Grammatical Errors Made by the Third Semester Students of English and Literature Department in Writing Text

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GRAMMATICAL ERRORS MADE BY THE THIRD SEMESTER STUDENTS OF ENGLISH AND LITERATURE DEPARTMENT IN

WRITING TEXT

A Thesis

Submitted to the Adab and Humanities Faculty of Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

of Sarjana Humaniora

FADHIL SAM 40300113164

ENGLISH AND LITERATURE DEPARTMENT ADAB AND HUMANITIES FACULTY

ALAUDDIN ISLAMIC STATE UNIVERSITY OF MAKASSAR 2017

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MOTTO

“I live the life as I travel,

I am going to be still unstoppable

until those dreams are reached”

~ Fadhil Sam

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Alhamdulillahi rabbil ‘alamin, the researcher would like to express his confession and gratitude to the most perfection, Allah Swt for the guidance, blessing and mercy in completing this thesis. Shalawat and salam are always delivered to the great Prophet Muhammad Saw, his family and followers till the end of the time.

The researcher realized that there were some problems faced by him in accomplishing this research. Those problems could not be solved without getting assistance, support, helps, motivations, criticisms, encouragement and guidance from many people. Therefore, the researcher would like to express his deepest gratitude to the following:

1. The researcher’s beloved family Sampara Kanji, Mustainah and Hj. Rehana for all their prayers, supports and eternally affections as the biggest influence in his success and happy life and also to his beloved siblings Akbar Sam, Putri Adelya and Damir Aqil for their happy and colorful life.

2. Prof. Dr. H. Musafir Pabbahari, M.Si. as the Rector of Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar, who has given his chance to study in English and Literature Department so that he could finish his study.

3. Dr. H. Barsihannor, M. Ag. as the Dean of Adab dan Humanities Faculty, H. Muhammad Nur Akbar M.Pd., M.Ed., Ph.D. as the Head of English and

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Literature Department and Syahruni Junaid, S.S., M.Pd. as the Secretary of English and Literature Department for their support, help and encouragement. 4. Dr. Hj. Nuri Emmiyati, M.Pd. as his first supervisor and Masykur Rauf,

S.Hum., M.Pd. as the second supervisor who have made so much time, guided, advised, and given him corrections and suggestions during completing his thesis.

5. Dr. Umar Thamrin, S.Ag., M.Hum., MA. and Faidah Yusuf, S.S., M.Pd. as his examiners for their advices, criticism and suggestion.

6. The lecturers of Adab and Humanities Faculty, for their knowledge and enlightenment, also to the staffs of Adab and Humanities Faculty for their help and administrative support.

7. Helmi Syukur, S.Pd.I., M.Pd. as his moderator and advisor who has given him a permission to do a research which includes the third semester students of English and Literature department and helped him in accomplishing his research.

8. His beloved friends Riska Amalia, Muhammad Nasir, Nursinta Hartina and Irna, who always listen to whatever he says, give a hand, advice the best deal, forbid unimportant thing and stand by him.

9. Unforgettably his friends in English and Literature Department 2013, especially in Academy Group (AG) 7-8 where he shares many experiences and knowledges during his study and writing. They make their wonderful contributions.

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LIST OF CONTENTS

COVER ... i

MOTTO ... ii

PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN SKRIPSI... iii

PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING... ... iv APPROVAL SHEET ... v PENGESAHAN SKRIPSI... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT... vii LIST OF CONTENTS ... x ABSTRACT... xii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Research Background... 1 B. Research Questions ... 4 C. Research Objective... 4 D. Research Significance ... 4 E. Research Scope ... 5

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Previous Findings... 6 B. Pertinent Ideas... 8 1. Grammar ... 8 2. Grammatical Units ... 9 3. Error ...11 4. Types of Error ... 12 5. Writing ...16

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

A. Research Method... 18

B. Population and Sample... 18

C. Research Instrument... 19

D. Procedure of Data Collection... 19

E. Technique of Data Analysis ... 20

CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION A. Findings... 21

B. Discussions... 53

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusions... 62

B. Suggestions ... 62

BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 63 APPENDICES

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of Research Background, Research Questions, Research Objective, Research Significance, and Research Scope.

A. Research Background

Every language has its own structure which is called grammar. It is an essential part of the use of both spoken and written language. Hornby (1995: 517) notes that grammar is the rules in a language for changing the form of a word and combining them into sentence and it is important thing in making a good sentence. By having a good grammar system of a language, it will be easier for people to express their ideas, messages and feelings. However, students who are learning English often encounter problems with grammar. They make errors either in speaking or writing. Dulay (1982: 138) says the flawed side of learner speech and writing is called as Errors. For example, the learners make errors in sentence formulation. They sometimes do not use correct punctuation or subject of the sentence, and they even have problems with pronouns or modifiers.

There are some factors that cause students to commit errors, such as the influence of their mother tongue or language interference and they also do not understand well about the English structure. In the study of errors, Richard (1974 : 174) points out that errors are not only caused by the interference from mother tongue, but also what he calls overgeneralization ignore of the rules restriction, incomplete application of rules, and false hypothesized. In this case, studying the

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structure (grammar) is really important because sometimes, the use of language will be ambigous which causes the meaning of the sentence cannot be understood easily. If people arrange the correct sentences, they also can arrange a good writing and make good communication. Furthermore, the readers or hearers can understand the meaning of the sentence easily. It is said in Al-qur’an Surah Al-Ahzab verse 70-71:

Translation:

“O you who believe! Be careful of (your duty to) Allah and speak the right word. He will put your needs into a right state for you, and forgive you your faults; and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he indeed achieves a mighty success.”(Al-Ahzab verse 70-71).

Based on M. Quroish Shihab (2002: 258) Allah SWT says: “O you who believe! Be careful of (your duty to) Allah, avoid yourself of Allah torture by obeying his commands as strong as your ability and keeping away from his prohibition, and speak involving prophet Muhammad and Zainab ra., even in your entire utterances, the right word. if you do the same thing, Certainly Allah will forgive you time by time and also your faults by guiding you for your right deeds.

