Martins Creek Rehabilitation Plan

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Martins Creek Rehabilitation Plan

(Pine Street Section)

Lot 593 CG4508 & Lot 594 CG4508

6 – 8 Pine St Buderim

Queensland

PF1029

March 2011

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Stringybark Consulting PO Box 6275 Mooloolah Valley QLD 4553 M | 0466 490 205 F| (07) 5492 9985 cameron@stringybark.com.au www.stringybark.com.au ABN: 23837337164 © Stringybark Consulting 2011

Information provided in this report is subject to copyright laws and is intended for the noted recipient only. This report remains the property of Stringybark Consulting and may not be copied, reproduced or submitted in whole or in part without the express permission of the author. Stringybark Consulting accepts no responsibility for any third party who may use or rely upon the content of this report, without permission. Parts of this report may contain information originally prepared by other parties – in these cases these sources are cited.

Project File Number & Report Title

PF1029 MARTINS CREEK REHAB PLAN

Date Thursday, April 21, 2011 Report Revision Draft “D”

Report Principal Authors RS, CM

Report Reviewers CM, MM

File Location E:\STRINGYBARK\PROJECT FOLDERS\PF1029 MARTINS CREEK REHAB PLAN PINE STREET

SECTION\REPORTS & DESIGN DRAWINGS\REPORTING\PF1029 MARTINS CREEK REHAB PLAN.DOCX

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

Contents

CONTENTS ... I LIST OF FIGURES ... III LIST OF TABLES ... III LIST OF PLATES... III

1 INTRODUCTION ... 1

1.1 BACKGROUND AND REHABILITATION PLAN OBJECTIVES ... 1

1.2 LEGISLATION AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS ... 2

1.3 METHODOLOGY AND STUDY LIMITATIONS ... 2

2 SITE DESCRIPTION ... 3

2.1 SITE LOCATION ... 3

2.2 MARTINS CREEK CATCHMENT ... 3

2.3 REGIONAL ECOSYSTEM MAPPING ... 5

2.4 SITE CONDITION... 7

2.5 ENDANGERED,VULNERABLE AND NEAR THREATENED SPECIES ... 8

3 REHABILITATION STRATEGY ... 10

3.1 KEY SITE ISSUES AND REHABILITATION OBJECTIVES ... 10

3.2 RIPARIAN VINE FOREST VALUES ... 11

3.3 CANOPY REPLACEMENT ... 11

4 WEED MANAGEMENT WORKS... 12

4.1 WEED REMOVAL METHODS ... 12

4.2 WEED REMOVAL SEQUENCING ... 13

4.2.1 Year 1 – Dangerous Canopy Weed Removal Lot 593 ... 15

4.2.2 Year 1 – Understorey Weed Removal Lot 593 ... 15

4.2.3 Year 2 – Canopy Weed Removal and Understorey Weed Removal Lot 594 ... 16

4.2.4 Year 4 – Stem Injection (Round 1) ... 16

4.2.5 Year 5 – Canopy Stem Injection (Round 2) ... 16

4.2.6 Maintenance Weeding (Years 1 – 5) ... 17

4.3 MULCH AND TIMBER REUSE ... 18

4.4 FAUNA DETECTION AND PROTECTION DURING WORKS... 18

5 REVEGETATION WORKS ... 19

5.1 PIONEER REVEGETATION PLANTINGS (YEARS 1–2) ... 19

5.2 SECONDARY REVEGETATION PLANTING (YEAR 3) ... 19

5.3 REHABILITATION AREAS SETOUT AND ACCESS ... 20

5.4 REVEGETATION AREA MAINTENANCE AND MONITORING ... 20

5.5 ARTIFICIAL HABITAT -NESTBOXES ... 22

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 24

6.1 ADDITIONAL REPORTING AND MONITORING RECOMMENDATIONS ... 24

7 REFERENCES AND RESOURCES ... 25

APPENDIX A: SITE SPECIES LISTS ... 26

APPENDIX B: WEED MANAGEMENT MATRIX ... 29

APPENDIX C: ARBORIST REPORT – TREESAFE PTY LTD ... 31

APPENDIX D: REVEGETATION SPECIES LIST ... 32

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

List of Figures

FIGURE 1-SITE LOCATION ... 3

FIGURE 2REGIONAL ECOSYSTEM MAPPING FOR SUBJECT SITE ... 6

List of Tables

TABLE 1ADJACENT REGIONAL ECOSYSTEM POLYGON DESCRIPTIONS ... 5

TABLE 2DESKTOP LIST FOR EVNTSPECIES ... 8

TABLE 3KEY MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES ... 10

TABLE 4 REHABILITATION WORKS PROGRAM ... 14

TABLE 5NATIVE PLANTS IDENTIFIED ON SUBJECT SITE (RE12.3.2 SPECIES) ... 26

TABLE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL WEEDS AND INTRODUCED SPECIES IDENTIFIED ON SUBJECT SITE... 27

TABLE 7KEY WEED SPECIES AND LEGISLATIVE STATUS ... 29

TABLE 8REHABILITATION PLANT SPECIES LIST ... 32

List of Plates

PLATE 1 CREEKLINE CULVERT OUTLETS (UNDER ROAD) LOT 594 ... 4

PLATE 2 VIEW FROM NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF LOT 394 LOOKING WEST TOWARDS THE DRAINAGE CULVERTS... 7

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

1

Introduction

1.1

Background and Rehabilitation Plan Objectives

The Pine Street park reserve site comprises two parcels of land either side of Pine Street at Buderim, and are predominately riparian zones including a small section of Martins Creek. The land parcels contain a significant number of very tall exotic pines and camphor laurel which are approximately 40m in height and pose a potential risk to the residential housing immediately adjacent to these sites. Key objectives for the Rehabilitation Plan is to design a methodology which undertakes the staged removal of the weed canopy, in such a manner that;

• minimises sun exposure to existing native plants; • minimises physical damage to existing native plants;

• infrastructure (houses, road and drainage and power lines) are not damaged and public safety is not compromised;

• removal is undertaken in a manner which enables rapid re-establishment of native canopy utilising exiting native species, and newly revegetated areas;

• bank stability of Martin’s Creek is not compromised.

This supporting report is intended to detail the framework for rehabilitation of the site, and provide more detail on the staging of the project, including preliminary costings for the project. Sunshine Coast Council (SCC) provided the following scope of works for the project;

• Develop framework of an appropriate restoration plan based on current industry best practice management, Australian Standards and other current available information - To return these degraded riparian areas back to a healthy self sustaining weed free regional ecosystem 12.3.2

• Create the plan in such a way that implementation will be viable both in financial and practical terms for council

• Present to local community for feedback with a council officer present to provide advice and feedback on plan content

• Provide a preliminary costing for plan implementation

Historically, a number of residents have undertaken works on the site and as such are keen to remain engaged in the project, and informed of proposed works and methodology.

