigerator temperatures. We believe that this is likely to become a minimum standard for all vaccine storage points because products such as the FridgeTagTM are increasingly promoted by WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund in an effort to increase the visibility of true vaccine storage and transport conditions. • Automatic thermostat control. Refrigerator performance with an after-market thermostat control device that is easy to install and will respond quickly to an accurate measurement of the vaccine compartment temperature has the potential to compensate for the substandard mechanical thermostat in most domestic refrigerators.

• Small circulating fan. The addition of a small, low-power, circulating fan, similar to those used in computers, has the potential to greatly improve the homogeneity of temperature in all areas of the vaccine compartment. • Phase-change material (PCM). Commercial PCM will be evaluated as an

alternative to water. We will evaulate PCM materials in both a coolant brick format, placed at the bottom of the refrigerator to increase the hold-over time, as well as an internal six-sided protective box that creates a safe micro-environment within the refrigerator for vaccine storage.

Current status and results

PATH has identified potential retrofit solutions, including the results of laboratory testing of domestic refrigerators funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. A technical evaluation will determine the potential of these retrofit solutions to improve performance of domestic refrigerators to meet the WHO PQS standards for compression refrigerators. The team will share this information in a technical report and market analysis by the close of project in December 2012.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact Sophie Newland at snewland@path.org

Donor support

Funding for this project has provided through funding from private foundations and

individual donors to the Health

Innovation Portfolio at PATH.

“Domestic refrigerators

are designed for food

storage and not for the

requirements of vaccine

storage. Precautions and

fridge modifications are

needed in order to store

vaccines.”

Public Health Agency of Canada, National Vaccine Storage and Handling Guidelines for Immunization Providers (2007).

A domestic refrigerator

holding $4,687 worth of

rotavirus vaccine.

UNI CEF September 2011

(13)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2010

Cold Chain Equipment Manager

Health need

As governments and donors invest in new, higher-cost vaccines, there is mounting pressure for countries to demonstrate supply chain preparedness extending to the point of vaccine delivery at the health facility. Yet, in the frequent absence of an up-to-date cold chain equipment inventory, national Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) managers, the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund, and donors have poor visibility of cold chain capacity below the regional level. Consequently, procurement plans cannot prioritize the districts or provinces with the greatest need for new equipment, inform repair services, or optimize new equipment selection in response to a facility’s energy availability or storage capacity needs.

Technology solution

Recognizing the urgent need for countries to inventory and better manage supply chain equipment such as refrigerators, cold rooms, and cold boxes, PATH developed a software tool called Cold Chain Equipment Manager (CCEM). The tool can help vaccination programs manage equipment

requirements down to the facility level, forecast equipment needs for different scenarios, and generate procurement lists according to national policies. CCEM differs from other available equipment management

tools because, in addition to the usual data management, analysis, and reporting functions of a conventional inventory tool, it allows countries to view the cost and logistical implications of potential programmatic changes through “what if” scenarios such as procedural changes or the introduction of a new vaccine.

Current status and results

Five countries—Kenya, Malawi, Nicaragua, Uganda, and Zimbabwe—have successfully implemented cold chain inventories in CCEM 2, generating equipment plans in advance of new vaccine introduction. When Uganda piloted the first version of CCEM in 2007, public health managers found they could introduce human papillomavirus vaccine without buying new refrigerators. They also saw that the primary storage issues were going to be at the national and provincial levels and were able to transition resources to those levels to accommodate the increased burden. Since then, the CCEM tool has been a useful reference bank for information about cold chain inventory and status as it can quickly calculate storage capacities, shortages, and surpluses. In 2009, Uganda was able to present the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with an evidence-based investment case for cold chain equipment in preparation for the introduction of pneumococcal vaccine. As a result Uganda received JICA funds for much needed equipment. Today, they are using CCEM to plan for the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in 2013. In the future, PATH hopes to support EPI teams in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Swaziland to implement cold chain inventories with CCEM for analysis and equipment planning. We also plan to deploy a web-based version of CCEM as an integrated component to other web-based applications maintained by the information technology departments of the ministries of health.

Availability

CCEM 2 is available for free download at www.path.org and www.technet21.org.

For more information regarding this project, contact Sophie Newland at snewland@path.org

Donor support

Funding for this project has

been provided by the United

States Agency for

International Development

under PATH’s HealthTech program.

“An ideal supply chain

is one that ensures that

the limits of science are

not constrained by the

limits of systems.”