This verse means, Allah SWT asks the human beings to be careful of the words that they deliver when praying with himself, and also to keep their words right to whoever they talk with, as the prophet Muhammad SAW and Zainab ra always speak the right word, then Allah SWT will guide them and their deeds. If the word is

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wrong, the meaning that is delivered will be ambigous too which can cause a negative effect. That is why Allah SWT reminds the human being to always keep their words right in Surah Al-Ahzab verse 70-71.

Error is sometimes found in students’ writing who have already studied English, because some of students are still confused how the words are formed correctly. Based on phenomena that the researcher had seen, the students who had studied about English Structure still made some errors, and the result of interviewing English structure and writing teachers, they said that the students still made some errors because they were low in grammar competence. That was why the researcher was interested in analyzing errors made by the third semester students of English and Literature Department, Adab and Humanities Faculty in Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar. Whereas, the previous researcher, Nasrul (2015) had investigated members of Al-Markaz for Khudi Enlightening Studies (MAKES) and found some errors on their writing Essay involving omission, addition, misformation and misordering.

In this study, the researcher chose theory of Dulay to analyze the grammatical errors in the students’ writing text. Based on Dulay (1982: 150-163), errors are generally classified into four categories, they are; omission, addition, misformation, and misordering.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher was inspired to conduct a research under the title Grammatical Errors Made by the Third Semester Students of English and Literature Department in Writing Text.

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B. Research Questions

Based on the Research Background, the researcher formulated the Research Questions below:

a. What are the grammatical errors made by the third semester students of English and literature department in writing text?

b. What is the most dominant grammatical error made by the third semester students of English and literature department in writing text?

C. Research Objective

The Research Objective aims to:

a. Describe what grammatical errors are made by the third semester students of English and literature department in writing text.

b. Find out the grammatical error which is most dominantly made by the third semester students of English and literature department in writing text.

D. Research Significance

The result of this research is expected to be useful for the researcher to increase his knowledge and gain more understanding about grammar. For the students, especially in English and Literature department is hoped to help them in improving their knowledge about English grammar and their English writing skills. Furthermore, this study is expected to give contribution and information to further researchers who are interested in doing similar research in the same field in the future.

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E. Research Scope

The researcher only focused on analyzing the grammatical errors especially in the surface strategy taxonomy based on Dulay’s theory. According to Dulay (1982: 150-163), errors are generally classified into four categories, they are; omission, addition, misformation and misordering.

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6 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the researcher explains more previous findings, partinent ideas and some terms which are related to the research problems.

A. Previous Findings

Puspasari and Romadon (2011) with their research “Grammatical Errors Made by The Facebook Users” aimed to find out the grammatical errors made by facebook users in posting their English status and to find out the possible causes of the grammatical erros made by facebook users in posting their status. A descriptive method was used in conducting this research. The objects of the study were English statuses posted in Facebook and made by the students of Bina Dharma Palembang. The study revealed the result that: there were four kinds of errors, omission errors (13.2%), addition errors (10.5%), misformation errors (72.4%), and misordering errors (3.9%). The highest number of errors made by the students was misformation errors (72.4%). The lowest number of errors that the students make was misordering errors (3.9%).

Putri (2012) with her thesis “Grammatical Errors in Students’ Essays” found 19 kinds of grammatical errors in the writings of Hasanuddin University students. she found verb/to-be (18.18%), subject and verb agreement (12.14%), preposition (10.52%), noun (9.56%), tenses (6.22%), quantifier and noun agreement (5.26%), word order (4.78%), pronoun and antecedent agreement (4.30%), passive voice

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(4.30%), adjective (3.34%), subjective pronoun (3.34%), gerund (3.34%), article (3.34%), conjungtion (2.87%), possesive form of noun (2.39%), to infinitive (1.91%), relative pronoun (1.91%), expletive (0.95%), and negative form (0.47%). Based on the frequency of occurence, verb/to-be and subject verb agreement were two most frequent errors. In addition, she also found the cause of grammatical errors. They were the influence of source of language, overgeneralization, incomplete application of grammar, and false concept hypothesized.

Choiriyah (2007) in her thesis “Syntactical Errors in Thesis Proposals on Syntax Study Written by The Students of English Letter and Language Department of The State Islamic University of Malang” found that there were saveral kinds of errors found in the students’ syntax thesis proposal. Based on the Surface Strategy Taxonomy analysis, the researcher found that the highest number of errors came from omission, and then followed by errors on misformation, errors on addition, and errors on misordering.

Based on the previous findings above, there are similarities and differences between the previous findings and the researcher’s study. The similarities are: they have the same study which discusses about error especially in grammar even though Choriyah’s thesis is more specific. Except Putri, in analyzing the errors they all use Dulay’s theory especially in the surface strategy taxonomy. The difference is they have different object to analyze, where Puspasari and Romadon choose facebook

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users, Putri chooses students’ essays, Choriyah chooses the Students’ thesis proposal, and the researcher himself chooses the students’ writing text as his object.

B. Pertinent Ideas 1. Grammar

In the middle Ages, grammar means the study of Latin, the language of choice for educated people. In the modern term, it has become a branch of linguistics. Woods (2010: 9) defines grammar as the study of language rules, especially, how the words are put together. Based on the definition, every language has grammar. English, Chinese, Indonesian, Arabian and others have different structure which can be described. Hung (2005: 5), a linguist and grammarian, in his grammar book for Chinese learner, states that grammar is about the way the words of a language are put together to make sentences.

Other linguists also give some definitions. One of them is Burchfield (2000; 340). He specially explains grammar as the study or rules of a language’s inflections or other means of showing the relation between words, including its phonetic system; a body of forms and usages in a specified language. Moreover, Brinton (2000; 8) says that grammar is used to refer to the rules of principles by which a language works its system or structure. Both definitions show that a language is a system. Therefore, rules of language are very essential to make the structures of language systematic.

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Most of definitions about grammar indicate that the term is a rule. As Kane (2000: 56) states that the rules which structure our language is called as grammar. Jackson (1982: 56) also postulates that the grammar description of a language specifies the way in which sentences structure. The rules of language govern the pronunciation of sounds, the way the words are put together, the manner in which sentences are constructed and the way meanings are created.

It is very important to note that the components of grammar are not only sound, word and sentence, but also meaning. Frazer and Hodson in Leacock et. al (2010: 1) state that each language has its own systematic ways through which words and sentence are assembled to convey meaning. This system is grammar. Words have individual meanings. How we interpret a sentence is determined by meaning of the individual words that it contains. To make a sense of sentence, people must know what words in a sentence refers to. Therefore, the interpretation of a sentence can be understood from its meaning.