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

1.2

Legislation and Policy Considerations

The following Legislation and Planning Instruments were considered during the creation of this plan and are considered applicable to this Rehabilitation Plan;

• Vegetation Management Act 1999 (Qld) (includes subordinate Regulations as passed) • Sustainable Planning Act 2009 (Qld) (includes subordinate Regulations as passed) • Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Qld) (includes subordinate Regulations as passed) • Water Act 2000 (Qld) (includes subordinate Regulations as passed)

• Land Protection (Pest and Stock Route Management) Act 2002 (Qld) • Maroochy Plan 2000.

1.3

Methodology and Study Limitations

Site assessment methodology was undertaken as standard vegetation assessment carried out on foot. Site inspections were carried out on three occasions during December 2010 –January 2011 to obtain vegetation species occurrence and arrangement information for the site, undertake observations of the site geology and soils, and to formulate canopy weed removal methodologies. Field survey consisted of foot traverses and was conducted to identify the spatial arrangement of vegetation communities on the site and also to determine occurrence of flora species anticipated to be present. Aerial photograph interpretation (API) techniques were utilised in the field as well as the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) device which had been uploaded with topography, property boundary and existing vegetation polygon information during the desktop assessment. During these surveys, the extent and location of vegetation systems and the key areas and species of significance were determined, as well as cross referencing existing aerial photography mapping.

Botanical nomenclature used in this report follows Stanley and Ross (1983, 1986, 1989), and ongoing updates from the Queensland Herbarium, and NSW Herbarium. The species list produced by this reporting is as comprehensive as was permitted by the scope of this commission. Generally, the number of identified species, (plant or animal) is directly correlated to the amount of survey effort; may be influenced by survey timing or frequency, climatic conditions experienced during survey; or in some cases time of year (season). Therefore Stringybark Consulting provides the following survey and species lists as representative of the nature of the survey effort expended, and are not intended to represent complete or final assessments of all the plant or animal species present on the subject site.

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2

Site Description

2.1

Site Location

The subject site is comprised of two lots (2170m2) and are crown land,

Gardens”).

FIGURE 1- SITE LOCATION

*source google maps online

2.2

Martins Creek Catchment

The site represents one of many first order streams which co has a catchment of approximately 930Ha

Gloucester and Jones Roads to the east

way from just south of Mons Road to the west of th branch which drains a portion of the

down through Buderim Forest Park, beyond which it joins Lot

593

Lot 594

Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section)

comprised of two lots described as Lot 593 CG4508 (2304m2) and Lot

which SCC is trustee (for the purposes of “Reserve for Parks and

Martins Creek Catchment

The site represents one of many first order streams which converge to form Martins Creek

catchment of approximately 930Ha, bounded by Burnett and Main Streets in the south and Gloucester and Jones Roads to the east. Martins Creek has two main branches, the first winds its

Mons Road to the west of the subject site (western branch). T

a portion of the top of Buderim, (including this site), before winding its way Park, beyond which it joins together with the western branch. Martins

SUBJECT SITE

Lot 594

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

(2304m2) and Lot 594 CG4508 for the purposes of “Reserve for Parks and

verge to form Martins Creek, which , bounded by Burnett and Main Streets in the south and Martins Creek has two main branches, the first winds its (western branch). The eastern , before winding its way together with the western branch. Martins

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creek then flows under the Su

Maroochy River, and ultimately the ocean.

The site is located amongst residential properties and is on top of the Buderim plateau surrounding the site are all gently sloping with pipe

contributing to the flow of the creek

the geology of the site as Cainozoic igneous rocks. It was noted during site inspection that some areas included high densities of loose rock and rocky outcrops

bed and banks.

PLATE 1 CREEKLINE CULVERT OUTLETS (UNDER ROAD) L

Martins Creek Buderim (Pine

under the Sunshine Motorway into Eudlo Creek, prior to its discharge into Maroochy River, and ultimately the ocean.

amongst residential properties and is on top of the Buderim plateau

are all gently sloping with piped stormwater discharges from houses and roads contributing to the flow of the creek. Queensland Herbarium Regional Ecosystem Mapping describes site as Cainozoic igneous rocks. It was noted during site inspection that some high densities of loose rock and rocky outcrops, particularly associated with the creek

TLETS (UNDER ROAD) LOT 594

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

, prior to its discharge into

amongst residential properties and is on top of the Buderim plateau. The areas d stormwater discharges from houses and roads . Queensland Herbarium Regional Ecosystem Mapping describes site as Cainozoic igneous rocks. It was noted during site inspection that some , particularly associated with the creek

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

2.3

Regional Ecosystem Mapping

Interrogation of the following mapping and vegetation database products provided a desktop analysis for the subject site, as it related to vegetation communities anticipated to occur on the subject site or in adjacent areas;

• Google Earth;

• Queensland Government Regional Ecosystem Mapping and Aerial photography; • Sunshine Coast Regional Council aerial photography.

The desktop phase of the project provided an opportunity to create a targeted species list for not just the anticipated vegetation communities on the site but also potential rare and threatened species which may be encountered during survey. This information analysis and information gathering phase was undertaken to sets the objectives for site investigation, and creates hypotheses or assumptions about the vegetation on the site, and surrounding sites, which were then tested in the field.

Queensland Herbarium Mapping has identified one Regional Ecosystem (RE) on the subject site (refer to Table 1 & Figure 2). Regional Ecosystem (RE) 12.3.2, Eucalyptus grandis ± E. microcorys, Lophostemon confertus tall open-forest with vine forest understorey ('wet sclerophyll'), on alluvium. It should be noted that RE 12.3.2 has an ‘Of Concern’ status under the Vegetation Management Act 1999. During site investigations it was determined that due to the significant canopy weed dominance of the site, significant canopy floristic elements of RE 12.3.2 were noted to be missing from the subject site but were determined to be present downstream of the site. Downstream areas were analysed to confirm the regional ecosystem determination and also to provide a reference for rehabilitation objectives. Regrowth mapping was also sourced and reviewed for the subject site, however the mapping has little direct relevance for the subject site or amendment to the Regional Ecosystem mapping.

RE ID VMA Class / Status

RE Description

12.3.2 Of concern Eucalyptus grandis ± E. microcorys, Lophostemon confertus tall open-forest with vine forest

understorey ('wet sclerophyll'). Patches of Eucalyptus pilularis sometimes present especially in vicinity of sedimentary rocks (e.g. around Palmwoods). Fringing streams and in narrow gullies in high rainfall areas.