Dr. Orin Levine, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health excerpt from http://www.path.org/ projects/project-optimize.php.

Cold Chain Equipment

Manager training in

Nairobi, Kenya.

PA TH/J oe L itt le September 2011

(14)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2012

“...heat-stable vaccines

and combination

formulations can

simplify and improve

drug and vaccine

delivery while

expanding the reach

of modern medicine

to millions more who

could benefit.”

Daar AS, Thorsteinsdóttir H, Martin DK, et al. Top 10 biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries.

Nature Genetics. 2002;32:37.

Vaccine Stabilization

Health need

Maintaining cold chains to store and transport vaccine is a challenging task in many developing countries. The potential for heat to damage vaccines is highest in areas where power outages or gas shortages prevent refrigerators from operating or where vaccine must be transported over long distances to reach remote populations. Vaccines containing an aluminum adjuvant are also sensitive to freezing. Accidental freezing can occur when vaccines are placed too close to the walls of ice-lined refrigerators, the evaporator in certain refrigerators, or the frozen ice packs inside insulated transport carriers. Inadvertent exposure of vaccines to damaging temperatures has been well documented in both developed and developing countries. When health workers suspect a vaccine is temperature damaged, the vaccine is often discarded—at great cost to the immunization program. When temperature damage goes unnoticed, children may receive ineffective vaccine.

Technology solution

Thermostable vaccines will improve the effectiveness and efficiency of immunizations by preventing temperature damage to vaccines, reducing vaccine wastage, and decreasing logistical and equipment requirements as well as the costs of vaccine transportation and storage, especially at the periphery of the cold chain. Thermostable vaccines will also facilitate coverage gains by enabling vaccine delivery in remote areas beyond the reach of the existing cold chain. Additional benefits, such as improved vaccine safety and superior product formats, are also possible depending on the stabilization methods used.

Current status and results

PATH is researching several methods to improve the thermostability of vaccines of importance to developing countries such as vaccines for measles, hepatitis B, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), Shigella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, meningococcal, rotavirus and pandemic influenza. Research is being conducted in collaboration with vaccine producers, vaccine development projects, technology companies, laboratories, and universities. Achievements include:

• Development of a method to protect vaccines containing an aluminum adjuvant from freeze damage and advancing its application to pentavalent (DTP-hepatitis B-Hib) vaccine through formulation development,

analytical method development, preclinical work, laboratory-scale production, and stability studies. PATH’s vaccine freeze-protection technology is in the public domain so that vaccine manufacturers

worldwide can use the approach.

• Identification of a technology to improve the heat stability of hepatitis B and Hib vaccines and demonstration of its compatibility with the above method to obtain a heat- and freeze-protected hepatitis B vaccine product. • Marked improvements in the stability of hepatitis B and meningococcal A

vaccines through reformulation involving glass-forming sugars plus other excipients and processing via spray drying.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, please visit our web site at http://www.path.org/projects/ vaccine-stabilization.php or contact Debra Kristensen at dkriste@path.org.

Donor support

Funding for this project has been

provided by the Bill & Melinda

Gates Foundation.

Thermostable vaccines

improve vaccine effectiveness

and ease logistics.

Ü mi t K ar tog lu

(15)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2012

Disposable-Syringe Jet Injection

Health need

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 16 billion injections are given each year, yet in developing countries at least 50 percent of injections given are unsafe.1 Reuse of contaminated needles and syringes, needlestick injuries among health workers, and threats to the community from improperly disposed of and potentially contaminated needles and syringes are serious health risks, possibly spreading infection and diseases such as HIV and hepatitis.

Technology solution

Jet injectors deliver vaccines and medicines without using needles; instead, jet injectors generate a pressurized liquid stream that pushes through the skin and delivers injections into the tissue. First introduced in the 1940s, early-model jet injectors were used to give millions of injections—even helping to eradicate smallpox. More recently, disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) have been developed to prevent cross-contamination between patients. This technology is currently the only available needle-free technology that can be used to deliver all injectable vaccines used in developing-country immunization programs, at all depths of delivery (intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular). It also requires no change in vaccine formulation and can be filled from multi-dose and single-dose vials at the point of use.

PATH has worked with several developers on their respective DSJI technologies to advance designs that are affordable and adapted for routine immunization in low-infrastructure settings. In addition, PATH is exploring ways in which this technology could facilitate new vaccination strategies. For example, intradermal delivery offers the potential advantage of effective immunization with smaller doses, allowing for reduced costs of each vaccination and increased coverage for vaccines that are in short supply due to high cost or limited production capacity. PATH has identified potential benefits of using DSJIs for this type of vaccination.