Based on all the definitions above, the researcher concludes that grammar is the rule of language which describes the regular ways in which particular language uses construct sentences in their language. The components of grammar are sound, word, sentence, and meaning.

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From the definitions of grammar above, it can be found some basics of grammar. They are; sound, word, sentence, and meaning. In the study of linguistics, they are called as phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Phonology is the study about articulation and pronunciation of sounds, morphology is the study about the word formations, syntax is the study about sentence structure, and semantic is the study about meaning. They are the levels in the rules of grammar. They are related to one another from the smallest unit to the larger unit.

According to Mayer in Nasrul (2015: 10), the rules of grammar operate at various levels. The first is phonetics or phonology. This level focuses on the smallest unit of structure in language, the phoneme. Linguistics rules at this level describe how sounds are pronounced in various contexts. The next is morphology. The level of structure is morpheme, the smallest units of word. Rules of morphology focus on how words (and part of words) are structured. The larger level is syntax. This level of structure focuses on phrase, clause, and sentence. At the level of syntax, there are many rules stipulating how constituents within a clause are grouped. The last is semantics. Meaning is at the core of human communication. The study of semantics cuts across all of the other levels. Words can produce different meaning at the level of sound, at the level of morphology, and at the level of syntax. Based on the various level which Mayer has explained, he concludes that grammar is words with meaning.

Some linguists, however, argue that grammar mainly involves morphology and syntax. Like Leacock et.al. (2010; 1) states that grammars contain specific rules

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about the morphology and syntax of a language. Jackson (1982; 57) also states, two units, word and sentence, are basic to grammar, though it does not mean that those are only units of grammatical structure and there is no direct relation between word and sentence. Some groups of words construct a sentence. Word groupings combine in turn into the larger units. They are called as phrase and clause. Then, word patterns transform a phrase, phrases transform a clause, and clauses transform a sentence.

3. Error

When learners try to acquire fluency in English, making errors is inevitable because it is a fundamental part of learning a language (Dulay, 1982: 138).

Linguists distinguish error from mistake, as Ellis (1997) in Krisnawati (2013:185-186) errors reflect deviation in a learner’s knowledge which occur because the learner does not know what the correct and the incorrect are. While mistakes reflect occasional lapses in performance. They occur because the learner is unable to perform what he or she knows. Errors indicate a lack of knowledge, while mistakes indicate a situation in which learners know the correct form but they fail due to slipping up. In addition, Lersen-Freeman in Trawisnki (2005: 53) distinguishes mistake from error. A mistake is a random slip of the tongue, usually caused by fatigue, stress, hurry and so on. Its signals are only inappropriate performance and can be easily corrected by the learner. Error indicates a lack of language competence, therefore learners cannot correct their own errors because they have insufficient knowledge of grammar.

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Brown (2006: 257-258) also carefully differentiates mistake from error. Mistake refers to a performance error caused by random guess or a slip, or it can be said a failure to use a known system. The learners know the system but they fail to use it. So, mistake can be self- corrected. An error reflects to the competence of the learner. The learner’s system is incorrect.

Like an error, mistake also indicates a deviation of rules of the language which occurs since the learners fail to use the systems or the rules correctly (Brown, 2006: 226).

An error cannot be self-corrected, according to Lames (1998) in Brown (2006: 227), while mistakes can be self-corrected if the deviation is pointed out to the speaker. Mistakes are what researchers have referred to as performance errors (the learner knows the system but fails to use it), while errors are the result of one's systematic competence (the learner's system is incorrect).

Based on the definitions of error above, the researcher concludes that errors are the lack of knowledge about the system of language. Therefore, the learner cannot correct his or her language until they master the rule of the system of language.

4. Types of Error

Trawinski (2005: 56-58) notices some major typologies of error based on some different perspectives.

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Errors based on the surface strategy taxonomy are divided into four types. They are; omission, addition, misformation, and misordering.

b) Language Competence Taxonomy

Errors resulting from gaps in language competence can be divided into two types. They are overt error and covert error.

c) Error Systematically Taxonomy

Errors based on their relation to the stage of the learner’s linguistic development are divided into three types. They are; pre-systematic error, systematic error, and post systematic error.

d) Error Gravity Taxonomy

Errors based on gravity are divided into two types. They are global errors and local errors.

e) Error Source Taxonomy

Errors based on factors that may evoke the language error are divided into two types. They are inter-lingual error and intra-lingual errors.

The researcher, however only focused his research on the errors in the surface strategy taxonomy based on Dulay’s theory. According to Dulay (1982: 150-163), learners may omit necessary items or add unnecessary ones and they misform items, or misorder them.

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a) Omission

Omission is the error of leaving out an item that is required for an utterance to be considered grammatical. Omission errors are usually characterized by the absence of an item that must appear in a well-formed utterance.

For example:

Nasir watching a theatre.

The sentence above contains error, because the sentence misses an auxiliary. This error is categorized in omission. Based on the grammatical rule, the correct sentence is:

Nasir is watching a theatre.

According to Dulay (1982: 154-155), there are two kinds of omission. They are; the omission of content morphemes or major constituents and the omission of grammatical morphemes. The omission of content morphemes or major constituents includes nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. The omission of grammatical morphemes includes noun and verb inflections, articles, verb auxiliary, and preposition.

b) Addition

Addition errors are the opposite of omission errors. They are characterized by the presence of an item which must not be presented in a well-formed utterance. For example:

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This sentence is error because it uses double mark of present tense. The added item is the bound morpheme -s in the ‘knows’ word. So, it is categorized as addition error. Based on the grammatical rule, the correct sentence is:

My father does not know the news.

According to Dulay (1982: 156-158), there are three kinds of addition. They are double markings, regularizations, and simple additions. In double markings, two items rather than one are marked for the same feature such as tense. Regularization errors that fall under the addition category are those in which a marker that typically added to linguistics items is errenously added to exceptional items of the given class that do not take a marker. In simple addition, no particular features characterize the errors.

c) Misformation

Misformation errors are characterized by the usage of the unacceptable or wrong form of the morpheme or structure.

For example:

Marini and Magfira visit Malino Highland last week.