Major vegetation communities include: 12.3.2a: Open forest of Eucalyptus resinifera and Syncarpia glomulifera with a wet heath understory. Other species include Melaleuca linariifolia, Melaleuca sieberi ± Corymbia gummifera. Narrow gullies in high rainfall areas.

TABLE 1 ADJACENT REGIONAL ECOSYSTEM POLYGON DESCRIPTIONS

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029 FIGURE 2 REGIONAL ECOSYSTEM MAPPING FOR SUBJECT SITE

*mapping data sourced on 01/02/2011

**mapping is not reproduced to scale Data Source: Queensland Herbarium (2010)

Remnant Regional Ecosystem Mapping. Version 6

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2.4

Site Condition

The land parcels both display significant stands of canopy weeds with large camphor laurels and exotic pines which have been estimated

stand of tall pines as well as a group of large girthed camphor laurel in the south east corner of the lot, adjacent to the grassed access way into the park. The eastern lot (Lot 594) has a significant number of large camphor and pines lining the banks of the creek line. Understorey vegetation is a mixture of mostly introduced species and a few

covers.

Native flora canopy species identified Castanospermum australe, Hoop Pine glandulosum, Native Tamarind –

list of native plants identified on the site is pr plants identified on subject site (RE

Weeds identified on the subject site were

Table 6 environmental weeds and introduced species identified on subject site previously mentioned canopy weeds but also

as the Pothos vine, Exotic Gingers and Heliconias, as well as Calathea’s, Euphorbia’s and

sp. Exotic shrubs such as Murraya’s, Salvia’s and Dracaena’s also feature in the understorey and dominate the emerging seedling

PLATE 2 VIEW FROM NORTHERN BOUNDA

Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section)

The land parcels both display significant stands of canopy weeds with large camphor laurels and which have been estimated up to 40m in height. Lot 593 (western lot) contains a large stand of tall pines as well as a group of large girthed camphor laurel in the south east corner of the lot, adjacent to the grassed access way into the park. The eastern lot (Lot 594) has a significant and pines lining the banks of the creek line. Understorey vegetation is a mostly introduced species and a few native remnant vine forest

pecies identified include White Beech - Gmelina leichardtii Hoop Pine – Araucaria cunninghamii, Scentless Rosewood

– Diploglottis australis, and Native Olive – Notolaea on the site is provided in Appendix A of this report as plants identified on subject site (RE 12.3.2 species).

on the subject site were extensive and are tabulated in Appendix

environmental weeds and introduced species identified on subject site. The list inc

canopy weeds but also many understorey and climbing garden escapees such , Exotic Gingers and Heliconias, as well as Calathea’s, Euphorbia’s and

Exotic shrubs such as Murraya’s, Salvia’s and Dracaena’s also feature in the understorey and dominate the emerging seedling population also.

FROM NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF LOT 594 LOOKING WEST TOWARDS THE DRAINAGE CUL

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

The land parcels both display significant stands of canopy weeds with large camphor laurels and (western lot) contains a large stand of tall pines as well as a group of large girthed camphor laurel in the south east corner of the lot, adjacent to the grassed access way into the park. The eastern lot (Lot 594) has a significant and pines lining the banks of the creek line. Understorey vegetation is a native remnant vine forest shrubs and ground

Gmelina leichardtii, Black Bean - Scentless Rosewood - Synoum Notolaea longifolia. A full of this report as Table 5 Native

Appendix A of this report as . The list includes the garden escapees such , Exotic Gingers and Heliconias, as well as Calathea’s, Euphorbia’s and Hypoestes Exotic shrubs such as Murraya’s, Salvia’s and Dracaena’s also feature in the understorey and

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

The condition of the site upstream is dramatically different with a series of artificial ponds fringed with aquatic plants, pedestrian access and open water, with minimal canopy protection for the watercourse. Despite the weedy nature of the subject site, the canopy closure does afford protection to the watercourse (which is not the case immediately upstream). Downstream condition is not dissimilar to Lot 594, with a spine of mixed camphor and native remnant riparian vegetation winding its way behind the Buderim Central Shopping Village before flowing under Lindsay Road, to continue its journey north - east. Riparian connectivity both upstream and downstream of the site is very limited and relies upon a tenuous link of mostly exotic canopy, piped sections of water flow, and significant terrestrial barriers such as road culvert crossings and urban infrastructure.

2.5

Endangered, Vulnerable and Near Threatened Species

A target list of species of conservation significance was compiled from database searches from the local area, and species known to occur in benchmark RE 12.3.2 vegetation communities reported for the region. This target species list was comprehensive and was intended as a guide to focus observations during the site inspection (refer to

Table 2 Desktop List for EVNT Species). The list was compiled to identify Endangered, Vulnerable and Near Threatened species (EVNT species), that are known from the region and potentially able to occur in a riparian remnant of such limited size and connectivity, given the urbanized nature of the surrounding catchment.

TABLE 2 DESKTOP LIST FOR EVNT SPECIES

Scientific Name Common Name NCA Status EPBC Act

Status

Acanthophis antarcticus Common Death Adder NT

Accipiter novaehollandiae Grey Goshawk NT

Coeranoscincus reticulatus Snake Toothed Skink NT V

Eroticoscincus graciloides Elf Skink NT

Graptophyllum reticulatum Reticulated holly E E

Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia Nut V V

Macadamia ternifolia Bopple Nut V V

Ninox strenua Powerful Owl V

Ornithoptera richmondia Richmond Birdwing Butterfly V

Pararistolochia praevenosa Richmond Birdwing Vine NT

Phascolarctos cinereus Koala (Southeast Bioregion) V

Podargus ocellatus plumiferus Plumed Frogmouth V

Ramphotyphlops silvia Blind Snake NT

Tyto tenebricosa tenebricosa Sooty Owl NT

Nature Conservation Act 1992 (NCA) categories:

extinct in the wild, endangered, vulnerable, near threatened and least concern

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

None of the identified species of conservation significance were located or observed during site inspections, however it is anticipated that a “pre-start survey” also be completed by the contractor immediately prior to vegetation management and revegetation works.

The Cascade Treefrog - Litoria pearsoniana is typically found under stones and in low vegetation along relatively large fast flowing rocky streams in subtropical vine forest (complex notophyll) and wet sclerophyll forest on the Sunshine Coast, especially where palms are present in the midstorey, and occasionally along perennial densely vegetated streams in open forest adjacent to rainforest pockets. The frog has historically been located downstream at lower elevations (near Buderim Forest Park), but is not expected to be encountered on the subject site.

The Richmond Birdwing Butterfly Vine - Pararistolochia praevenosa is recorded downstream at Buderim Forest Park, and is known to occur in simple to complex notophyll vine forest and gallery vine forest on the Sunshine Coast. The vine is the key host for the Vulnerable Richmond Birdwing Butterfly - Ornithoptera richmondia, and whilst it was not located on the subject site during survey may be planted as part of revegetation works (secondary embellishment plantings).

