Odborna praâce ORTODONCIE

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ZmeÏny profilu oblicÏeje ve spolecÏenskyÂch cÏasopisech

v pruÊbeÏhu 20. stoletõÂ

Changes of face profiles in fashion magazines during

the 20th century

MUDr.KaterÏina UtõÂkalovaÂ, MUDr.Ivo Marek, Prof.MUDr.Milan KamõÂnek, DrSc.

Ortodonticke oddeÏlenõ Kliniky zubnõÂho leÂka rÏstvõ LF UP Olomouc

Orthodontic Department, Clinic of Dental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University Olomouc Souhrn

CõÂlem teÂto studie bylo oveÏrÏit trend v estetice oblicÏeje v pruÊbeÏhu 20. stoletõÂ. HypoteÂza, kterou jsme chteÏli oveÏrÏit, se tyÂkala faktu, zda se cÏõÂm daÂl võÂce v populaci preferuje konvexneÏjsÏõ profil oblicÏeje a prominujõÂcõ rty. Bylo hodno-ceno 96 siluet profiluÊ upravenyÂch na stejnou velikost. Fotografie profiluÊ pochaÂzely z moÂdnõÂch a spolecÏenskyÂch cÏasopisuÊ ze cÏtyrÏ ruÊznyÂch obdobõ 20. stoletõÂ. Bylo meÏrÏeno 15 uÂhlovyÂch, lineaÂrnõÂch, proporcionaÂlnõÂch a plosÏnyÂch parametruÊ, ktere byly porovnaÂvaÂny vzaÂjemneÏ mezi jednotlivyÂmi obdobõÂmi. VyÂsledky byly hodnoceny testem roz-ptylu ANOVA a Post Hoc testy mnohonaÂsobneÂho porovnaÂvaÂnõÂ. Statisticky vyÂznamny rozdõÂl mezi skupinami byl zjisÏteÏn u uÂhlovyÂch a lineaÂrnõÂch ukazateluÊ anterio-posteriornõ polohy hornõÂho i dolnõÂho rtu, vyÂsÏky retnõ cÏerveneÏ, ob-vodu rtuÊ a plochy rtuÊ ve smyslu zveÏtsÏenõ rtuÊ a jejich võÂce anteriornõ polohy. Statisticky vyÂznamne zmeÏny nebyly prokaÂzaÂny u polohy nosu a celkoveÂho oblicÏejoveÂho uÂhlu. Z vyÂsledkuÊ teÂto praÂce vyplyÂvaÂ, zÏe v pruÊbeÏhu poslednõÂho stoletõ dosÏlo ke zmeÏneÏ polohy i tvaru rtuÊ na prezentovanyÂch fotografiõÂch. Tyto vyÂsledky naznacÏujõÂ, zÏe rty jsou plneÏjsÏõ a võÂce anteriorneÏ polozÏeny. SoucÏasneÏ je zrÏetelneÂ, zÏe naÂzor na estetiku oblicÏeje a vnõÂmaÂnõ atraktivity nenõ nemeÏnny a podleÂha zmeÏnaÂm v pruÊbeÏhu cÏasu(Ortodoncie 2008, 17, cÏ. 1, s. 13-23).

Abstract

The aim of the study is to examine the current trends in the facial esthetics within the 20th century. Question was, whether more prominent lips show gain in the preference with time. 96 silhouettes of profiles of the same size were assessed. The photographs were taken from fashion and popular magazines of the four different pe-riods of the 20th century. 15 angular, linear, proportional, and surface parameters were measured. The parame-ters taken in different periods of the 20th century were then compared. The results were evaluated by the disper-sion analysis ANOVA and Post Hoc multiple comparison tests. We proved statistically significant difference bet-ween the four groups in angular and linear parameters of the anterior-posterior position of both upper and lower lip, the height of the red portion of the lips, lips perimeter, and lip surface. We recorded the increase of lips as well as their more anterior position. The position of nose and total facial angle did not show statistically significant changes. The results suggest that both the position and shape of lips changed over the last century. The lips are more rounded and located more anteriorly. It is clear that the views of facial esthetics and perception of at-tractiveness are not constant but they change with time(Ortodoncie 2008, 17, No. 1, p. 13-23).

KlõÂcÏova slova:estetika oblicÏeje, profil oblicÏeje Key Words:face esthetics, face profile

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UÂvod

OblicÏej je hlavnõÂm lidskyÂm vyÂrazovyÂm prostrÏedkem. UmozÏnÏuje naÂm verbaÂlnõ atake nonverbaÂlnõ vyjadrÏo-vaÂnõÂ, kdy mimikou, gesty auÂsmeÏvem muÊzÏeme komuni-kovat nemeÂneÏ intenzivneÏ.

JizÏ v roce 1979 v cÏlaÂnku cÏasopisu American Medical Association je zvyÂsÏeny zaÂjem o plastickou chirurgii vy-sveÏtlovaÂn takto: ¹Zevnõ vzhled je nasÏõ vizitkou. Atrak-tivnõ aprÏõÂjemny vzhled otevõÂra dverÏe. Nenõ to pouze marnivost, ktera vede desõÂtky tisõÂc AmericÏa nuÊ ka zÏdyÂm rokem k plastickyÂm chirurguÊm, kde hledajõ mozÏnost zlepsÏenõ sveÂho vzhledu. ZaÂkroky plastickyÂch chirurguÊ nedaÂvajõ pacientuÊm zaÂzracÏneÏ novy talent nebo nost. SpõÂsÏe odstranÏujõ komplexy tak, zÏe vlastnõ osob-nost a talent pacienta se pote muÊzÏe rozvõÂjet normaÂlneÏ.ª [1].

ZcelajisteÏ muÊzÏeme toto vysveÏtlenõ aplikovat i na ortodoncii, nakorekci dentofacia lnõÂch anomaÂliõÂ. ZvyÂ-sÏeny zaÂjem o estetiku oblicÏeje se projevuje veÏtsÏõÂm mnozÏstvõÂm pacientuÊ, kterÏõ chteÏjõ prÏedevsÏõÂm dentaÂlnõ uÂpravu, ale zaÂrovenÏ jim cÏasto velmi zaÂlezÏõ i navzhledu oblicÏeje jako celku.