The sentence above is categorized as misformation error due to it uses wrong form as well as its tense. Based on the grammatical rule, the correct sentence should be:

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According to Dulay (1982: 158-161), there are three kinds of misformation. They are; regularization, archi-forms, and alterning forms. Regularization errors that fall under the misformation category are those in which a regular marker is used in place of an irregular one. Archi-forms are the selection of one member of a class of forms to represent other in the class. In alterning forms, the use of archi-forms often gives way to the apparently fairly free alternation of various members of a class with each other.

d) Misordering

The incorrect placement of a morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance is characteristic of misordering error.

For example:

Why the lecture is angry?

The sentence above is categorized as misordering error due to it uses a wrong order of subject and auxiliary. Based on the grammatical rule, the correct sentence should be:

Why is the lecture angry? 5. Writing

According to Patel and Jain (2008: 125), writing is a kind of linguistic behavior; a picture is not. It presents the sounds of language through visual symbols. Writing may be very important for one group of students but much less important for others. They also say that writing is a skill which must be taught and practiced.

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Harmer (1998: 79) says that writing is appropriate for such learners. It can also be a quiet reflective activity instead of the rush and bother of interpersonal face to face communication. The most important reason for writing, of course, is that it is a basic language skill, just as important as speaking, listening and reading. Students need to know how to write letters, how to put written reports together, how to reply to advertisement and increasingly.

Based on the explanation about writing above, the researcher concludes writing as organizing experience, ideas or information, in the form of arranges sentences or even paragraphs. People can also add that in order to make a good written text someone has to pay attention to the rules of writing when they are going to write a composition such as grammar, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling, adjective, adverb and capitalization.

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18 CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter consists of Research Method, Population and Sample, Research Instrument, Procedure of Data Collection, and Technique of Data Analysis.

A. Research Method

In this research, descriptive qualitative method was used to analyze the data. According to Hancock (2009:1), qualitative research is concerned with developing explanations of social phenomena. This method aims to describe the grammatical errors made by the third semester students of English and literature department in writing text.

B. Population and sample 1. Population

The population of this research is the third semester students in 2016/2017 academic year who had studied English Structure. The populations of this research are 124 students which are divided into six groups (AG 1-6) where each group belongs about 24 students.

2. Sample

The researcher used purposive sampling as Sugiyono (2009: 85) says that purposive sampling is a technique with particular consideration. The researcher had chosen 1 class from 3 classes selectively. Based on some considerations, the researcher chose AG 3-4. So, the sample of this research are 35 students.

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C. Research Instrument

In collecting data, the researcher used test and checklist as the instruments. Brown (2004: 3) defines test as a method which is used to measure competence, knowledge, intelligence, and ability of talent which is possessed by individual or group to collect data. The researcher came to the class and asked the students to write down a text in a piece of paper which had been prepared by the researcher with different topics. Based on Frenkel (2003: 126-127), performance checklist is a device often used by the writer to find out the error by placing a check on the list.

D. Procedure of Data Collection

The researcher collected the data in following steps:

1. First, the researcher came to the class of AG 34 of the third semester students of English and Literature department and gave explanation and direction about what the students should do with the test.

2. Second, the researcher enquired the students to write down a text about 45 minutes in a piece of paper which had been provided by the researcher with different topics.

3. Third, the researcher pre-checked the students’ writing.

4. Fourth, the researcher asked the students to re-correct their writing to make sure that they did error or mistake.

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E. Technique of Data Analysis

After the data were collected, the data were analyzed in following steps: 1. The researcher identified the collected data.

2. The researcher categorized the grammatical errors made by the students. 3. The researcher classified the grammatical errors which were made by the

students based on Dulay’s theory. They were: omission, addition, misformation and misordering.

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21 CHAPTER IV

FINDING AND DISCUSSION A. Findings

After identifying and analyzing the samples, the researcher finds the errors made by the third semester students of English and Literature Department in writing text. They are classified into four kinds of error. They are omission, addition, misformation, and misordering. In the following table the researcher shows the result of the research.

1. Grammatical Errors and the Most Dominant Error Made by the Third Semester Students of English and Literature Department in Writing Text Table 4.1 Grammatical Errors in the Surface Strategy Taxonomy

No Surface Strategy Taxonomy Number of Error Percentage

1 Omission 136 44,01 %

2 Addition 77 24, 92 %

3 Misformation 81 26, 21 %

4 Misordering 15 4, 86 %

Total 309 100 %

Table 4.1 indicates that the third semester students of English and Literature Department produce all of the error classifications in surface strategy taxonomy. There are 136 omission errors, 77 addition errors, 81 misformation errors and 15

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misordering errors. The errors, then, are further explained in the following table based on the errors occured in the grammatical units.

Table 4.2 Grammatical Errors Occured in the Grammatical Units

No Grammatical Units Omi. Add. Misf. Miso.

1 Subject 11 - - -2 Verb 7 - 36 -3 Preposition 3 14 5 -4 Article 3 7 1 -5 Plural Marker 25 9 9 -6 Auxiliary 27 11 16

-7 Progressive & Gerund 11 15 -

-8 Regular Past Tense 2 6 -

-9 Third Person Singular 18 2 -

-10 Infinitive Marker 13 1 - -11 Connector 10 - - -12 Adjective 1 - - -13 Superlative - - 1 -14 Present Indicate - 1 - -15 Irregular Past - 2 - -16 Pronoun - 4 3

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-23 17 Possesive Pronoun - - - -18 Adverb - - 1 -19 Participle - - 2 -20 Word/Letter 5 5 7 14 21 Auxiliary in Simple Question - - - 1 Total 136 77 81 15 1. Omission

Table 4.2 shows that there are many omission errors that occur in the grammatical units on students’ writing text. They are omission of subject, verb, preposition, article, plural markers, auxiliary, progressive, regular past tense, third person singular, infinitive marker, connector, adjective and letter of word.

a) Omission of Subject

Based on the Table 4.2, it is shown that there are 11 omissions of subject which are made by 10 students in writing text as shown in the following sentences; Extract 1:

I want to go to one of the best beaches there, ^ is Lanika beach.

The sentence above is made by the 19th student. The sentence contains error, because the sentence misses a subject. The auxiliary verb cannot stand alone without the presence of a subject. Then, this error is categorized in omission of subject. Based

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on the grammatical rule, the correct sentence should be “I want to go to one of the best beaches there, it is Lanika beach”.