A significant Koala - Phascolarctos cinereus (southeast Queensland bioregion) population historically resided on Buderim with only fragmented pockets of tall open eucalypt forest and woodland now supporting the species. Typically on the Sunshine Coast, healthy populations of Koalas are now scarce as they require large tracts of contiguous tall forest with multiple strata layers containing Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Angophora, Lophostemon or Melaleuca trees, with food species including one or more of the following species; Eucalyptus tereticornis, E. fibrosa, E. propinqua; E. umbra, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. tindaliae, E. resinifera, E. populnea, E. robusta, E. nigra, E. racemosa, E. crebra, E. exserta, E. seeana, Lophostemon confertus, L. suaveolens, Melaleuca quinquenervia. The subject site does not contain suitable food tree species populations.

Major impacts upon the species include habitat fragmentation, vehicle strike and dog attacks. These factors together with the absence of suitable food trees, and the site is not linked to areas of high quality Koala habitat suggests that the subject site does not provide an opportunity to support the species. Rehabilitation of this section of Martins Creek is also unlikely to provide future habitat opportunities for the re-establishment of Koalas, due to a lack of suitable feed trees (tall Eucalypts are not included in the proposed revegetation works), and anticipated ongoing impacts from the existing urban environment.

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

3

Rehabilitation Strategy

3.1

Key Site Issues and Rehabilitation Objectives

To ensure that project actions are pragmatic and efficient, it is important that a clear understanding is attained of key management objectives for the rehabilitation area on the subject site. Key issues that have been identified for the site include;

• Canopy removal – public safety • Weed removal for biodiversity

• Enhance biodiversity – native species occurrence • Protection of water quality within Martins Creek

The removal of existing weed species and replanting with local native plant species will provide an opportunity for increased ecological value relating to site stability, safe faunal movement, faunal food and shelter opportunities. Weed pressure from the adjacent lands is (and in the short term will remain) high. Weeds compete with native plants for light, nutrients and water, making weed control and suppression important for native plant establishment. Due to the degraded nature of the subject site, weed removal activities and ongoing weed management is considered fundamental to the longer term rehabilitation success. A five year program which provides an opportunity for a staged disturbance and rehabilitation process is therefore proposed for the project.

The following table provides a summary of key management objectives for the site.

TABLE 3 KEY MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

Management

Goal Objective

Means of Achieving

Objectives Measure of Success

Aesthetic amenity and Public Safety

Provision of park connection and riparian zone which provides passive recreation benefits, with canopy that is safe for adjacent residents and pedestrians.

Removal of dangerous canopy. Replacement of weed species with native plants

Provision of a safe and clean pedestrian linkage

Progressive replacement of dangerous canopy with safe tree canopy. Maintenance of pedestrian safety. Improvement in aesthetic amenity.

Weed Control

To increase biodiversity of the site by removing invasive weed species and

progressively replacing exotic species with native species.

Removal and control of noxious and environmental weeds using appropriate means prior to revegetation. Canopy removal to occur in stages to mitigate impacts. Ongoing weed removal during maintenance phase.

Reduced weed numbers.

Weed cover to occupy less than 10% of the site.

Increase ratio of native species.

Revegetation

To improve the ecological integrity of the site through revegetation using local native species

Revegetate zones with appropriate local native species RE 12.3.2. Maintain plant health during planting and maintenance phase. On-going weed removal during the maintenance stage, to ensure the success of new plantings.

Successful establishment of native seedlings.

Greater than 80% plant establishment. Reduced weed recruitment.

Weeds and exotics to occupy less than 10% of the site

Increased local native flora and fauna species diversity RE 12.3.2.

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

Enhancement value and richness of the site. on site. Weed removal.

Increasing native plant cover.

maximised.

Reduced weed recruitment. Weeds and exotics to occupy less than 10% of the site

Increased local native flora and fauna species diversity RE 12.3.2. Maintenance of Martins Creek Water Quality No worsening of water quality attributable to rehabilitation works within this section of Martins Creek and the reportable WQ immediately downstream.

Setting existing WQ background concentrations datasets. Ongoing WQ monitoring as an events based program where necessary.

No worsening of WQ parameters during rehabilitation works and maintenance period to re-establishment of native canopy RE 12.3.2

3.2

Riparian Vine Forest Values

Forest connectivity in urban environments is essential in aiding safe animal movement. Many flora species in Vine Forests or wet Eucalypt Forests with Vine Forest understorey rely heavily on animals as a primary seed disperser. This movement replenishes gene pools and promotes flora diversity. Genetic diversity in animal populations also relies on effective migration between fragmented landscapes. Without connectivity, genetic diversity is lowered and may cause the local decline or local extinction of native fauna and flora.

Soil stability is another key issue which relies heavily on having vegetation present. Soil binding root systems from plants reduce erosion processes by reducing velocity. On the subject site, Camphor Laurels are largely performing this stability role, which is an important factor to consider in the rehabilitation process. Due to the site having a combination of steep banks and an urbanized catchment delivering high velocity stormwater flows, soil erosion from storm events has the potential to transport soil downstream. This would be of particular concern if all Camphor Laurels were removed in one phase leaving no tree roots to bind the soil of the creek bank. The staged canopy removal and stem injection as part of the revegetation strategy over five years is appropriate to ensure bank soil stability.

3.3

Canopy Replacement

The existing canopy is quite enclosed and utilising Image Analysis software (Bitmap Grayscale Analyser – 8 Bit Histogram) photographs were taken during site inspection to analyse in the software. The canopy was calculated to average 76% canopy closure, over four images from the edge of the creek, across both lots 593 and 594.

Replacement of existing weed canopy with 12.3.2 technically requires planting of tall canopy species such as Eucalyptus grandis, E. microcorys, E. pilularis. It is considered that these emergent canopy species may be undesirable given the small geometry of the lots and proximity to the adjacent houses. The bulk of the canopy would therefore be comprised of taller vine forest species. Lophostemon confertus has been retained in the revegetation planting palette as it is considered to be of a similar structural integrity and growth habit to the existing camphor laurels, and contributes to the upper canopy.

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

4

Weed Management Works

To propose an adequate weed management strategy, an assessment was undertaken of weed populations on the subject site (refer to drawing DS01).

4.1

Weed Removal Methods

Canopy weed removal methodology will be primarily governed by safety consideration and site access that does not damage existing native plants or disrupt the surface hydrology of the site, and potentially reduce bank stability.