VeÏtsÏinalidõ chce mõÂt hezky a atraktivnõ oblicÏej. Za esteticky akraÂsny oblicÏej je povazÏovaÂn takovyÂ, jehozÏ ruÊzne cÏaÂsti jsou proporcionaÂlneÏ v souladu k jinyÂm cÏaÂ-stem oblicÏeje [2]. Podle Downse existujõ urcÏite pruÊ-meÏrne hodnoty oblicÏeje aprofilu. Pokud neÏktere rysy oblicÏeje vybocÏujõ z tohoto pruÊmeÏru, musõ byÂt kompen-zovaÂny jinyÂmi rysy tak, aby oblicÏej jako celek puÊsobil vyvaÂzÏeneÏ aharmonicky. Pokud jsou tyto odchylky od pruÊmeÏru prÏõÂlisÏ vyÂrazne bez mozÏnosti jejich kompen-zace, pak vyÂsledkem je neharmonicky anevyva zÏeny oblicÏej [3]. ObjektivneÏ lze hodnotit proporce oblicÏeje pomocõÂliniõÂrozdeÏlujõÂcõÂch oblicÏej avzaÂjemneÏ meÏrÏit apo-rovnaÂvat jednotlive oblicÏejove cÏaÂsti. SubjektivneÏ je vsÏa k na sÏe vnõÂmaÂnõ estetiky oblicÏeje velmi rozdõÂlne a vyÂ-znamneÏ ovlivneÏno dalsÏõÂmi faktory, jako naprÏõÂklad po-hlavõÂm, kulturou, etnickyÂmi faktory, individuaÂlnõÂmi pre-ferencemi av neposlednõ rÏadeÏ je ve velke mõÂrÏe take ovlivneÏno medii - celebritami a moÂdnõÂmi trendy pre-zentovanyÂmi v televizi acÏasopisech.

CõÂlem praÂce bylo zjistit, zdadochaÂzõ ke zmeÏneÏ pre-zentovanyÂch estetickyÂch norem v poslednõÂch sto le-tech azdalze potvrdit trend prosazujõÂcõ võÂce prominu-jõÂcõ rty aspõÂsÏe konvexnõ typ oblicÏeje a jak dalece se tento trend projevil v pruÊbeÏhu 20. stoletõ naza kladeÏ moÂdnõÂch aspolecÏenskyÂch cÏasopisuÊ ve cÏtyrÏech ruÊ-znyÂch obdobõÂch.

MateriaÂl a metodika

Do souboru bylo zarÏazeno 96 fotografiõ profiluÊ ze spolecÏenskyÂch amoÂdnõÂch cÏasopisuÊ neÏkolikacÏaso-vyÂch obdobõ 20. stoletõÂ. ZarÏazene fotografie musely splnÏovat naÂsledujõÂcõ kriteÂria:

Introduction

The face is a very important means of human expression. It helps us in verbal communication and makes non-verbal communication (when we use mi-mics, gestures and smile) possible.

In 1979, the journal of American Medical Associa-tion explained the increased interest in esthetic sur-gery: ¹Our appearance is our address-card. The at-tractive and pleasing appearance opens the door. Each year thousands of Americans visit plastic sur-geons to improve their appearance. Esthetic surgery does not give the patients a fabulous talent or persona-lity. It rather eliminates complexes, and the personality as well as talents of a patient may develop.ª [1]

The above explanation is also true of orthodontics, of correction of dentofacial anomalies. The number of patients asking for dentition treatment has been in-creasing. The people pay attention to their overall ap-pearance.

Most people desire a nice and attractive face. The esthetic and beautiful face is considered a face that is proportional [2]. According to Downs, there are cer-tain mean values of a face and profile. If some features exceed the average, other features must compensate, so that the face is well balanced and graceful. If the de-viations from the average are too expressive and there is no possibility to compensate for them, the resulting face is disharmonious and unbalanced [3]. For objec-tive evaluation we can differentiate the face by means of lines, and measure and compare individual parts of a face. However, our subjective perception of face esthetics varies, and other factors play an important role (e.g. sex, culture, ethnicity, individual preferen-ces). A very important role is played by mass media, the so-called celebrities, and fashion trends shown on TV and in magazines.

The aim of the study was to find out whether the esthetic standards changed during the last hundred years, and whether the preferred type of face is repre-sented by more prominent lips and rather convex shape now. We also tried to map how the trend mani-fested itself throughout the 20th century, in fashion magazines and in four different periods of time.

Material and methods

Our sample included 96 photographs of profiles from fashion magazines of different periods of the 20th cen-tury. The photographs met the following criteria: · Caucasian women, the age between 18 and 35 · profile of the whole face, accurately depicting

struc-tures from glabella to menton

· maximum of 2 mm of opposite eyebrow or lashes may be visible

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· zÏeny bõÂle rasy ve veÏku prÏiblizÏneÏ 18 a zÏ 35 let

· bocÏnõ profilovy zaÂbeÏr cele hlavy prÏesneÏ zobrazujõÂcõ struktury od glabely po menton

· nesmõÂ byÂt viditelnyÂch võÂce nezÏ 2mm protilehleÂho obocÏõÂ nebo rÏas

· viditelna jednacolumelaphiltrum hornõÂho rtu · rty v kontaktu

· zÏaÂdne siluety profiluÊ, kromeÏ siluet z let 1918-1925 za-rÏazenyÂch do souboru z duÊvodu nedostatku fotografiõ z tohoto obdobõÂ

Fotografie byly nafoceny digitaÂlnõÂm fotoaparaÂtem (Canon S2 IS, Canon Inc.) s pomocõ funkce makro. Pote byly ocÏõÂslovaÂny aserÏazeny podle roku, meÏsõÂce, naÂzvu cÏasopisu a straÂnky. DaÂle byly fotografie prÏeve-deny z pameÏt'oveÂho meÂdiado osobnõÂho pocÏõÂta cÏe aroz-deÏleny do cÏtyrÏ skupin podle cÏasove periody (Tab. 1).

NaÂsledneÏ byly vsÏechny fotografie upraveny v pro-gramu Adobe Photoshop 6.0. Fotografie byly oriento-vaÂny podle profilove vertikaÂlnõ linie (PRV) aupravena jejich velikost tak, aby vzdaÂlenost kozÏnõÂho nasion k subnasale byla 35 mm (Obr. 1) [4].