Another example of omission of subject is also shown in the sentence; Extract 2:

I want to go to Mekkah because in Mekkah ^ many places that have history of Islam.

The error sentence is produced by the 24th student. It is categorized as omission of subject and auxiliary. In the second clause there are no subject and auxiliary. The noun “many places” should be preceded by a subject and auxiliary. Based on the grammatical rule, the correct sentence is “I want to go to Mekkah because in Mekkah there are many places that have history of Islam”.

b) Omission of Verb

Based on the Table 4.2, it is shown that there are seven omissions of verb which are produced by five students in writing text as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 3:

They can ^ vacation with their family or their someone special.

The sentence above is made by the 12th student. It is categorized as omission of verb. The sentence only has an auxiliary or helping verb without an ordinary verb. The noun “vacation” should be preceded by an ordinary verb to complete the idea of

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the sentence. Based on the grammatical rule, the correct sentence should be “They can have vacation with their family or their someone special”.

Another example of omission of verb is also shown in the sentence made by the 28thstudent;

Extract 4:

On the way, we ^ traffic jam.

The sentence is categorized as omission of verb because there is no an action of the sentence. The word class of “traffic” is noun so it must be preceded with an ordinary verb in order to make the idea of the sentence clearer. Based on the grammatical rule, the correct sentence is “On the way, we got traffic jam”.

c) Omission of Preposition

Based on the Table 4.2, it is shown that there are three omissions of preposition produced by three students. One of them is;

Extract 5:

I also want to go ^ London.

The error sentence is produced by the 22nd student. It is categorized as omission of preposition. The presence of a preposition “to” is appropriate to be attached in the sentence in order to make the sentence clearer about where the subject wants to go. The correct sentence should be “I also want to go to London”.

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d) Omission of Article

Based on the Table 4.2, it is shown that there are three omissions of article on students’ writing text. The errors, however, are produced by 3 students. One of them is;

Extract 6:

I want to see all of ^ things that become icon of London.

The word “things” should be preceded by the definite article “the” because the idea has been known by the subject. The correct sentence should be “I want to see all of the things that become icon of London”.

e) Omission of Plural Marker

Table 4.2 indicates that there are 25 omissions of plural marker made by 13 students as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 7:

For some person sunday is same with other days.

The error sentence is produced by the 12th student. Suffix -s or -es should be attached in the word “person” since it is included as countable noun. Moreover, it is also preceded by determiner “some” so the subject must be plural. The correct sentence should be “For some persons sunday is same with other days”.

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Extract 8:

The same case also occurs in the sentence which is made by the 17th Student

“It’s included as one of five Islam pillar”. It should be “It’s included as one of five Islam pillars”.

f) Omission of Auxiliary

Based on the Table 4.2, it is indicated that there are 27 omissions of auxiliary verb produced by the students. Two of them are;

Extract 9:

We ^ already known about the place.

The error sentence is produced by the 4thstudent. It is included in omission of auxiliary. The ideas are not clear because the ordinary verb “known” of the sentence is directly written without auxiliary verb. The ordinary verb should be preceded by an ordinary verb “have” because the sentence indicates present perfect tense form. The correct sentence should be “We have already known about the place”.

Extract 10:

The same case also occurs in the sentence which is made by the 30th student “and now ^ still applied.” It Should be attached a subject “it” and to be “is”. Because the sentence indicates a passive sentence. The correct sentence was “and now it is still applied.”

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g) Omission of Progressive Marker

Table 4.2 indicates that there are 11 omissions of progressive marker produced by 11 students in writing text as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 11:

I think I can spend the rest of my life only for visit this place.

The error sentence is made by the 4thstudent. The word “visit” in the sentence should be attached with suffix -ing after the verb. So that it can be functioned as its function. The correct sentence should be ”I think I can spend the rest of my life only for visiting this place”.

Extract 12:

The same case also occurs in the sentence made by the 25thstudent “Although

there are obstacles in reach my dream”. It should be “Although there are obstacles in reaching my dream”.

h) Omission of Regular Past

Based on the Table 4.2, it is indicated that there are two omissions of regular past. The errors are produced by two students. One of them is;

Extract 13:

I just stay at home, cleaned my room, decorated my room, and cooked some foods.

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The error sentence is made by the 12th student. The word “stay” misses the

suffix -ed. The verb should be in past form because the other verbs are written in past form. They are regular verb as well. The past form of regular verbs must be attached with suffix -d or -ed. The correct sentence is “I just stayed at home, cleaned my room, decorated my room and coocked some foods”.

i) Omission of Third Person Singular

Table 4.2 shows that there are 18 omissions of third person singular which are produced by 13 students as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 14:

Because everything need hard work to gain high expectation.

The error sentence is produced by the 6thstudent. It is included in omission of third person singular. The verb must be attached with suffix -s or -es since the subject used in the sentence is singular. The correct sentence should be ”Because everything needs hard work to gain high expectation”.

Extract 15:

The same case also occurs in sentence made by the 13thstudent “She just give

her heart for Allah SWT”. It supposed to be “She just gives her heart for Allah SWT”.

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j) Omission of Infinitive Marker

Based on the Table 4.2, it is shown that there are 13 omissions of infinitive marker made by 8 students as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 16:

Sometimes I forget ^ take a bath.

The incorrect sentence is made by the 12thstudent. It is omission of infinitive marker. Infinitive “to” should be attached between the both verbs because they are included infinitive. The omission of “to” causes ambiguity in determining the ordinary verb of the sentence. The correct sentence should be “Sometimes I forget to take a bath”.

Extract 17:

The same case also occurs in the sentence which is made by the 24thstudent “I

don’t have many reasons why I dream ^ visit Paris”. It should be “I don’t have many reasons why I dream to visit Paris”.

k) Omission of Connector

Table 4.2 shows that there are 10 omissions of connector produced by 7 students in writing text as shown in the following sentences;

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New york is place ^ I want to visit the most.

The incorrect sentence is produced by the 5th student. It needs connector

“that” to clarify what the object refers to and to reduce ambiguity of the sentence which has two main verbs. The correct sentence should be “New York is place that I want to visit the most”.

