From Sources to GIS Results: the methodological path of the DynCoopNet Portuguese team

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From Sources to GIS Results:

the methodological path of the

DynCoopNet Portuguese team

Sara Pinto: saramcpinto@gmail.com

Ana Sofia Ribeiro:asvribeiro@gmail.com

WEHC 2009. UTRECHT, 3rd-7th AUGUST 2009.

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Simon Ruiz 1525/26 - 1597

• Business man with European

projection, connected with

important financial families, like the Bonvisi, Balbani, Spinola...; • Also a financial agent of

important leaders, like the king Philippe II.

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Origin of the commercial correspondence

received by Simón Ruiz company

1554-1630

• Relationships with trade

agents from Lisbon, Rouen, Lyon, Antwerp, Bilbao and Italian cities;

•  His private archive allows us to analyze:

•  the mechanisms of cooperation in the First Global Age •  the patterns of the

establishment and development of a trade network.

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Data Sources: bills of exchange

Bills of exchange may engage four different players:

1 – The giver  the one that previously advances the money to the taker 2 – The taker  the one who writes the letter of exchange and orders the payment

3 – The beneficiary  the one that receives the final payment 4 – The payer  the one who pays the money

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Data Sources: bills of exchange

How can this document help us studying a merchant network? It can tell us:

- The name and location of the

agents. Ex: Diego de Chavarri in

Antwerp and Simon Ruiz in Medina del Campo

- Their relationship and

connections. Ex: Diego de Chavarri

orders Simon Ruiz to pay a certain

quantity in ducados to Benedetto and

Bernardino Bonvisi

- The kind of trade engaged and

the correspondent circuits. Ex: this

payment refers to a mercantile cargo that was sent to Castile.

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Data Source: commercial

correspondence

A challenge to the researcher:

• Not as clear and formal as the bills of exchange.

Extracting the information is not so direct and easy, it requires a careful reading and interpretation of the data

• It is much richer in information, it gives us more

details, and it is more personal and humane

• Requires extra considerations: we must establish

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Data Source: commercial correspondence

•  Individual characteristics of the agents

•  Establishment of relationship ties within the

commercial partners

• Information about the business world: goods’ prices,

trade circuits; features about insurance, freight, exchange, qualitative and quantitative information

about goods from certain regional market¸ weigh and measure unities…

• Events and conjunctures that conditioned the

relations across the network: news on politics, wars, international relations, climate, calamities, market flows and investment opportunities as well as risky business.

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From data to databases – informatics tools JEdit and TimeLink

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From data to databases – informatics tools JEdit and TimeLink

The information is organised in an FAR system:

•  Function – The role agents

perform in a determined event (f.e., beneficiary, taker...).

•  Attribute – characteristics of the

act or of the agent. Besides the name and family origin, we seek for jobs, religious affiliation,

gender, title, position, place of residence or permanence in a precise moment.

• Relation – Relations generated

between agents. They can be explicit, implicit and inferred.

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From data to databases – informatics tools JEdit and TimeLink

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From data to databases – informatics tools JEdit and TimeLink

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From data to databases – informatic tools JEdit and TimeLink

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From data to databases – informatic tools JEdit and TimeLink

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From data to databases – informatics tools JEdit and TimeLink

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From data to databases – informatic tools JEdit and TimeLink

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From data to databases – informatics tools JEdit and TimeLink

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Analysing space

“en medina del campo a 9 de julho 1576 1529 sos 14 s.

No habiendo pagado por la primera ni segunda pagaran v.m. por esta tercera de canbio

en la proxima feria de agosto a tempo de los pagos della al senor Andres ruiz de nantes o a

si mismos mill y quinentos y beinte y nueve escudos catorze sueldos del sol de asesenta sueldos que son por la balor que nos pago en mayor partida hernan correa de belasco por el

sr. Simon ruiz y pongalos por quenta del empleo de Segovia sobre de nos. Cristo con todos.

jeronimo ruiz embito e herdeiros de francisco de la presa e vitores ruiz”

(In the back)”A los muy magnificos senhores herederos de ludobico y benedito bonbisi

en leon.”

In this letter we can find four spatial references:

1º – Place of origin: Medina del Campo (Spain)

2º – Place of destination: Lyon (France)

3º – Location of the agents: Nantes (France)

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Regarding a location, we can get: - Its frequency in the database; - The agents located there;

- The frequency and the type of relationships established with other locations; - Its attributes: seaport, fair, financial centre, etc.

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Simon Ruiz’ spatial framework

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Simon Ruiz’ spatial framework’s evolution: from 1560 to 1580

O espaço financeiro de Simon Ruiz entre 1560 e 1580

Emergentes Mantidos Abandonados

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Network Analysis

Givers and beneficiaries in Simon Ruiz network in 1560

Givers and beneficiaries in Simon Ruiz network in 1580

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Network Visualization – Importance of the agents in Simon Ruiz network 1560-1580.

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Network Analysis – other possibilities

•  the search is far more flexible than other

metodologic approaches;

•  it allows the reconstruction of clusters and other

subgruping exercises;

•  permits estatiscal approachs several times more

effective than traditional statistic, as outdegrees, indegrees, unweighted paths (structural holes theory);

•  reconstructs a hierarchical view of the agents,

by its position and centrality;

•  it is a dynamic tool, easily addapted to time

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

•  Amélia Polónia (Univ. Porto)

•  Joaquim Carvalho (Univ. Coimbra)

•  Miguel Nogueira (Univ. Porto)

•  Monica Wachowicz (Univ. Wageningen)

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References

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