NaÂsledneÏ byly z kazÏde fotografie prÏekresleny pouze siluety aty byly vytisÏteÏny. NajednotlivyÂch siluetaÂch byly tuzÏkou oznacÏeny tyto body (Obr. 2):

1. glabela (G) - nejvõÂce prominujõÂcõÂ bod na cÏele ve strÏednõÂ rovineÏ

2. kozÏnõÂ nasion (N') - bod v mõÂsteÏ nejveÏtsÏõÂ konkavity v mõÂsteÏ frontonasaÂlnõÂ sutury

· lips in contact

· no silhouettes of portraits (the only exception being silhouettes from 1918-1925, as there is a lack of pho-tographs in this period)

The photographs were taken with a digital camera (Canon S2 IS, Canon Inc.) and a macro function. Then they were numbered and arranged according to the year, month, title of the magazine, and a page. The photographs were further copied from the card into PC, and then divided into four groups according to the time periods (Table 1).

Tab.1.RozdeÏlenõÂ fotografiõÂ do cÏtyrÏ skupin

Tab.1.Four study groups

group period number of pictures

A 1918-1925 21

B 1949-1955 25

C 1969-1975 25

D 1999-2005 25

Subsequently, all the photographs were adjusted with the Adobe Photoshop 6.0. The shots were orien-ted according to the profile vertical line (PRV), and their size was adjusted, so that the distance of skin nasion from subnasale was 35 mm (Fig. 1) [4].

Subsequently, silhouettes of individual photo-graphs were traced and printed on individual papers. In each silhouette the following points were marked with apencil (Fig. 2):

Obr.1.Orientace snõÂmku podle profilove vertikaÂlnõ linie (PRV) a uÂprava velikosti podle vzdaÂlenosti N'-Sn rovne 35mm

Fig.1.Orientation of a picture along the PRV line and adjustment to a height of 35mm from N'-Sn

Obr.2.VyznacÏene kozÏnõ body pouzÏite pro uÂhlovaÂ, lineaÂrnõ a propor-cionaÂlnõ meÏrÏenõÂ

Fig.2.Soft tissue points used for angular, linear and proportional measurements

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3. pronasale (P) - nejvõÂce vprÏedu prominujõÂcõÂ bod na nose (sÏpicÏkanosu)

4. subnasale (Sn) - bod lokalizovany ve spojenõ dolnõ hrany nosu a hornõÂho rtu

5. labrale superius (Ls) - nejvõÂce vprÏedu prominujõÂcõÂ bod hornõÂho rtu, zpravidla bod na prÏechodu cÏer-veneÏ rtu

1. glabella (G) - the most prominent point of the fore-head in central plane

2. skin nasion (N') - the point at the place of the lar-gest concavity in frontonasal suture

3. pronasale (P) - the most prominent point of the nose (tip of the nose)

4. subnasale (Sn) - the point in the connection bet-ween lower nasal edge and upper lip

5. labrale superius (Ls) - the most prominent point of the upper lip, usually the point in the place of the border of lip red

6. vermilion superius (Vs) - the point where the lip red changes (if it is different from Ls)

7. stomion (Stm) - when the lips are together, the po-int of contact between the upper and lower lips 8. labrale inferius (Li) - the most prominent point of

the lower lip, usually the point of lip red border 9. skin point B' - the point at the place of maximum

concavity between Li and skin pogonion

10. skin pogonion (Pog') - the most prominent point of the chin in central plane

The following angular measurements were perfor-med [°] (Fig.3):

1. NTA - nasal tip angle - the angle between the tan-gent of the nose ridge going from the nasion point and the lower nasal edge line going from the sub-nasale point

Obr.3a, 3b, 3c.UÂhlova meÏrÏenõÂ

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6. vermilion superius (Vs) - bod prÏechodu retnõ cÏer-veneÏ, pokud byl rozdõÂlny nezÏ Ls

7. stomion (Stm) - prÏi uzavrÏenyÂch rtech mõÂsto kon-taktu hornõÂho a dolnõÂho rtu

8. labrale inferius (Li) - nejvõÂce vprÏedu prominujõÂcõÂbod dolnõÂho rtu, zpravidla bod na prÏechodu cÏerveneÏ rtu 9. kozÏnõÂbod B' - bod v mõÂsteÏ nejhlubsÏõÂkonkavity mezi

body Li akozÏnõÂm pogonion

10. kozÏnõÂ pogonion (Pog') - nejvõÂce prominujõÂcõÂ bod na bradeÏ ve strÏednõÂ rovineÏ

Bylaprovedenana sledujõÂcõ uÂhlova meÏrÏenõ [°] (Obr. 3):

1. UÂhel nosu (NTA - nasal tip angle) - uÂhel mezi tecÏ-nou hrÏbetu nosu probõÂhajõÂcõÂ od bodu nasion a liniõÂ dolnõÂ hrany nosu probõÂhajõÂcõÂ od bodu subnasale 2. NasolabiaÂlnõÂ uÂhel (NLA - nasolabial angle) - uÂhel

mezi liniõÂ dolnõÂ hrany nosu probõÂhajõÂcõÂ od bodu sub-nasale a liniõÂ spojujõÂcõÂ body Sn a Ls

3. InterlabiaÂlnõ uÂhel (ILA - interlabial angle) - uÂhel mezi liniemi spojujõÂcõÂmi body Sn - Ls abody Li - B' 4. Celkovy oblicÏejovy uÂhel (TFA total facial angle)

-uÂhel mezi spojnicemi boduÊ G - Sn aSn - Pog' 5. PolohahornõÂho rtu (ULP upper lip projection)

-uÂhel mezi spojnicemi boduÊ G - Pog' aG - Ls 6. PolohadolnõÂho rtu (LLP - lower lip projection) - uÂhel

mezi spojnicemi boduÊ G - Pog' aG - Li

2. NLA - nasolabial angle - the angle between the na-sal lower edge line going from the subnana-sale point, and the line connecting Sn and Ls

3. ILA - interlabial angle - the angle between the lines linking Sn-Ls and Li-B'

4. TFA - total facial angle - the angle between the lines of the points G-Sn and Sn-Pog'

5. ULP - upper lip projection - the angle between G-Pog' and G-Ls

6. LLP - lower lip projection - the angle between G-Pog'and G-Li.

The following linear measurements (mm) were done (Fig. 4a, 4b):

1. E-Line to Ls 2. E-Line to Li 3. PRV-Ls 4. PRV-Li

Proportional measurements recorded the propor-tion of the length of the red of lip to the length of the upper lip (Fig. 5).