Extract 19:

Another omission of connector is also shown in the sentence “The first day ^ we were in Jakarta we just stayed at home”. The incorrect sentence is produced by the 14th student. It needs connector “when” to connect the dependent clause and the independent clause. It supposed to be “The first day when we were in Jakarta we just stayed at home".

l) Omission of Adjective

Based on the Table 4.2, it is indicated that there is an omission of adjective on students’ writing text as shown in the sentence below;

Extract 20:

Now, my village becomes one of the most ^ tourism place in Polewali Mandar regency which everyday gets visitors not only from Sulawesi but also from Kalimantan and other islands.

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The incorrect sentence is made by the 8th student. The sentence is not quite

clear because there is no adjective or characteristic which describes the noun. The sentence uses superlative “most” so it must be paired with adjective. The correct sentence is “Now, my village becomes one of the most favorite tourism place in Polewali Mandar regency which everyday gets visitors not only from Sulawesi but also from Kalimantan and other islands”.

m) Omission of Word Letter

Table 4.2 shows that there are five omissions of word letter. The errors are produced by five students. One of them is shown in the sentence below;

Extract 21

I have seen on Youtube a beuty of London city.

The error sentence is made by the 1st student. The word “beuty” of the sentence is meaningless because one of the letters of the word misses. The word “beuty” must be attached a letter “a” because it indicates a noun. The correct sentence is “I have seen on Youtube a beauty of London city”.

2. Addition

Table 4.2 shows that there are many addition errors which occurs in the grammatical units on students’ writing text. They are addition of present indicate, regular past form, irregular past form, third person singular, article, preposition,

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plural markers, verb, infinitive marker, prograssive marker, pronoun, and letter of noun.

a) Addition of Present Indicate

Based on the Table 4.2, it is shown that there is only one addition of present indicate on students’ writing text as shown in the sentence below;

Extract 22:

There are we know little bit hard to find halal food.

The incorrect sentence is made by the 29th student. It is double marking

because to be “are” has represented the present form of this sentence. The presence of word “know” item is not appropriate anymore. But to be “are” should be put after the subject. The correct sentence should be “There, we are little bit hard to find halal food”.

b) Addition of Regular Past

Table 4.2 indicates that there are six additions of regular past which are produced by five students as shown in the sentence below;

Extract 23:

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The error sentence is produced by the 26thstudent. The presence of suffix -d

or -ed of the ordinary verb “recommended” is not appropriate because the sentence uses auxiliary verb (modal) which has to be paired with the bare infinitive. The correct sentence should be “I should recommend to you the best film from Yamazaki Kento”.

c) Addition of Irregular Past

Based on the Table 4.2, it is shown that there are two additions of irregular past on students’ writing text. The errors, however, are made by two students. One of them is;

Extract 24:

Over there you might seen crocodile, bear, elephant, panda, kinds of bird, kinds of monkey, gorilla and etc that I can not mention one by one.

The incorrect sentence is made by the 14th student. The word “seen” in the sentence must be “see” because the sentence uses auxiliary verb or modal “might”. The correct sentence is “Over there you might see crocodile, bear, elephant, panda, kinds of bird, kinds of monkey, gorilla and etc that I can not mention one by one”.

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Table 4.2 indicates that there are two additions of third person singular on students’ writing text. The errors are produced by two students. One of them is;

Extract 25:

Watching the sunrise in the accompaniment of a guitar and singing with friends adds to this section.

The incorrect sentence above is made by the 16th student. The sentence is included in addition of third person singular marker because the verb is added suffix -s or -e-s. The addition of -suffix --s i-s not appropriate in the -sentence -since the -subject used in the sentence is plural. The correct sentence should be “Watching the sunrise in the accompaniment of a guitar and singing with friends add to this section”.

e) Addition of Article

Based on the Table 4.2, it is shown that there are seven additions of article on students’ writing text. The errors, however, are produced by six students. One of them is shown in the sentence below;

Extract 26:

I want to take a many pictures.

The incorrect sentence above is made by the 19th student. The object used in the sentence is plural. The article, therefore, should be omitted. The correct sentence is “I want to take many pictures”.

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Table 4.2 indicates that there are 14 additions of preposition produced by the students as shown in the following sentences.

Extract 27:

We have many activities in there.

The incorrect sentence is made by the 10th student. The presence of preposition “in” in the sentence is not needed since the word “there” has represented the preposition of this sentence. The correct sentence should be “We have many activities there”.

Extract 28:

Another case also occurs in the sentence “Because on Sunday is the most free time to do all the activities”. The error sentence is made by the 2ndstudent. The word “Sunday” is functioned as noun and it cannot be preceded with any preposition. the correct sentence is “Because Sunday is the most free time to do all the activities”.

g) Addition of Plural Marker

Based on the Table 4.2, it is indicated that there are nine additions of plural marker on students’ writing text. The errors are made by six students. One of them is; Extract 29:

We need a super efforts to get all the things undercontrol and finish the study on time.

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The incorrect sentence is made by the 6thstudent. It is categorized as addition

of plural marker. The suffix -s or -es should not be attached in the noun “efforts” because the subject of the sentence is singular. The correct sentence should be “We need a super effort to get all the things undercontrol and finish the study on time”.

h) Addition of Verb

Table 4.2 indicates that there are 11 additions of verb. The errors are produced by seven students as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 30:

That’s why am I feel so free.

The error sentence above is made by the 3rdstudent. The use of auxiliary verb “am” in the sentence is useless because the main verb of the sentence has been complete. The correct sentence should be “That’s why I feel so free.

Extract 31:

Another case addition of verb is also shown in the sentence which was made by the 17th student “I also want to visit is Tokyo”. It should be “I also want to visit Tokyo”.

i) Addition of Infinitive Marker

Based on the Table 4.2, it is indicated that there is only one addition of infinitive marker on students’ writing text as shown in the sentence below;

Extract 32:

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The incorrect sentence is made by the 28th student. It is categorized as

addition of infinitive marker. The infinitive “to” which appears before the main verb “visit” is not appropriate because it causes the sentence misses of main verb. The correct sentence should be “So many tourists visit there”.

j) Addition of Progressive Marker

Table 4.2 indicates that there are 15 additions of progressive marker. The errors are produced by 12 students as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 33:

I cannot count it and telling to you one by one.