Current status and results

PATH is working with multiple device developers and global stakeholders, assisting with design, regulatory advances, economic analysis, and clinical research. PATH has conducted user assessments of device prototypes in the field (Brazil, China, and India) and suggested design adjustments based on user feedback. PATH helped to formalize a WHO Performance, Quality, and Safety specification and verification pathway for DSJI technology. Also PATH recently completed a clinical study where DSJIs were compared with traditional needles and syringes in delivering measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. PATH plans to continue to explore acceptability and sustainability of DSJIs, especially in terms of intradermal delivery in developing-country immunization programs.

1 Simonsen L, Kane A, Lloyd J, Zaffran M, Kane M. Unsafe injections in the developing

world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review. Bulletin of the World Health

Organization. 1999;77:789–800.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact Darin Zehrung at dzehrung@path.org.

Donor support

Funding for this project has

been provided by the United

States Agency for International Development andthe Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

“Needle-free delivery

systems offer an answer

to the problem of sharps

in the vaccination

programs. That is why

WHO is so interested

in this technology. In

addition, the intradermal

administration of

fractional doses of IPV

[inactivated polio vaccine]

could make this vaccine

affordable for developing

country use.”

Dr. Roland Sutter of the World Health Organization and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

Needle-free immunization

with a disposable-syringe

jet injector.

PA TH/P at ric k M cK er n

(16)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

May 2012May 2010

Reconstitution Technologies

Health need

Many obstacles must be overcome before a vaccine can be safely delivered to a child in a developing country. Delays in transit and uneven temperatures can spoil the vaccine. Some vaccines require reconstitution—mixing dry components with wet diluents—which can also cause challenges. Irregular supply chains can separate dried vaccines from their respective diluents. Even if everything arrives on time, together, and at the right temperature, poor lighting and outdated training can prevent a health worker from effectively administering the vaccine. In addition, the needles used to reconstitute vaccines represent a risk of transmitting infection and causing disease if used and disposed of improperly. All these contribute to inappropriate reconstitution and administration of vaccines—scenarios that have been connected to deaths and injuries around the world.

For reconstitution of critical vaccines to become safer and more economical, the process of reconstitution must be simple and must eliminate the adverse events and wastage that can occur with improper reconstitution. Technologies that keep a dried vaccine and its diluent together—ensuring that both are at the same temperature, are not separated, and have a simplified mixing process of the two parts— offer many advantages over current systems. Single-dose, prefilled reconstitution devices (SPRDs) can address these, representing a means of eliminating reconstitution errors, reducing supply wastage, and reducing the impact on the medical waste disposal system.

Technology solution

Selective and strategic introduction of vaccines through low-cost SPRDs can reduce adverse events and wastage while improving vaccine effectiveness. PATH examined a variety of SPRDs to see if they were suitable for use in developing countries. Five devices were evaluated by health workers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Results were favorable: users felt they could deliver injections with more safety and less wastage with SPRDs. They also provided extensive input on the design and use of the devices.

Current status and results

PATH continues to advocate for and support the development of low-cost SPRDs for use with spray-dried or lyophilized vaccines. PATH is also conducting additional research to assess how specific features of integrated reconstitution devices for vaccine delivery impact stakeholders all along the value chain. Our goal is to enable selective and strategic introduction of vaccines in a low-cost SPRD format to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with reconstitution-related adverse events. We facilitate interactions among users, device developers, vaccine manufacturers, and experts in research. At every point we aim to ensure that the technology is safe, affordable, and sustainable.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact

Darin Zehrung at dzehrung@path.org.

Donor support

Support for this project was provided through funding from private foundations and

individual donors to the Health

Innovation Portfolio at PATH.

Single-dose, prefilled

reconstitution devices

(SPRDs) can make

reconstitution of

critical vaccines safer

and more economical.

SPRDs can help

eliminate adverse events

or wastage that can

occur with improper

reconstitution, which

also reduces impact

on the medical waste

disposal system.

A simple, economical

process for reconstitution

of vaccines.

Sco

tt A

rem

(17)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

April 2012May 2010

Intradermal Adapter

Health need

Rabies vaccine is expensive and often in short supply—approximately 20,000 people die of rabies each year in India, often because they were unable to access treatment. For rabies vaccine, the same or better protection can be achieved by delivering smaller amounts of vaccine intradermally (into the top layer of the skin), sparing valuable doses and stretching supplies to provide for more patients. Intradermal (ID) regimens for rabies vaccine have been adopted in many regions, protecting people who have been exposed to rabid animals, while saving costs and vaccine.