In this regard, five main weed management techniques have been identified for use on the subject site:

• Canopy reduction in the first year followed by stem injection (in Year 5) of canopy weeds such as Camphor Laurel in inaccessible areas away from public access and well away from infrastructure such as the road, powerlines or buildings;

• Tree climbing, stem removal by crane, felling and chipping of canopy weeds in accessible areas – heads to be mulched and stockpiled for use in revegetation works (refer to Section 4.3);

• Stem injection for smaller shrubs or trees which can be safely left to decay;

• Hand removal of smaller specimens of all weed species using bush regeneration techniques (see below);

• Herbicide spraying of groundcover ferns and grass weed species (see below).

The canopy weed removal aspect of the project remains the most technically difficult component. In this regard, preliminary advice has been sought by Treesafe Pty Ltd and is attached to this plan as Appendix C: Arborist Report – Treesafe Pty Ltd.

The techniques and methodologies used for bush regeneration shall conform to current best practice for bushland regeneration and ecological restoration works. Broadly, bushland regeneration weed management includes the following:

Primary weeding – initial weed clearance through manual removal of weeds, and stem injection or other herbicide application techniques.

Secondary or Follow up weeding – maintenance of areas which have already received primary weeding, including herbicide treatment of re-shooting stumps;

Maintenance weeding – ongoing monitoring/hand removal of weed regrowth, minor application of herbicide as necessary.

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

4.2

Weed Removal Sequencing

General sequencing for the weed removal works is anticipated to require the removal of larger pines and Camphor’s first to permit safe access to understorey areas, and to ensure that revegetation areas are not damaged by weed removal activities. Canopy removal or reduction works are expected to target the large stand of Pines in Lot 593 first (in Year 1) as these constitute the greatest public safety risk. Camphor along the southern bank of Lot 594 will require canopy reduction to allow access of a crane to remove Pines and Camphor heads on the Northern bank (Year 2 works). Refer to preliminary advice from the project arborist, attached to this plan as Appendix C: Arborist Report – Treesafe Pty Ltd.

Once the identified canopy weeds are removed (refer drawing DS01) a number of larger camphor have been identified to be canopy reduced, to be stem injected only once rehabilitation plantings have been established for a period of approximately 36 months (refer drawing DS02).

Large weed seed loads are anticipated to already exist on the subject site, providing opportunity for ongoing recruitment of weeds (particularly once canopy removal commences). In this regard, it is important to note that the single most important feature of rehabilitation for this site will be the ongoing weed management efforts (particularly during the first two years).

A detailed description for the staging of rehabilitation works is provided in Table 4 rehabilitation works program below.

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029 TABLE 4 REHABILITATION WORKS PROGRAM

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4.2.1 Year 1 – Dangerous Canopy Weed Removal Lot 593

As discussed previously in this report, the first step for rehabilitation is the staged removal of the canopy of Camphor and Pine. Canopy removal techniques and activities in the first year are anticipated to include;

• pre-start survey to tag relevant trees to be removed and camphors to be pruned only;

• cutting large stems (whole tree removal) and use of a large crane or drag line to recover the trunks, without damaging existing native plants. Stumps to be chemically treated as necessary, and left in situ. Stem and canopy material to be mulched with truck and mulcher in the staging area adjacent to works;

• removal of canopy weed trees using tree climbers, cutting from the top down. Stumps to be chemically treated. Stem and canopy material to be hand removed and mulched with truck and mulcher in the staging area;

• historical woody material which is present on the forest floor of Lot 593 is also to be removed;

• a fifty percent (50%) canopy reduction of the identified Camphor Laurels (Drawing DS02). In instances where a 50% reduction cannot be achieved trees will be manipulated in such a way that public safety is still maintained;

• mulch stockpiled on site for reuse in rehabilitation works.

4.2.2 Year 1 – Understorey Weed Removal Lot 593

Following canopy tree control the final stage of initial weed management works will be the management of smaller understorey weed species. The primary understorey species to be managed using Bush Regeneration techniques (as detailed in Section 4.1) are the garden escapees such as the Pothos, Gingers, Heliconia, Freckle Face. Small Camphor Laurel seedlings, Lantana and Umbrella trees are also present and are primarily dispersed by frugivorous and granivorous birds and mammals. Now that these species have established onsite, a significant seed bank resource is anticipated, and will provide the primary vector for ongoing weed establishment.

Finally, pasture grasses and exotic groundcovers should be managed prior to planting. Understorey weed management techniques are considered to be lower impact than canopy removal works, particularly in terms of surface disturbance or stabilisation issues, which is why it is considered appropriate to pursue these works early in the rehabilitation process but retain the larger root systems of the camphor laurels along the creek banks.

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4.2.3 Year 2 – Canopy Weed Removal and Understorey Weed Removal Lot 594 Using the same techniques described in 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 above, in the second year of the project, the process of canopy removal and canopy reduction followed by understorey weed management works is pursued for the eastern side of Pine Street – Lot 594.

4.2.4 Year 4 – Stem Injection (Round 1)

The first round of stem injection is intended to target smaller canopy weeds such as smaller Pines, Umbrella trees, Loquat, Avocado or other introduced smaller trees which can be safely stem injected, and do not pose a significant weed seed load or safety issue for revegetation crews. These trees are retained for approximately 24 months in situ to assist with provision of shelter for the pioneer revegetation plantings (refer Table 4 Rehabilitation Works Program).

4.2.5 Year 5 – Canopy Stem Injection (Round 2)

The final phase of canopy weed removal works is the stem injection of the Camphor Laurels which were subject to canopy reduction in the first year on Lot 593 and in year 2 on Lot 594. Within 12 months of pruning the canopy reduced stems typically reshoot to provide bushy compact regrowth which provides protection for pioneer revegetation plantings, and creek bank stability benefits (refer to Plate 3). By the end of the project these pioneer plantings have been in place for over two – three years and it would be anticipated that the benefit provided by the reshooting camphor should then be largely exhausted. The final stem injection of the remaining camphor is therefore undertaken.

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

4.2.6 Maintenance Weeding (Years 1 – 5)

Ongoing monitoring of the rehabilitation areas including hand removal of weed regrowth, and minor re-application of herbicide is anticipated to be a necessary requirement throughout the program (refer Table 4 Rehabilitation Works Program). With continued weed population pressures upstream and downstream, ongoing maintenance weeding activities are likely to be required indefinitely to ensure weed populations are managed at acceptable low levels (below 10%).

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4.3

Mulch and Timber Reuse

It is anticipated that a significant amount of mulch will be derived from the head and stems of canopy weeds and larger timber won from trunks of existing weed species (particularly camphor). If possible, timber derived from site will be reused or offered for use by community groups.