To calculate the lips area, all silhouettes were trans-ferred into the raster images, and then transported into AutoCAD (Autodesk, Inc., San Rafael, 2004). Their area and perimeter were calculated (Fig. 6).

All data were recorded in Excel. Descriptive stati-stics was obtained from the data. In parameters mea-sured in all groups the minimum and maximum value

Obr.4a, 4b.LineaÂrnõÂ meÏrÏenõÂ

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Bylaprovedenana sledujõÂcõ lineaÂrnõ meÏrÏenõ [mm] (Obr. 4a, 4b):

1. Ls k E-linii (E-Ls) 2. Li k E-linii (E-Li)

3. Ls k profilove vertikaÂlnõ linii (PRV-Ls) 4. Li k profilove vertikaÂlnõ linii (PRV-Li)

ProporcionaÂlnõ meÏrÏenõ zaznamenalo vzaÂjemny po-meÏr deÂlky cÏerveneÏ rtu k deÂlce hornõÂho rtu (Obr.5).

Pro vyÂpocÏet plochy rtuÊ byly vsÏechny siluety prÏeve-deny do formaÂtu rastrovyÂch obrazuÊ apote transporto-vaÂny do programu AutoCAD ( Autodesk, Inc., San Ra-fael, 2004), kde po zadaÂnõ boduÊ ohranicÏujõÂcõÂch rty byla vypocÏtenajejich plochaaobvod (Obr. 6).

VsÏechny uÂdaje byly zaznamenaÂvaÂny do tabulek Excel. Ze zõÂskanyÂch dat byla zjisÏteÏnapopisna stati-stika. Pro meÏrÏene hodnoty ve vsÏech skupinaÂch byly stanoveny minimaÂlnõ amaxima lnõ hodnoty, mediaÂn, aritmeticky pruÊmeÏr asmeÏrodatna odchylka.

Pro zjisÏteÏnõÂstatisticke vyÂznamnosti bylo pouzÏito po-rovnaÂvaÂnõ pruÊmeÏrnyÂch hodnot sledovanyÂch ukazateluÊ analyÂzou rozptylu - ANOVA. PrÏi zjisÏteÏnõ statisticke vyÂ-znamnosti u daneÂho ukazatele byly daÂle sestaveny Post Hoc testy mnohonaÂsobneÂho porovnaÂvaÂnõÂ.

Bylaprovedenakontrolnõ meÏrÏenõ apa rovyÂm t-te-stem nebyly prokaÂzaÂny statisticky vyÂznamne rozdõÂly mezi prvnõÂm akontrolnõÂm meÏrÏenõÂm ( p>0,05) ve vsÏech prÏõÂpadech.

VyÂsledky byly zpracovaÂny statistickyÂm softwarem SPSS verze 14. Statisticke zpracovaÂnõ bylo provedeno nakatedrÏe leÂka rÏske biofyziky, LeÂka rÏske fakulty Univer-zity PalackeÂho v Olomouci.

was stated, as well as median, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation.

To assess statistical significance, we compared the mean values of the parameters, with ANOVA test. Post Hoc tests of multiple comparison were set up in case a parameter was statistically significant.

Check measurements were taken, the pair t-test did not prove statistically significant difference between the first and check measurements (p­0.05).

The results were processed with the statistic soft-ware SPSS, version 14. The data were statistically pro-cessed at the Department of Medical Biophysics of the Medical Faculty, Palacky University in Olomouc.

Results

The mean value of nasolabial angle NLA (Fig. 7) bet-ween the periods I-IV, decreased linearly. Given the fact that the angle NTA did not change during the time, we can say the decrease of NLA is the result of more prominent lips.

The value of interlabial angle ILA (Fig. 7) between the periods I-IV decreased linearly, too. The decrease sug-gests that the lips in photographs change their shape and become more prominent.

The change of total facial angle TFA was not statisti-cally significant.

Angular value of ULP and LLP (Fig. 8) between the periods I-IV increased, and the change suggests that during the time both upper and lower lips become more prominent.

The distance between the upper lip and profile verti-cal line PRV-Ls, and the lower lip and profile vertiverti-cal

Obr.5:ProporcionaÂlnõÂ meÏrÏenõÂ

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VyÂsledky

PruÊmeÏrna hodnota nasolabiaÂlnõÂho uÂhlu NLA (Obr. 7) mezi obdobõÂmi I azÏ IV lineaÂrneÏ klesala. Vzhledem k tomu, zÏe uÂhel nosu NTA se v pruÊbeÏhu sledovaneÂho cÏasoveÂho obdobõ nezmeÏnil, lze konstatovat, zÏe zmen-sÏenõ NLA je zpuÊsobeno võÂce protruzneÏ postavenyÂmi rty.

HodnotainterlabiaÂlnõÂho uÂhlu ILA (Obr. 7) mezi ob-dobõÂmi I azÏ IV rovneÏzÏ lineaÂrneÏ klesala a tento pokles hodnoty naznacÏuje, zÏe v pruÊbeÏhu sledovaneÂho cÏaso-veÂho obdobõÂ rty nafotografiõÂch meÏnõÂ svuÊj tvar a võÂce prominujõÂ.

ZmeÏnahodnot celkoveÂho oblicÏejoveÂho uÂhlu TFA nebylastatisticky vyÂznamnaÂ.

UÂhlova hodnotapolohy hornõÂho rtu ULP apolohy dolnõÂho rtu LLP (Obr. 8) mezi obdobõÂmi I azÏ IV se zvy-sÏovala a tato zmeÏna naznacÏuje, zÏe v pruÊbeÏhu sledova-neÂho cÏasoveÂho obdobõ se hornõ i dolnõ ret nafotogra-fiõÂch staÂva võÂce prominujõÂcõÂ.