This approach is not yet universal, despite clear benefits, due in part to the difficulty of giving an ID injection correctly. The Mantoux technique, which uses a traditional needle and syringe for ID delivery, has historically been recognized as a difficult and inconsistently used technique. In many countries, only certain health care workers are able to perform ID injections, such as for rabies vaccine and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin or BCG, a vaccine given intradermally at birth to prevent tuberculosis. Smaller ID doses of other vaccines could also be effective. Such dose sparing could be particularly meaningful to immunization programs in low- and middle-income countries, as they could potentially reduce the amount of vaccine needed per patient, thereby cutting

costs and overcoming vaccine shortages. However, concerns regarding the difficulty and a lack of reliability of conventional ID injections limit research in this field and introduction of this technique into immunization programs.

Technology solution

The PATH intradermal adapter makes ID injections easier. It facilitates the procedure by standardizing injection depth and angle. It is anticipated that the ID adapter would expand the pool of health care workers capable of performing the procedure. This would have a particularly high impact in remote or underserved communities with more limited access to health care specialists.

Current status and results

In partnership with SID Technologies of Newtown, Pennsylvania, PATH developed the ID adapter from the initial concept through manufacturing of clinic-ready devices. We modified and tested successive design

prototypes, incorporating feedback from health care workers in the United States and India. Performance of the current model has been proven in preclinical testing, and will be demonstrated in a clinical trial with saline and ultrasound imaging in the United States in 2011. The ID adapter will then be used in a clinical trial with rabies vaccine in 2012.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact

Darin Zehrung at dzehrung@path.org.

Donor support

Support for this project was provided through funding from private foundations and

individual donors to the Health

Innovation Portfolio at PATH.

“The use of reliable

ID delivery devices

for rabies vaccination

and for other vaccines

and drugs can have

application in areas

where health care

workers are not used to,

or confident with, ID

delivery by the Mantoux

technique.”

Recommendation of the World Health Organization/Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Consultation, Annecy, France, October 7–9, 2009.

The intradermal adapter

fits over a conventional

needle and syringe.

PA

TH/Emi

ly G

risw

(18)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

April 2012May 2010

Microneedle Patches

Health need

Some vaccines are too expensive for developing-country immunization programs. Others are subject to shortages or imperfect distribution systems. Any one of these factors can prevent people from accessing the vaccines that they need. PATH is exploring ways to bridge the gap. A potential solution for some vaccines is intradermal (ID) delivery. The skin is an active player in the human immune system, particularly the shallow, upper layers. Delivering vaccines directly to these tissues can be very effective. Research shows that reduced-dosage of vaccine delivered intradermally can achieve the same results as an intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. ID delivery does so using up to 80 percent less vaccine—helping to optimize the capacity of the cold chain, lower the cost of each dose, and enable immunization programs to stretch their vaccine supplies across more patients.

This approach is not yet universal despite clear benefits. This is due, in part, to the difficulty of giving an ID injection correctly. The Mantoux technique, which uses a traditional needle and syringe for ID delivery, can be difficult to learn and impractical to use in many settings. Concerns regarding the difficulty and a lack of reliability of conventional ID

injections limit research in this field and introduction of this technique into immunization programs.

Technology solution

Microneedles are a diverse field of delivery technologies designed to access the intradermal cells. Some microneedle patches consist of tiny needles coated with vaccine, while others use the skin’s moisture to dissolve the vaccine into the intradermal layer. Hollow microneedles are a different type of device, using miniature needles attached to a regular syringe. Preclinical studies show great promise for these technologies, particularly with influenza and herpes simplex virus vaccines. Easy to use and intuitive, these devices could simultaneously make intradermal delivery easier and more effective.

Current status and results

Building on earlier work under the Health Innovation Portfolio—where we tested herpes simplex virus, malaria, and hepatitis B vaccines with microneedles—PATH formed a collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Emory University. This project aims to create a microneedle patch that allows people to self-administer influenza vaccine. PATH will evaluate the technology from a variety of angles, including medical, economic, social, and regulatory, and PATH will assist Georgia Tech in developing a strategy to address any issues. The team will also carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis to quantify the potential cost implications of a self-administered vaccine. Our work will assess the feasibility of this novel approach and help plan for the introduction of microneedles into clinical practice more effectively.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact

Darin Zehrung at dzehrung@path.org.