The incorrect sentence is made by the 4th student. The word “telling” should be bare infinitive because the verb is preceded by auxiliary verb (modal). The correct sentence should be “I cannot count it and tell to you one by one”.

Extract 34:

The same case also occurs in the sentence which was made by the 27thstudent “I should go to campus and spending time in campus. It should be “I should go to campus and spend time in campus”.

k) Addition of Pronoun

Based on the Table 4.2, it is indicated that there are four additions of pronoun on students’ writing text. The errors are from four students. One of them is;

Extract 35:

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The error sentence above is made by the 8thstudent. The sentence is included

in addition of pronoun since the object of the data has been complete and it is not appropriate to be attached any pronoun. The correct sentence should be “So you can find rivers which flow down over the mountains”.

l) Addition of Word Letter

Table 4.2 indicates that there are five additions of word letter on students’ writing text. The errors are from four students. The example is;

Extract 36:

I want to be a reall Rabiatul Adawiah.

The incorrect sentence is made by the 13th student. There are some meaningless words in students’ writing text which are caused by addition of letter of noun and noun itself. For example: the word “reall” should be real so it could be functioned as its function. The correct sentence should be “I want to be a real Rabiatul Adawiah”.

3. Misformation

Table 4.2 shows that there are many misformation errors which occurs in the grammatical units on students’ writing text. They are misformation of auxiliary, preposition, pronoun, plural marker, verb, article, connector, adverb, participle, noun and its spelling and superlative.

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Table 4.2 indicates that there are 16 misformations of auxiliary on students’ writing text. The errors are produced by 10 students as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 37:

That I had been dreamed about.

The unacceptable sentence above is made by the 4th student. The auxiliary “had been” in the sentence should be changed with “had” only because the tense of this verb indicates perfect tense and the sentence also is not a passive sentence. The correct sentence should be “That I had dreamed about”.

Extract 38:

Another case is also shown in the sentence “because in Paris, there are Eiffel tower”. The incorrect sentence is made by the 24th student. To be “are” should be changed with “is” since the object of this sentence is only one. The correct sentence should be “because in Paris, there is Eiffel tower”.

b) Misformation of Preposition

Based on Table 4.2, there are five misformations of preposition on students’ writing text. The errors are made by four students. One of them is shown in the sentence;

Extract 39:

When we were in the beach, we talked about our experience when we was new student in the university.

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The unacceptable sentence is from the 7thstudent. The preposition “in” in the

sentence is not appropriate to be paired with “the beach”. It must be “on” because the name of the beach has been specific. The correct sentence should be “When we were on the beach, we talked about our experience when we were new student in the university”.

c) Misformation of Pronoun

Table 4.2 indicates that there are three misformations of pronoun on students’ writing text. The errors are from three students. One of them is;

Extract 40:

It is literature books or book analysis.

The unacceptable sentence is made by the 6thstudent. The pronoun “it” must be changed with “they” because there are many objects written in this sentence. The correct sentence should be “They are literature books or book analysis”.

d) Misformation of Plural Marker

Based on Table 4.2, there are nine misformations of plural marker on students’ writing text. The errors are produced by seven students. One of them is shown in the sentence;

Extract 41:

There are many activity that I do.

The unacceptable sentence above is made by the 10thstudent. The sentence is categorized as misformation of plural marker because the word “activity” is countable noun and preceded by plural determiner “many”. It is not appropriate so the noun

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“activity” should be plural “activities”. The correct sentence is “There are many activities that I do”.

e) Misformation of Verb

Table 4.2 indicates that there are 36 misformations of verb on students’ writing text. The errors, however, are produced from 17 students as shown in the following sentences;

Extract 42:

Let me tell you about the most important thing that I have do in my village. The incorrect sentence above is made by the 10th student. The ordinary verb “do” in the sentence should become “done” because it is preceded by an auxiliary verb “have”. Moreover, the sentence which is shown above uses present perfect tense. The correct sentence should be “Let me tell you about the most important thing that I have done in my village”.

Extract 43:

Another case also occurs in the sentence which was made by the 13th student “She have beautiful eyes but she is a bad girl. The verb “have” should be “has” because the subject used in the sentence is third person singular. The sentence supposed to be “She has beautiful eyes but she is a bad girl”.

f) Misformation of Article

Based on Table 4.2, there is only one misformation of article on students’ writing text, the sentence is;

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I also love a weather in London “not too hot”.

The incorrect sentence is made by the 1st student. It is categorized as misformation because the article “a” is not suitable with uncountable noun “weather”. The article should be changed with “the”. The correct sentence is “I also love the weather in London ‘not too hot’”.

g) Misformation of Connector

Table 4.2 indicates that there are seven misformations of connector on students’ writing text. The errors are produced from four students. One of them is; Extract 45:

The reason that I want to go there because for 3 years later, Tokyo will perform Olympic.

The unacceptable sentence is made by the 17thstudent. The word “that” in the sentence is not appropriate. It should be replaced with “why” to express the reason in the sentence. The correct sentence should be “The reason why I want to go there because for 3 years later, Tokyo will perform Olympic”.

h) Misformation of Adverb

Based on Table 4.2, there is only one misformation of adverb on students’ writing text, it is;

Extract 46:

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The unacceptable sentence is made by the 28th student. The sentence is

categorized as misformation of adverb because it has two main verbs, they are “live” and “take”. The word “live” must be changed with adverb “directly” in order to make this sentence more reasonable and easier to understand. The correct sentence should be “We are arrived 12.30 Am. We directly take a pray”.

i) Misformation of Participle

Table 4.2 indicates that there are two misformations of participle which are produced by two students. One of them is;

Extract 47:

Something in myself gives me suggestion I have to go there include Arabia, Egypt, Turkey, etc.

The incorrect sentence above is made by the 9th student. The word “include” in the sentence should be “included” to indicate past participle so the correct sentence should be “Something in myself gives me suggestion I have to go there included Arabia, Egypt, Turkey, etc”.

j) Misformation of Word Letter

Based on Table 4.2, there are seven misformations of word or its spelling on students’ writing text. The errors are produced from 6 students. One of them is shown in the sentence;

Extract 48:

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The incorrect sentence is made by the 15th student. The sentence above

becomes meaningless since the spelling of the word “few” is incorrect. The word “few” means “some”. It should be changed with noun “view” properly. The correct sentence is “You feel as if you are in your home, country, and wonderful view”.

k) Misformation of Superlative

Table 4.2 indicates that there is one misformation of superlative on students’ writing text. It is;

Extract 49:

Allah is the most biggest.