VzdaÂlenost hornõÂho rtu k profilove vertikaÂlnõ linii PRV-Ls adolnõÂho rtu k profilove vertikaÂlnõ linii PRV-Li (Obr. 9) se v pruÊbeÏhu sledovaneÂho cÏasoveÂho obdobõ zveÏtsÏilaadochaÂzõ tak ke zmeÏneÏ v poloze hornõÂho ado-lnõÂho rtu smeÏrem doprÏedu arty võÂce prominujõÂ.

VzdaÂlenost hornõÂho rtu k linii Ls adolnõÂho rtu k E-linii E-Li (Obr. 10) se zmensÏilaanaznacÏuje tak, zÏe

do-line PRV-Li (Fig. 9) has increased during the period mo-nitored. Thus the position of both upper and lower lip goes more forward and the lips are more prominent.

The distance between the upper lip and E-line E-Ls, and the lower lip and E-line E-Li (Fig. 10) has decrea-sed. The position of both upper and lower lip changes. The lips are closer to the Esthetic line, and thus more prominent.

The change in the upper lip length U-lip was not sta-tistically significant.

The relation of the red upper lip and the upper lip length is given in percents U-red/U-lip (Fig. 11). It was increasing within the periods I-IV, as well as the length of the upper lip red U-red lip. The increase sug-gests that the lips in photographs change their shape, and the upper lip red covers more space in relation to the overall length of the upper lip.

The area of lips (Fig. 12) and lips perimeter (Fig. 13) have been increasing during the period of time.

Discussion

The study focused on the changes of a face profile shown in fashion magazines during the last century. The results suggest changes in lips. Some changes of parameters were linear during all four time periods (NLA, ILA, LLP, PRV-Li, E-Ls, E-Li, U-red/U-lip). Some

NLA, ILA 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 4 3 2 1 period group degrees NLA ILA ULP, LLP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 period group degrees ULP LLP PRV-Ls, PRV-Li 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 period group mm PRV-LS PRV-Li E-Ls, E-Li -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 4 3 2 1 mm E-Ls E-Li

Obr.7.NasolabiaÂlnõÂ (NLA) a interlabiaÂlnõÂ (ILA) uÂhel

Fig.7.Nasolabial (NLA) and interlabial (ILA) angle. Obr.8.Fig.8.Angular position of upper and lower lipUÂhlova poloha hornõÂho a dolnõÂho rtu

Obr.9.Poloha hornõÂho a dolnõÂho rtu k vertikaÂle

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chaÂzõ ke zmeÏneÏ v poloze hornõÂho adolnõÂho rtu, ktere se prÏiblizÏujõ k esteticke linii atak võÂce prominujõÂ.

ZmeÏna deÂlky hornõÂho rtu H-ret nebylastatisticky vyÂ-znamnaÂ.

Vztah deÂlky cÏerveneÏ hornõÂho rtu k deÂlce hornõÂho rtu je jizÏ vyjaÂdrÏen v procentech H-cÏervenÏ/H-ret (Obr. 11) amezi obdobõÂmi I-IV se zveÏtsÏoval, obdobneÏ jako deÂlka cÏerveneÏ hornõÂho rtu H-cÏervenÏ rtu. Tyto naÂruÊsty hodnot naznacÏujõÂ, zÏe v pruÊbeÏhu sledovaneÂho cÏasoveÂho ob-dobõ rty nafotografiõÂch meÏnõ svuÊj tvar a cÏervenÏ hornõÂho rtu zabõÂra võÂce mõÂstavzhledem k celkove deÂlce hornõÂho rtu.

PlochartuÊ (Obr. 12) i obvod rtuÊ (Obr. 13) se v pruÊbeÏhu sledovaneÂho cÏasoveÂho obdobõÂ zveÏtsÏovaly.

Diskuse

Tato studie se zameÏrÏilanato, zdav pruÊbeÏhu po-slednõÂho stoletõ se meÏnil profil oblicÏeje prezentovany v moÂdnõÂch aspolecÏenskyÂch cÏasopisech. VyÂsledky naznacÏujõÂ, zÏe je mozÏne zjistit cÏasoveÏ zaÂvisle zmeÏny tyÂ-kajõÂcõ se oblasti rtuÊ. U neÏkteryÂch hodnot je zmeÏna v cÏase lineaÂrnõ mezi vsÏemi cÏtyrÏmi obdobõÂmi (NLA, ILA, LLP, PRV-Li, E-Ls, E-Li, H-cÏervenÏ/H-ret).U jinyÂch nameÏrÏenyÂch hodnot (ULP, PRV-Ls, H-ret, H-cÏervenÏ rtu, plochartuÊ, obvod rtuÊ) bylanejprve mezi I. aII. ob-dobõÂm zjisÏteÏnaopacÏna zmeÏnavzhledem k pozdeÏj-sÏõÂmu naÂruÊstu nebo poklesu hodnoty mezi II. azÏ IV. ob-dobõÂm. Tento reverznõ vyÂkyv lze vysveÏtlit rozdõÂlnyÂm zdrojem puÊvodnõÂch fotografiõÂ. Do druhe a zÏ cÏtvrte sku-piny byly zarÏazeny pouze fotografie profiluÊ, zatõÂmco prvnõ skupinu vzhledem k nedostatku fotografiõ z to-hoto obdobõ tvorÏily pouze rucÏnõ kresby profiluÊ, od kte-ryÂch nemuÊzÏeme ocÏekaÂvat tak prÏesne zobrazenõ rea-lity jako u fotografiõÂ.

V zahranicÏnõ literaturÏe je pouze neÏkolik pracõÂ, ktere se zabyÂvaly obdobnou teÂmatikou. Jsou to studie ame-rickeÂho tyÂmu Dr.Turleyho [4,5,6]. Podobne studie evropskyÂch autoruÊ nejsou dosud znaÂmy. VyÂsledky teÂto praÂce lze tedy porovnat pouze s vyÂsledky studiõ ame-rickyÂch autoruÊ, se kteryÂmi v mnoha faktorech dosahu-jeme velmi podobnyÂch vyÂsledkuÊ.