Donor support

Support for this project was provided through funding from private foundations and

individual donors to the Health

Innovation Portfolio at PATH,

and from National Institute

of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.

“If we can make it

easier for people to be

vaccinated and improve

the effectiveness of

the vaccine, we could

significantly reduce

the number of deaths

caused every year by

influenza.”

Dr. Mark Prausnitz, Georgia Institute of Technology.

One example of a

microneedle patch.

Sco tt A rem an

(19)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

October 2011May 2010

Intranasal Delivery Devices

Health need

Intranasal and pulmonary delivery devices deliver vaccines or medications directly to the nasal cavity or lungs, where they can be absorbed directly by the appropriate tissues. Studies have demonstrated that vaccines against some pathogens can be more efficacious when delivered by the intranasal or pulmonary route, particularly if these are the routes of infection. In addition, many drugs may be delivered by intranasal and pulmonary routes. Advantages of these routes of delivery include targeting the drug to the site of infection or disease, rapid absorption into the blood stream, and easier, needle-free delivery.

In high-income countries, intranasal and pulmonary devices are used for influenza vaccine as well as treatment of noncommunicable pulmonary diseases such as asthma. These routes of delivery may also be suitable for critical developing-country health needs, including measles and tuberculosis vaccines, novel vaccine technologies such as DNA or viral vector vaccines, and drugs for respiratory infections such as tuberculosis or pneumonia. For these applications, the delivery approach has the potential to enable increased access, improved safety over needle injections, and reduced treatment costs. However, existing delivery technologies are often focused on high-income country markets, and do not necessarily address the needs of developing countries such as cost, safety, and ease of use.

Technology solution

The development of intranasal or pulmonary delivery drugs and vaccines important to public health is ongoing. In addition to improved efficacy, wider use of these delivery routes could have added benefits including the potential for delivery by a broader range of health care workers and a reduction in the use of sharps. Identification of and access to the delivery device designs that better meet developing-country public health requirements, such as cost and safety, would facilitate the introduction of new therapies. Optimizing the design and manufacture of delivery devices to ensure the production of reliable, low-cost, and appropriate devices for future vaccine and drug applications would also help to address the needs of developing countries.

Current status and results

PATH recently conducted an analysis of intranasal delivery technologies for use with live attenuated influenza vaccine. A variety of types of intranasal delivery devices were evaluated, including liquid drops and sprays, dry powders, prefilled and user-filled devices, single-use and multiuse devices, and separate and integrated reconstitution technologies. The results were used to inform manufacturers of new, low-cost influenza vaccines intended for developing-country use, of the delivery device options currently available and the important considerations for selecting or developing a delivery technology for use with their vaccines.

PATH also continues to explore the landscape of aerosol and pulmonary delivery technologies and potential applications for public health.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact

Darin Zehrung at dzehrung@path.org.

Donor support

Support for this project was provided through funding

from the Bill & Melinda Gates

Foundation.

“Inhalational

administration of

substances is necessary

for treatment of

asthma and chronic

lung disease, and

has been evaluated

for delivery of other

molecules. There is a

need for development

of affordable and

standardized devices for

administration...”

World Health Organization

(WHO). The Selection and Use

of Essential Medicines. Report of the WHO Expert Committee,

2009. Geneva: WHO; 2009.

Available at: http://www.who. int/medicines/publications/ TRS958_2010.pdf

Evaluation of a nasal

spray device.

PA TH/G en e Sax on

(20)

Technology Solutions for Global Health

April 2012May 2010

SmartConnect

Health need

In many developing countries, health care is delivered in rural areas at health posts or dispensaries that are at significant distance from higher-level facilities. Due to their rural locations, the infrastructure connecting these facilities is often poor, they may only be accessible via small roads or tracks, and some are off the electrical grid or at the periphery of cell phone service.

These facilities have many communication needs with the health service, including filing incidence reports on diseases, receiving results of

diagnostics tests as well as general administrative information. In addition, there is a need to provide automatic monitoring of equipment including vaccine refrigerators and test equipment. Increasing the reliability and speed of this communication permits health workers to spend more time with patients and allows new services to be offered.

Technology solution

In collaboration with Inveneo, a San Francisco-based social enterprise, PATH has developed SmartConnect, a communication device for

peripheral health facilities. The idea behind SmartConnect is to focus on a facility-based communication appliance (such as a point-of-sale terminal). Advantages of a facility-based device include being able to tie the device to existing infrastructure, improved physical security and reliability, and a user interface that is adapted to specific communication tasks.