It is proposed that mulch derived from weed species be utilised on the site for rehabilitation purposes. This provides opportunity for weed seeds to be dispersed, and on some sites may exacerbate new weed species recruitment and hinder rehabilitation efforts. Given that the subject site has a high density of canopy weed species (Camphor) and there is an accepted high density of weed seed present in existing site soils, the reuse of mulch derived from Camphor laurel is an acceptable risk – particularly given the length of the maintenance period (5 years). Mulch derived from all other weed species however should not be permitted to be used on the site, unless the individual tree is devoid of seed, or the mulch is permitted an extended stockpiling period to enable heat sterilisation of seed.

4.4

Fauna Detection and Protection During Works

Prior to and during vegetation management works on site, an appropriately qualified wildlife spotter catcher is recommended to provide guidance on site operations. This will include an assessment for pre-start survey and capture and recovery of displaced or injured wildlife. Physical capture and relocation of fauna shall be conducted in accordance with the permit requirements of the Nature Conservation Act 1992 as administered by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA). Reports of all fauna injured or relocated will be prepared and submitted as required by the EPA.

It is not anticipated that a significant number of tree hollows will be removed as part of weed management activities. However, nests may be identified and information about tree hollows removed from the site and the species occupying the hollows is to be recorded also as the first phase of the nestbox program for the site. The organic contents of felled hollows may also be inspected, to provide further insight into usage of hollows on the site and guide decision making for the types and locations of nest boxes.

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5

Revegetation Works

5.1

Pioneer Revegetation Plantings (Years 1 – 2)

Revegetation techniques in this area will be two staged with a pioneer species planting effort (Year 1 for Lot 593 and Year 2 for Lot 594), followed by a secondary or climax planting in Year 3 for both Lots. Replanting efforts will utilise cultivation, soil preparation and mulching in some areas will be open, and in many areas of the creek bank will be constrained by the root systems of other existing trees. Following weed management, Rehabilitation Areas A and B are proposed to be ring mulched and planted with Rehabilitation Area C to be blanket mulched (away from the creek bank) with 75-100mm thickness of site derived or imported forest mulch (see drawing DS03). Site mulch should only be considered for use if of appropriate quality (weed and soil contamination). Cultivation of soils will be undertaken by scraping back site mulch and preparing individual tube stock locations for planting, then replacing mulch around tube once planted. Plantings are to occur utilising tubestock of appropriate size and vigor, to achieve a one tree per 2 – 4 square meter density at pioneer planting (average). This density will increase with secondary planting efforts to achieve an overall density of one plant per square meter average. Plants supplied for the primary planting should have the following characteristics:

• Pioneer species – Flora species first to colonise an environment after disturbance. Common characteristics include quick growing but sometimes short lived, weak competitors for light and water and require ample light for growth.

• Healthy root systems with no evidence of root curl or damage. (Potting media should be held by plant root systems when removed from the tube. If the material collapses when removed from the tube, these plants are not sufficiently established and should be rejected);

• Stock should appear to be growing vigorously and be free from disease, weeds and pests;

• Hardened off and suitable for planting in climatic conditions at the site; and

• Plants should be as specified on design drawings and in approved reports for the project or be of species endemic to the area, and be of local provenance, i.e. Sourced from local nurseries known to collect and propagate seed in the Sunshine Coast region (refer Table 8 Rehabilitation plant species list).

5.2

Secondary Revegetation Planting (Year 3)

Secondary or climax plantings are usually undertaken once the pioneer species have established and are providing shelter for more sensitive rainforest plants. They include canopy trees as well as understorey shrubs and grow more successfully in the protection of

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

the hardy pioneer species, and lopped Camphors which are to be stem injected towards the end of the project.

Secondary plants should be species endemic to the area, and be of local provenance, i.e. Sourced from local nurseries known to collect and propagate seed in the Sunshine Coast region (refer Table 8 Rehabilitation plant species list). The embellishment planting allows for higher density of plantings to the creek bank and under-planting of pioneer planting areas to achieve an average planting density of one plant per square meter.

5.3

Rehabilitation Areas Setout and Access

Set-out for rehabilitation works may include the installation of temporary fencing to delineate the works area, and make pedestrians aware of revegetation works. Pedestrian access through Lot 593 should be able to be maintained, however the works in Rehabilitation Area C and the installation of a new access track along the boundary of the site is anticipated to be more intensive than areas A and B. The proposed new access track (Year 2 works) is proposed to require the removal of existing exotic plantings and grass (herbicide spray, or small machine removal) and is to be installed as a low impact compacted road base track. The access shall require the modification of bollards and a new access gate to be installed at the south west corner of Lot 594 where it adjoins Lot 32 RP182350.

5.4

Revegetation Area Maintenance and Monitoring

The maintenance of plantings is proposed to be for a period of just over three years. Long term monitoring and maintenance should reflect the medium/long term objectives for the site. It is imperative to ensure the ecological health of not only the remnant vegetation, but also the reconstructed areas. The monitoring program should be flexible, allowing changes and improvement of management practices based on the operators’ observations and experience.

The following strategies can be undertaken to achieve maintenance and management objectives for the site.

Plant Establishment Phase

It is important to protect juvenile plants until they become tolerant of local conditions. The establishment phase typically covers a 12 to 18-month period after planting. The most important activities necessary to maintain terrestrial plant growth during the establishment phase include:

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029

• watering; • weed control; • replanting; • plant protection;

• restriction of public access; • monitoring plant establishment.

Watering

Planted vine forest areas require high (but not excessive) soil moisture levels for plant establishment and growth. The first month after planting is a critical time for watering:

• assuming favorable planting conditions, planting stock should be dunked or submerged prior to planting and watered at the time of planting using manual irrigation;

• if hot or windy conditions are encountered soon after planting then additional watering will be required;

• a minimum of 50 mm of water per plant per week should be adopted as a general guide. This is usually monitored as a combination of site rainfall, augmented with hand watering if necessary.

After the first month of maintenance, planted areas are not anticipated to be watered. Revegetation areas should avoid water stress, through appropriate timing of planting works, and rapidly hardening the plant to natural climatic conditions.

Weed Control

Intensive weed growth should be monitored every month and controlled throughout the maintenance period but particularly during plant establishment to avoid unnecessary competition. It may be necessary to remove weeds more frequently in the warmer, summer months when weed growth is rapid.

Plant Replacement

Replanted zones should be monitored monthly to ensure 80% plant establishment. Damaged or failed plants should be replaced with native plants endemic to the region, as per the planting palette (refer Table 8 Rehabilitation plant species list).

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Juvenile Plant Protection

Juvenile plants may require protection if animal grazing or weed competition is obvious. If necessary:

• install guard bags around establishing plants with bamboo stakes that are 150 mm longer than the bag;

• install three stakes for each bag with stakes angled outward and centred around the plant (do not damage the roots of the plant);

• remove the bags once the plant is well-established.