VyÂsledky meÏrÏenõ potvrzujõ tendenci v preferovaÂnõ plneÏjsÏõÂch avõÂce protruzneÏ postavenyÂch rtuÊ. OtaÂzkou vsÏa k zuÊstaÂvaÂ, co je podstatou teÂto tendence. Jako jedno z mozÏnyÂch vysveÏtlenõ se nabõÂzõ staÂle pokracÏujõÂcõ mi-grace lidõÂa mõÂsÏenõÂetnik. SoucÏasneÏ s tõÂm take jejich gene-ticke za cÏlenÏovaÂnõ do spolecÏnosti, ktere se v pruÊbeÏhu 20. stoletõ vyvõÂjelo ameÏnilo. Tento jev je obzvlaÂsÏteÏ patrny ve SpojenyÂch staÂtech, kde jesÏteÏ v prvnõ polovineÏ 20. stoletõ v zÏebrÏõÂcÏku spolecÏenskeÂho uplatneÏnõ nasÏli mõÂsto pouze jedinci bõÂle rasy. Od 70-tyÂch let se situace zmeÏnilaaza-cÏalo do verÏejneÂho zÏivotapronikat staÂle võÂce lidõ jine nezÏ bõÂle rasy. Turley a spol. ve trÏech studiõÂch meÏrÏili profily bõÂ-lyÂch a afroamerickyÂch modelek prezentovanyÂch v

cÏaso-parameters (ULP, PRV-Ls, U-lip, U-red lip, lips area, lips perimeter) showed reverse changes between the periods I and II, with regard to the later increase or dec-rease in values between the period II and IV. This can be explained by the different resources of the original photographs. In groups two, three and four, there were only pictures of profiles, while the first group included only profile drawings which probably were not as ac-curate as photographs.

There are only few papers in foreign literature dealing with similar topics, e.g. the study of an American re-search team headed by Turley [4,5,6]. We are not aware of any study published in Europe. Therefore, our results may be compared only with those obtained by American authors. The results are in many aspects similar.

Proportional upper lip red/upper lip (%)

35 38 41 44 47 50 4 3 2 1 period group % Lip area 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 4 3 2 1 period group mm Lip perimeter 40 43 46 49 52 55 4 3 2 1 period group mm

Obr.11.DeÂlka cÏerveneÏ hornõÂho rtu

Fig.11.Length of the upper lip red

Obr.12.Plocha rtuÊ

Fig.12.Lips area

Obr.13.Obvod rtuÊ

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pisech v pruÊbeÏhu v 20. stoletõ aporovnaÂvali je s kontrolnõ skupinou. Auger aTurley [4] zjistili trend plneÏjsÏõÂch avõÂce protruzneÏ postavenyÂch rtuÊ u bõÂlyÂch modelek, zatõÂmco Yehezkel a Turley [6] zjistili u afroamerickyÂch modelek tendenci k prÏõÂmeÏjsÏõÂm profiluÊm asnahu o neÏktere rysy bõÂle rasy. Po prolozÏenõÂprofiluÊ bõÂlyÂch a afroamerickyÂch mode-lek je mozÏne vysledovat jejich urcÏite prÏiblõÂzÏenõÂ, ale nelze rÏõÂci, zÏe by se meÏly setkat uprostrÏed [5].

DalsÏõÂm mozÏnyÂm vysveÏtlenõÂm tendence preferovaÂnõ plneÏjsÏõÂch rtuÊ muÊzÏe byÂt vyvõÂjejõÂcõ se ameÏnõÂcõ se pohled na atraktivitu oblicÏeje. ZatõÂmco v 60-tyÂch a70-tyÂch le-tech minuleÂho stoletõ souviselaextrakcÏnõ terapie s pre-ferovaÂnõÂm prÏõÂmeÏjsÏõÂch profiluÊ apoukaza nõÂm na duÊlezÏi-tost stability ortodonticke leÂcÏby na uÂkor estetiky, ke konci stoletõ se prosazuje spõÂsÏe tendence neextrakcÏ-nõÂho zpuÊsobu leÂcÏby, z duÊvodu veÏtsÏõÂho kladenõ duÊrazu na estetiku. Jako atraktivnõÂje vnõÂmaÂn balancovany pro-fil, ktery je podmõÂneÏn vzaÂjemnyÂm souladem polohy avelikosti nosu, brady a rtuÊ. Existuje zde ale sÏiroke pole variacõÂ, ktere staÂle jsou povazÏovaÂny za atraktivnõÂ. Czarnecki [7] ve sve studii uvaÂdõÂ, zÏe pro muzÏe je uprÏed-nostnÏovany prÏõÂmeÏjsÏõ profil s võÂce prominujõÂcõ bradou, zatõÂmco pro zÏeny spõÂsÏe võÂce protruzneÏ postavene rty. Jako muzÏske i zÏenske jsou daÂle akceptovatelne profily s võÂce prominujõÂcõÂmi rty, pokud soucÏasneÏ je i veÏtsÏõ nos nebo brada. MaÂlo akceptovatelna pro muzÏsky i zÏensky profil je retruzneÏ postavena brada.

Jako nejmeÂneÏ prÏijatelna byla zhodnocena varianta retruzneÏ postavenyÂch rtuÊ spolu s velkou bradou. K velmi podobnyÂm zaÂveÏruÊm dosÏlai studie Werliho [8], ktery uvaÂdõÂ, zÏe pro zÏeny je nejmeÂneÏ akceptovatelny profil s vyÂrazneÏ retruzneÏ postavenyÂmi rty apro muzÏe s retruzneÏ postavenou bradou. PlneÏjsÏõ rty byly võÂce pre-ferovaÂny u zÏen. Sergl [9] ve sve studii hodnotil laiky se-stavene profily - prÏõÂjemny muzÏsky profil, prÏõÂjemny zÏe-nsky profil anehezky profil. PrÏõÂjemny zÏezÏe-nsky profil meÏl mensÏõ nos ameÂneÏ prominujõÂcõ bradu oproti muzÏ-skeÂmu profilu. Pro nehezky profil byl charakteristicky velky nos avyÂrazna brada.

Polohaavelikost rtuÊ je uÂzce spjata s odhadovaÂnõÂm veÏku, prÏicÏemzÏ võÂce protruzneÏ postavene rty puÊsobõ mladistveÏ. Foster [10] ve sve studii zjistil, zÏe plneÏjsÏõÂprofily byly prÏirÏazovaÂny zÏenaÂm amladsÏõÂm osobaÂm, za -tõÂmco prÏõÂme profily spõÂsÏe muzÏuÊm astarsÏõÂm osobaÂm. Obdobne jsou i vyÂsledky studie Schlossera[11], kde byly laiky i odbornõÂky hodnoceny zÏenske profily v uÂsmeÏvu upravene do neÏkolika variant podle ante-rio-posteriornõ polohy hornõÂch rÏezaÂkuÊ. ObeÏ skupiny hodnotily jako atraktivneÏjsÏõ zÏensky profil s puÊvodneÏ nebo võÂce anteriorneÏ postavenyÂmi hornõÂmi rÏezaÂky.