The incorrect sentence above is made by the 25th student. The words “most biggest” show that the words experience double superlative. It should be “greatest” or “biggest”. The rule of superlative clarifies that if the word (adjective) only has one syllabe, the suffix -est must be attached after the adjective and if the adjective has two or more syllables, the adjective must be preceded with “most”. For example: most interesting, most beautiful etc. While in the sentence above only has one syllable so the correct sentence should be “Allah is the greatest”.

4. Misordering

Table 4.2 shows that there are two kinds of misordering error which occur in the grammatical units on students’ writing text. They are misordering of auxiliary in simple question and word letter.

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Based on Table 4.2, there is only one misordering of auxiliary in simple question on students’ writing text, it is;

Extract 50:

But there is one of the most important in our life that my village doesn’t have. What it is? Enthusiasm of reading.

The incorrect sentence above is made by the 10th student. The sentence is included in misordering of auxiliary in simple question because the order of the subject and the auxiliary verb (to be) are incorrect. Based on the grammatical rule in simple question, the auxiliary verb (to be) must be put before the subject. The correct sentence is “But there is one of the most important in our life that my village doesn’t have. What is it? Enthusiasm of reading”.

b) Misordering of Word Letter

Table 4.2 indicates that there are 14 misorderings of word letter and noun itself. The errors are produced from 10 students as shown in the following sentences; Extract 51:

I am interested whit that.

The incorrect sentence is made by the 9th student. The word “whit” in the sentence was meaningless because the letter order of the word is incorrect. the sentence should be “I am interested with that”.

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Another case also occurs in the sentence “In the two next day, we went to visit Taman Mini Indonesia”. The sentence is made by the 14th student. It must be replaced with “In the next two days, we went to visit Taman Mini Indonesia” because the word class of “next” is adjective while “two days” are noun. Based on the phrase rule the adjective must come first before the noun.

The researcher, however also finds double errors in the writing text of the third semester students of English and Literature Department based on the data that has been collected by the researcher. The number of error, however is counted based on the error which occurs in the sentence.

Table 4.3 Double Grammatical Errors Occured on the Sentences

No Surface Strategy Taxonomy Number of Error Percentage

1 Omission + Addition 16 17,78 % 2 Omission + Misformation 19 21,11 % 3 Omission + Misordering 8 8,89 % 4 Addition + Misformation 14 15,56 % 5 Addition + Misordering 1 1,11 % 6 Misformation + Misordering 2 2,22 % 7 Omission + Omission 14 15,56 % 8 Addition + Addition 2 2,22 % 9 Misformation + Misformation 3 3,33 % 10 Omission + Addition + Misformation 8 8,89 %

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48 11 Addition + Misformation + Misordering 1 1,11 % 12 Omission + Addition + Misordering 1 1,11 % 13 Omission + Misformation + Misordering 1 1,11 % Total 90 100 %

Based on the table 4.3, it is shown that there are 90 sentences in which double errors occur. The error which occurs in the sentence is more than just one error. They are errors of omission + addition, omission + misformation, omission + misordering, addition + misformation, addition + misordering, misformation + misordering, omission + omission, addition + addition, misformation + misformation, Omission + Addition + Misformation, Addition + Misformation + Misordering, Omission + Addition + Misordering and Omission + Misformation + Misordering.

a) Omission + Addition

In error of omission + addition, there are 16 sentences which are included in it. The errors are produced by 14 students. One of them is shown in the sentence which is made by the 3rd student (Extract 53) “But we growing up day by day and make Sunday different than another Sunday ^ we ever passed”. The verb “growing” should be “grow” because the sentence indicates present tense and it cannot be added with “-ing” because there is no auxiliary verb which precedes it. Moreover, the sentence also needs connector “that” to clarify what the object is and to reduce the ambiguity of the sentence. The correct sentence should be “But we grow up day by day and make Sunday different than another Sunday that we ever passed”.

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b) Omission + Misformation

In omission + misformation error, there are 19 sentences in which errors occur. The errors are produced by 12 students. One of them is shown in the sentence which is made by the 10th student (Extract 54) “Let me tell you about the most important ^ that I have do in my village”. The sentence needs connector “that” to clarify what the object and to reduce the ambiguity of the sentence. Moreover, the word “do” should be replaced with “done” since the verb is preceded with an auxiliary verb “have”. The correct one should be “Let me tell you about the most important thing that I have done in my village”.

c) Omission + Misordering

In error of omission + misordering, there are 8 sentences which are included in it. The errors are produced by six students . One of them is shown in the sentence (Extract 55) “So my cousin make a read home”. The incorrect sentence is made by the 10thstudent. It should be “So my cousin makes a read home”.

d) Addition + Misformation

In addition + misformation error, there are 14 sentences in which addition + misformation errors occur. The errors are from nine students. One of them is shown in the sentence made by the 14th student (Extract 56) “We had been presented by many variants of food so we eaten together”. The word “by” in the sentence is not appropriate and the word “eaten” should be replaced with “ate” because the sentence

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indicates past tense form. The sentence should be “We had been presented many variants of food so we ate together”.

e) Addition + Misordering

In error of addition + misordering, there is one sentence which is made by the 29th student (Extract 57). The sentence is “I went to toured West Sulawesi”. It should be “I toured to West Sulawesi”.

f) Misformation + Misordering

In misformation + misordering error, there are two sentences in which errors occur. The errors are from two students. One of them is shown in the sentence written by the 6thstudent (Extract 58) “It is literature books or analysis books”. It should to be “They are literature books or book analysis”.

g) Omission + Omission

In error of omission + omission, there are 14 sentences which are included in it. The errors, however are from 11 students. One of them is shown in the sentence (Extract 59) “For some person Sunday ^ same with other days”. The incorrect sentence is made by the 12thstudent. The word “person” should be in plural because the word is preceded with “some” which meant plural. Furthermore, the sentence also misses a verb since the words “Sunday same” must be preceded with an auxiliary verb “is”. The correct sentence should be “For some persons Sunday is same with other days”.

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