The device was designed to use cellular network for communication where data is encoded into short message service (SMS) messages. SMS is the lowest common denominator for data communication and can be cost-effective, provided that the amount of data being sent is small. The messages are sent between the device and a server connected to the internet. The server is a bridge between the device and the health system, forwarding messages by either email or SMS and making results visible on a web-accessible dashboard. The core SmartConnect device consists of a microprocessor, a cell phone radio, digital input output peripherals, and an external antenna.

Current status and results

Inveneo developed hardware and software prototypes of SmartConnect based on requirements developed by PATH. Initial communication applications for the device included monitoring the vaccine cold chain, reporting surveillance data, and tracking stock levels. The team conducted an initial field trial in Nicaragua in collaboration with PATH’s Nicaragua office and a technology assessment in Vietnam in collaboration with Project Optimize. The initial version of SmartConnect has provided important information on communication needs of health facilities and how they can be supported with a communication appliance. Future versions of SmartConnect are likely to adopt the Android platform as the underlying hardware.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact Richard Anderson at randerson@path.org.

Donor support

Support for this project was provided through funding from private foundations and

individual donors to the Health

Innovation Portfolio at PATH.

SmartConnect version 2.

PA TH/P at ric k M cK er n

During visits to remote

health posts, PATH’s

SmartConnect team

learned that it often

takes many hours of

travel by foot, horse, or

bus to reach the nearest

town. As a result, health

workers face long

delays in picking up

diagnostic test results

and submitting reports.

Additionally, problems

such as running out of

supplies or trouble with

equipment, often go

unreported.

(21)

Mailing address: PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Street address: 2201 Westlake Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA

Technology Solutions for Global Health

April 2012May 2010

Technologies for Oral Delivery of

Vaccines

Health need

Vaccines against some pathogens can be more efficacious when delivered by the oral route, particularly if these are the routes of infection. By adopting a route for vaccine delivery that mimics the natural infection, the appropriate immune tissue is targeted, which could be beneficial for a protective immune response. Vaccines and medications that are suitable for this route of delivery include oral poliovirus vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, and some nutritional supplements. There are many devices that can deliver drugs and vaccines orally, some are not appropriate for developing countries, while others are only suitable under particular circumstances. Some vaccines have large dose sizes, which preclude certain types of devices; these bulky containers can easily overburden a packed cold chain. While many technologies could be repurposed for vaccines, some were developed with high-income countries in mind and require manufacturing processes beyond the reach of developing-country vaccine manufacturers. Finally, even the most streamlined, user-friendly design will do little good if it is too costly for immunization programs in low-resource settings.

Technology solution

A major benefit to oral delivery is the ease of administration. Health workers with minimal training can safely immunize the community’s children. It also means one less shot for a baby and one less needle for disposal. While there are many options that could do this job, finding the right technology for a particular situation can be a challenge. The device has to fit the drug’s format, be inexpensive to manufacture and purchase, and ideally should also integrate seamlessly in to the logistics system and be suitable for outreach to remote areas. One size does not fit all, but careful planning can make access to and delivery of immunizations easier and more effective. Connecting device developers to vaccine manufacturers and enabling these partnerships through a long development process calls for creative and synergistic approaches.

Current status and results

PATH specializes in exploring the landscape of available technologies, identifying and developing solutions, and helping countries articulate their needs so that manufacturers can offer products that best fit a program’s unique situation. For example, PATH recently conducted an analysis and user assessment of oral delivery technologies for use with rotavirus vaccine. A variety of types of devices were evaluated, including liquid droppers and tubes, modified syringes, prefilled and user-filled devices, single- and multiuse devices, and separate and integrated reconstitution technologies. The results were used to inform manufacturers developing new, low-cost rotavirus vaccines intended for use in low-resource countries.

PATH continues to explore the landscape of oral delivery technologies and potential applications for public health. We work to ensure that the presentation and packaging of vaccines and medications is appropriate, sustainable, and enables the best coverage and efficacy possible.

Availability

For more information regarding this project, contact

Darin Zehrung at dzehrung@path.org.

Donor support

Support for this project was provided through funding

from the Bill & Melinda Gates

Foundation.

Oral delivery of polio

vaccine in Bangladesh.

M. D or ga be ko va

A major benefit to oral

delivery is the ease of

administration.

Figure

Updating...

References