PosuzovaÂnõ atraktivity je pouze urcÏityÂm vodõÂtkem, ktere naÂm naznacÏuje, co je okolõÂm vnõÂmaÂno jako hezke i jake pozÏadavky od pacientuÊ muÊzÏeme prÏõÂpadneÏ

ocÏe-The results prove the trend to prefer more rounded and more prominent lips. However, the question is what the cause of the trend is. One reason may be the continuing migration of people and mixing of ethnics, as well as their integration in society which were subject to changes in the 20th century. This phe-nomenon is obvious especially in the United States - in the first half of the 20th century, only Caucasians could succeed in society and occupied the top positions. Since the 70s the situation has changed and other ethnicities found their place in public life. In three stu-dies, Turley et al. measured profiles of Caucasian and Afro-American female models in magazines within the 20th century, and compared the results with a con-trol group. Auger and Turley [4] report the trend of more rounded and protruding lips in Caucasian women, while Yehezkel and Turley [6] found the tendency to li-near profiles and some features of Caucasians in Afro-American models. When the profiles of Caucasian mo-dels and Afro-American momo-dels are compared, some approximation can be seen [5].

Another explanation is found in the altered views on face attractiveness. In the 60s and 70s of the last century, extraction therapy preferred linear profiles; at the end of the century the non-extraction therapies were preferred. A balanced profile (harmony of the position and size of a nose, chin and lips) is seen as an attractive one. Howe-ver, there are a lot of variations that are still considered at-tractive. Czarnecki [7] concludes that in men more linear profile with aprominent chin is preferred, while in women more prominent lips are desirable. In both sexes, profiles with more prominent lips are acceptable, providing they are accompanied with a bigger nose or chin.

The retrusive lips and a large chin are the least at-tractive. Similar results are given also by Werli [8]: in women, the retrusive lips are the least acceptable, in men retrusive chin. In women the more rounded lips are preferred. In his study, Sergl [9] assessed the pro-files constructed by laymen - a favorable male and fe-male profile, and an unattractive profile. The favorable female profile has a smaller nose and less prominent chin (compared to a male profile). The unattractive face is characterized with a big nose and a prominent chin. Lips position as well as size is closely related to the age - more prominent lips look youthful. In his study Foster [10] came to the conclusion that full profiles are assigned to women and young persons, while li-near profiles to men and the elderly. Schlosser [11] sta-tes similar results - laymen as well as experts assessed women profiles in smile, adjusted to several varieties according to anterior-posterior position of the maxil-lary incisors. Both laymen and experts evaluated the female profile with original or more anterior position of maxillary incisors as more attractive.

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Literatura/References

1. Holdaway, R. A.: A soft-tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning. Part I. Amer. J. Orthodont. dentofacial Orthop. 1983, 84, cÏ. 1, s. 1-28.

2. Jacobson, A.: Radiographic Cephalometry, From Ba-sics to Videoimaging. Berlin, Chicago: Quintessence, 1995.

3. Rakosi, T.: Cephalometric Radiography. London, Wolfe Medical Publications, 1982.

4. Turley, P. K.; Auger, T. A.: The female soft tissue profile as presented in fashion magazines during the 1900s: A photographic analysis. Int. J. Adult Orthodont. Orthog-nath. Surg. 1999, 14, cÏ. 1, s. 7-18.

5. Sutter Jr., R. E.; Turley, P. K.: Soft tissue evaluation of con-temporary Caucasian and African American female facial profiles. Angle Orthodont.1998, 68, cÏ. 6, s. 487-496.

6. Yehezkel, S.; Turley, P. K.: Changes in the African Ame-rican female profile as depicted in fashion magazines du-ring the 20th century. Amer. J. Orthodont. dentofacial Orthop. 2004, 125, cÏ. 4, s. 407-417.

7. Czarnecki, S. T.; Nanda,R. S.; Currier, G. F.: Perceptions of a balance facial profile. Amer. J. Orthodont. dentofa-cial Orthop. 1993, 104, cÏ. 2, s. 180-187.

8. Werli, T.; Matis, R.; Hedelin, G.; Rothea-Gouillard, C.: Aesthetic assessment of soft tissue profile by visual art students. Revue Orth. Dento Faciale 2003, 37, s. 145-156.

9. Sergl, H. G.; Zentner, A.; Krause, G.: An experimental study of the esthetic effect of facial profiles. J. Orofac. Orthop./Fortschr.Kieferorthop. 1998, 59, cÏ. 3, s. 116-126.

kaÂvat. MeÏrÏenõ proporcõ oblicÏeje a hodnocenõ atraktivity oblicÏeje podle fotografiõ je pouze statickyÂm meÏrÏenõÂm. O tom, zdaoblicÏej muÊzÏeme povazÏovat za kraÂsny avy-vaÂzÏeny rozhodujõ dalsÏõ faktory, jako jsou barva a tvar ocÏõÂ, barva kuÊzÏe, vlasuÊ, uÂcÏes, mimikaoblicÏeje acelkovy jeho projev.