Restriction of Public Access

It is highly recommended that public access to revegetated areas be restricted to deter trespassing, and trampling of plant stocks. Temporary fencing or timber edging should be used to line planting beds to discourage pedestrian movement into terrestrial habitats as required.

Monitoring Plant Establishment

The following activities are suggested throughout the 36-month maintenance period.

• set up fixed monitoring points to photograph and visually assess the progress of plant establishment each month;

• carry out plant counts to ensure at least 80% plant establishment;

• monitor weed densities and record the control measures that appear to be most (and least) effective;

• review the maintenance program and adjust the management of the terrestrial habitats according to these monitoring results.

5.5

Artificial Habitat - Nestboxes

Nestboxes are proposed to be included in the rehabilitated landscape to increase the availability of hollows for obligate or opportunistic hollow users due to the nature of the existing vegetation proposed to be retained on the site. It is anticipated that it should take in excess of fifty years to provide natural hollows from aged wet forest species proposed to be planted on the site, so the inclusion of artificial habitat in the form of nest boxes is appropriate. Gibbons and Lindenmayer (2002) have found that more than 300 native species

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utilise tree hollows in Australia, underlining the importance of this diminishing natural resource.

The selection and siting of nestboxes should be undertaken by a suitably qualified or experienced person, and is generally influenced by:

• Identification of the target species – fauna known to, or likely to use particular hollows in the immediate area;

• The nesting requirements of the target species which may include; o hollow size and shape,

o entrance hole preferences – semi-closed spout or open hole, o height above ground;

o aspect or location in relation to the structure of the host tree. • Proximity to food resources, shelter or adequate movement corridors;

• Proximity to disturbance from human activity, lighting, noise or air pollution sources. Nestbox installation densities are variable depending upon habitat type, anticipated impact type and offset requirements, and also target species. This being stated, on other sites in South East Queensland, installation densities of 10 -25 boxes per hectare are typically being pursued following site based analysis. It is proposed that given the low density of existing hollows anticipated to be disturbed, and the landscape arrangement of the site, 5 nest boxes be installed.

In the absence of dense remnant canopy trees to provide adequate vegetation cover, it may be more appropriate to target species such as bats and bird boxes rather than more cryptic species of glider which may be less likely to utilise these boxes due to predation exposure, and lack of food tree resources (Eucalypts and Wattles).

Refer to Franks (2003) for a summary of suitable nestboxes for hollow dependant fauna.

5.6

Fire Management

The subject site is reasonably small in size, dominated by sparse wet forest remnants and weed species, has rocky outcrops, and is surrounded by residential development. These attributes contribute to reducing the fire hazard posed by this vegetation, and the proposed revegetation, however the long term fire management of the area is recommended.

During rehabilitation of the site and indefinitely, complete exclusion of fire is proposed. At the completion of the maintenance period, it is anticipated that the land will be maintained by Council as part of a network of park and open space areas, and may be subject to Council’s ongoing program of fire suppression and hazard assessment activities.

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6

Conclusion and Recommendations

The rehabilitation methodology and program recommended in this report represents an effective compromise between cost effectiveness, safety, and aesthetic impacts, and will result in the long term replacement of the present assemblage of exotic plantings with a robust RE12.3.2 riparian corridor planting.

A preliminary costing to implement the plan has been included in this report at Appendix E, however it is anticipated that a competitive tendering process will be required to ensure that contractors of appropriate skill and expertise are appointed to undertake the works. The following additional reporting and monitoring recommendations are also made for the project.

6.1

Additional Reporting and Monitoring Recommendations

• A summary report detailing the results of the pre-start survey, weed removal phase, the revegetation works, and providing concise photographic monitoring during initial canopy removal works is recommended, to monitor the works undertaken and the effectiveness of weed management activities on the site.

• Baseline water quality information for this section of Martins Creek and immediately downstream of the site may be useful to determine any concerns which may arise during or after the completion of the project in relation to the impacts upon water quality.

• A quarterly report detailing the maintenance tasks and monitoring activities undertaken for the maintenance period shall be prepared by the Contractor and made available to Council upon request.

• Adaptive management should be integrated into rehabilitation works on the site to ensure that the proposed measures provide the greatest ecological rehabilitation outcomes possible.

• In the event that objectives are not achieved, a review of rehabilitation methods will be required. This would involve review as part of regular site meetings, quarterly reporting and proposed changes submitted by the contractor to the project manager for review.

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7

References and Resources

Franks, A. & S. (2003) ‘Nest boxes for Wildlife’ Blooming Books Publishing, Melbourne, Australia. Gibbons, P., and Lindenmayer, D. B. (2002). ‘Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia.’ CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Kanowski, J. and Catterall, C. P. (2006) Monitoring Revegetation Projects for Biodiversity in Rainforest Landscapes. Toolkit Version 1. Rainforest CRC, Cairns. (50 pp.)

Queensland Government (1992) Nature Conservation Act 1992, and subordinate legislation, Brisbane.

Queensland Government (2000). Vegetation Management Regulation 2000, Brisbane. Queensland Government (2000). Vegetation Management Regulation 2000, Brisbane.

Queensland Government (2002). Land Protection (Pest and Stock Route Management) Act 2002, Brisbane.

Queensland Government (2002). Land Protection (Pest and Stock Route Management) Act 2002, Brisbane.

Queensland Government (2006) Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 2006 Queensland Government (2009) Sustainable Planning Act 2009

Queensland Government (2010) South East Queensland Koala Conservation State Planning Regulatory Provisions - Assessable Development Areas Mapping. Online resource available at http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/services_resources/item_list.php?series_id=205677

Queensland Herbarium (2010) Remnant Regional Ecosystem Mapping. Version 6. Queensland Herbarium. Department of Environment and Resource Management - online resource

http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/introduction_and_status/regional_ecosystem_maps/i ndex.php

Stanley T. D. and Ross E.M, (1983) Flora of South-eastern Queensland Vol 1. State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries.

Stanley T. D. and Ross E.M, (1986) Flora of South-eastern Queensland Vol 2. State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries.

Stanley T. D. and Ross E.M, (1989) Flora of South-eastern Queensland Vol 3. State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries.

Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I.D. (1995) An interim biogeographic regionalisation for Australia: a framework for setting priorities in the National Reserves System Cooperative Program, Version 5.1.

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Appendix A: Site Species Lists

TABLE 5 NATIVE PLANTS IDENTIFIED ON SUBJECT SITE (RE 12.3.2 SPECIES)

Scientific Name Common Name

Acronychia oblongifolia Common Acronychia

Alpinia caerulea Native Ginger

Araucaria cunninghamii Hoop Pine

Archontophoenix cunninghamiana Picabeen Palm

Argyrodendron trifoliolatum White Booyong

Carex brunnea Greater Brown Sedge

Castanospermum australe Black bean

Cinnamomum oliveri Oliver's sassafras

Clerodendrum floribundum Lolly bush

Cordyline rubra Red-fruited Palm Lily

Cryptocarya triplinervis Three Veined Laurel

Cyathea cooperi Tree Fern

Diploglottis australis Native Tamarind

Elaeocarpus obovatus Hard Quandong

Elattostachys nervosa Green Tamarind

Eleaocarpus grandis Blue Quandong

Endiandra pubens Hairy Walnut

Eustrephus latifolius Wombat berry

Ficus coronata Sandpaper fig

Flagellaria indica Whip Vine

Flindersia australis Crows Ash

Glochidion ferdinandi Shiny leaved Cheese Tree

Gmelina leichhardtii White Beach

Gossia acmenoides Ironwood

Guioa semiglauca Guioa

Homolanthus nutans Bleeding heart

Juncus usitatus Sedge

Lomandra hystrix Matt rush

Lophostemon confertus Brush Box

Macaranga tanarius Macaranga

Mallotus megadontus Toothed Kamala

Neolitsea dealbata Bolly gum

Notolaea longifolia Native Olive

Omolanthus populifolius Bleeding heart

Oplismenus aemulus Beard Grass

Persicaria decipiens Knot weed

Pittosporum revolutum Hairy Pittosporum

Pollia crispata Pollia

Smilax australis Barbed-wire Vine

Synoum glandulosum Scentless Rosewood

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Rehabilitation Plan Martins Creek Buderim (Pine Street Section) PF1029 TABLE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL WEEDS AND INTRODUCED SPECIES IDENTIFIED ON SUBJECT SITE

Botanical Name Common Name

Acalypha hispida Acalapha

Ageratum houstonium Blue Billy-goat Weed

Amaranthus viridis Green Amaranth

Archontophoenix alexandrae Alex Palm Hybrids

Baccharis halmifolia Groundsel Bush

Bidens pilosa Cobbler's Pegs

Calathea sp. A Calathea

Calathea zebrina Zebra Plant

Callisia sp. Purple succulent

Canna indica Canna Lily

Celtis sinensis Chinese Elm

Chlorophytum comosum Ribbon Plant

Cinnamomum camphora Camphor Laurel

Cordyline sp. Cultivated varieties

Cyperus involucratus Umbrella Sedge

Desmodium unicinatum Silver-leaved Desmodium

Dieffenbachia sp. Variegated Diffenbachia

Dracaena marginata Dracaena

Dracaena sp. Dracaena

Drymaria cordata Tropical Chickweed

Eugenia uniflora Brazilian Cherry

Euphorbia pulcherrima Poinsettia

Euphorbia sp. Milk Weed

Heliconia sp. A Heliconia

Heliconia stricta Firebird

Heychium sp. Exotic Ginger

Hypoestes phyllostachya Pink freckle plant

Lantana camara Lantana

Ligustrum sinense Small-Leaved Privet

Malvaviscus arboreus Cardinals Hat

Murraya exotica Seedling Mock Orange

Neonotonia wightii White Glycine

Nephrolepis cordifolia Fishbone Fern

Ochna serrulata Ochna

Paspalum sp. Paspalum Grass

Passiflora suberosa Corky Passion Vine

Persea americana Avocado

Philodendron cv.variegated Red leaved philodendron

Pinus elliottii Pine Tree

Plectranthus sp. A Plectranthus

Pothos sp. Climbing Pothos

Psidium guajava Yellow Guava

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Sansevieria trifasciata Mother-in-law's Tongue

Schefflera actinophylla Umbrella Tree

Schinus terebinthifolia Broad-leaf Pepper

Setaria palmifolia Palm Grass

Solanum seaforthianum Blue Potato Creeper

Solanum sp. Nightshade

Syagrus romanzoffiana Cocos Palm

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Appendix B: Weed Management Matrix

TABLE 7 KEY WEED SPECIES AND LEGISLATIVE STATUS

Botanical Name Common Name Life-Form Status Control Methods Archontophoenix alexandrae Alex Palm Hybrids Tree Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Baccharis halmifolia Groundsel Bush Shrub Class 2 Cut and swab

Hand Removal

Calathea sp. A Calathea Herb Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Calathea zebrina Zebra Plant Herb Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Callisia sp. Purple succulent Herb Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Canna indica Canna Lily Herb Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Celtis sinensis Chinese Elm Tree Class 3 Stem injection

Cut and swab

Cinnamomum camphora Camphor Laurel Tree Class 3 Hand Removal

Felling & Pruning

Stem injection

Cyperus involucratus Umbrella Sedge Grass Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Desmodium unicinatum Silver-leaved Desmodium Vine Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Drymaria cordata Tropical Chickweed Creeper Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Eugenia uniflora Brazilian Cherry Tree Not declared Stem injection

Cut and swab

Euphorbia pulcherrima Poinsettia Shrub Not declared Hand Removal

Cut and swab

Euphorbia sp. Milk Weed Shrub Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Heliconia sp. A Heliconia Shrub Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Heliconia stricta Firebird Shrub Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Heychium sp. Exotic Ginger Shrub Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Hypoestes phyllostachya Pink freckle plant Herb Not declared Spot spraying Lantana camara Lantana Shrub Class 3 Hand Removal

Cut and swab

Ligustrum sinense Small-Leaved Privet Shrub Class 3 Hand Removal

Cut and swab

Malvaviscus arboreus Cardinals Hat Shrub Class 3 Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Murraya exotica Seedling Mock Orange Shrub Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Neonotonia wightii White Glycine Vine Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Cut and swab

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Spot spraying

Ochna serrulata Ochna Shrub Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Paspalum sp. Paspalum Grass Grass Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Passiflora suberosa Corky Passion Vine Vine Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Pinus elliottii Pine Tree Tree Not declared Fell and Crane

Stem injection

Plectranthus sp. A Plectranthus Herb Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Pothos sp. Climbing Pothos Vine Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Psidium guajava Yellow Guava Tree Not declared Stem injection

Cut and swab

Sansevieria trifasciata Mother-in-law's Tongue Creeper Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Schefflera actinophylla Umbrella Tree Tree Not declared Stem injection

Cut and swab

Setaria palmifolia Palm Grass Grass Not declared Spot spraying Solanum sp. Nightshade Herb Not declared Spot spraying Solanum seaforthianum Blue Potato Creeper Vine Not declared Hand Removal

Spot spraying

Syagrus romanzoffiana Cocos Palm Tree Not declared Cut and swab

Stem injection

Wedelia trilobata Singapore Daisy Creeper Class 3 Hand Removal

Spot spraying

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Appendix C: Arborist Report – Treesafe Pty Ltd

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References

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