ZaÂveÏr

Z vyÂsledkuÊ teÂto praÂce vyplyÂvaÂ, zÏe v pruÊbeÏhu posled-nõÂho stoletõ dosÏlo ke zmeÏneÏ chaÂpaÂnõ estetiky oblicÏeje podle zmeÏny polohy i tvaru rtuÊ naprezentovanyÂch fo-tografiõÂch v moÂdnõÂch aspolecÏenskyÂch cÏasopisech. ZmeÏnapolohy rtuÊ je daÂnazmeÏnami uÂhlovyÂch alineaÂr-nõÂch hodnot mezi prvnõÂm aposlednõÂm sledovanyÂm ob-dobõÂm. NasolabiaÂlnõ uÂhel se zmensÏil o 15,41° nako-necÏnyÂch 99,42°ainterlabiaÂlnõ uÂhel o 33,17° nakonecÏ-nyÂch 105,06°. PolohahornõÂho rtu vzhledem k PRV se zveÏtsÏilao 1,23mm na6,18 mm apolohadolnõÂho rtu o 2,78 mm na4,51 mm. Hornõ ret se prÏiblõÂzÏil k E-linii o 2,08 mm adolnõ ret o 4,18 mm s konecÏnou polohou hornõÂho rtu -2 mm adolnõÂho rtu -0,66 mm. ZmeÏnatvaru rtuÊ vyplyÂva ze zmeÏny procentuaÂlnõÂho pomeÏru deÂlky cÏerveneÏ hornõÂho rtu k deÂlce celeÂho hornõÂho rtu, ktery se zveÏtsÏil o 11,13% nakonecÏnyÂch 47,18% asoucÏasneÏ i zmeÏny celkove plochy rtuÊ, ktera se zveÏtsÏilao 41,99 mm2nakonecÏnyÂch 135,32 mm2.

Tyto vyÂsledky naznacÏujõÂ, zÏe rty jsou plneÏjsÏõÂavõÂce an-teriorneÏ polozÏeny.

SoucÏasneÏ je zrÏetelneÂ, zÏe naÂzor naestetiku oblicÏeje avnõÂma nõ atraktivity oblicÏeje nenõ nemeÏnneÂ, ale pod-leÂha zmeÏnaÂm se v pruÊbeÏhu cÏasu.

VyÂsledky teÂto praÂce rovneÏzÏ naznacÏujõÂ, jak se mohou prÏõÂpadneÏ meÏnit i pozÏadavky na ortodontickou leÂcÏbu ze strany pacientuÊ.

Attractiveness assessment is a sort of a guideline which helps us to understand what is perceived as a beautiful face, as well as to expect the patients' re-quirements. Measurement of face proportions and evaluation of attractiveness according to the photo-graphs is static. Other factors contribute to the beauty and balance of a face, e.g. colour and shape of eyes, colour of skin, hair and hairstyle, mimics, and overall expression of the face.

Conclusion

The results of our work suggest that the perception of face esthetics (according to the change in position and shape of lips) in the photographs published in fashion magazines changed during the last century. The change in the lips position is due to the changes in angular and linear parameters between the first and the last period. Nasolabial angle decreased by 15.41° to the resulting 99.42°, and interlabial angle decreased by 33.17° to 105.06°. The position of the upper lip with regard to PRV increased by 1.23 mm to 6.18 mm, and the position of the lower lip increased by 2.78 mm to 4.51 mm. The upper lip got closer to the E-line by 2.08 mm, and the lo-wer lip by 4.18 mm. The resulting position of the upper lip is -2 mm, and of the lower lip -0.66 mm. The change in the shape of lips results from the change of proportion of the length of the red upper lip to the length of the whole upper lip which increased by 11.13% to 47.18%, and of the change in the overall area of lips which increased by 41.99 mm2to 135.32 mm2.

The results suggest that lips are more rounded and located more anteriorly.

At the same time it is obvious that the perception of face esthetics and face attractiveness changes over the time.

The results of our research may help us to identify the changing requirements of orthodontic treatment.

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10. Foster, E. J.: Profile preferences among diversified groups. Angle Orthodont. 1973, 43, cÏ. 1, s. 34-40. Cit. in: Czarnecki, S. T.; Nanda, R. S.; Currier, G. F.: Percep-tions of a balance facial profile. Amer. J. Orthodont. den-tofacial Orthop. 1993, 104, cÏ. 2, s. 180-187.

11. Schlosser, J. B.; Preston, C. B.; Lampasso, J.: The effects of computer-aided anteroposterior maxillary incisor movement on ratings of facial attractiveness. Amer. J. Orthodont. dentofacial Orthop. 2005, 127, cÏ. 1, s. 17-24.

MUDr.KaterÏina UtõÂkalova Klinika zubnõÂho leÂkarÏstvõ LF UP PalackeÂho 12, 779 00 Olomouc

Altis Group, spol. s r. o.

± vyÂhradnõÂ zastoupenõÂ pro CÏeskou republiku a Slovensko

RaÂdi bychom VaÂs pozvali na pokracÏovaÂnõÂ dvoudennõÂho kurzu

Prof. Dr. Bjorn U. Zachrissona DDS, MSD, PhD., Norsko

TermõÂn: 7.±8. listopadu 2008

MõÂsto konaÂnõÂ kurzu:

ANDEL'S HOTEL PRAGUE

(StroupezÏnickeÂho 21, 150 00 Praha 5)

TeÂmata kurzu:

1. PrÏestavba alveolaÂrnõÂch tkaÂnõÂ a kosti ortodontickyÂm posunem zubu pro zlepsÏenõÂ estetiky implantaÂtu

2. LeÂcÏebny plaÂn a kefalometrie - skeletaÂlnõ analyÂza a analyÂza meÏkkyÂch tkaÂnõÂ. VyuzÏitõ VTO.

3. DuÊlezÏite aspekty dlouhodobe stability vyÂsledkuÊ ortodonticke leÂcÏby.

4. Extrakce jednoho dolnõÂho rÏezaÂku v ortodoncii.

5. Klinicke novinky u fixnõÂch lepenyÂch retianeruÊ.

6. Lepenõ na atypicke povrchy (porcelaÂn, amalgaÂm, zlato, kompozitum atd.) v klinicke praxi -

ne-srovnalosti mezi laboratornõÂmi a klinickyÂmi fakty.

7. SpolupraÂce s estetickou stomatologiõÂ a uzavõÂraÂnõÂ mezer u pacientuÊ s chybeÏjõÂcõÂmi hornõÂmi

lateraÂl-nõÂmi rÏezaÂky.

ÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐ

PrÏipravujeme v CÏeske republice v roce 2008

5. 4. 2008

Praha, hotel ILF

± jednodennõÂ kurz

TeÂma:

KotevnõÂ mikrosÏrouby ± teorie a praxe

PrÏednaÂsÏejõÂcõÂ:

MUDr. Ivo Marek, doc. MUDr. Martin Starosta, Ph.D.

Altis Group, s. r. o., 17. listopadu 5, 690 00 BrÏeclav, provozovna: Husova 25, 690 02 BrÏeclav

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