Evaluation of engine performance and emission studies of waste cooking oil methyl ester and blends with diesel fuel in marine engine

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(1)Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences Vol. 46(02), February 2017, pp. 284-289. Evaluation of engine performance and emission studies of waste cooking oil methyl ester and blends with diesel fuel in marine engine Kandasamy Sabariswaran & Sundararaj Selvakumar* Department of Natural Resources and Waste Recycling, School of Energy Environment and Natural Resources, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625021, India. *[E-mail: kumarmkuenergy@gmail.com] Received 09 September 2014; revised 13 October 2016 Waste cooking oil was transesterified with methanol using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst to obtain Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (WCOME). It was basically characterized through FT-IR spectrum and NMR studies. Blends such as B10 (90% diesel+10% WCOME) and B20 (80% diesel+20% WCOME), D100 (100% Diesel) were tested in a compression ignition diesel engine. The fuel properties such as density, viscosity, flash point, fire point and calorific value was determined following American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Engine performance and emission parameters namely Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Exhaust Emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO2, and Smoke Density etc., were analyzed for those test fuels at different loads with constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. Experimental results showed that the B20 blend is most suitable candidate for both engine performance and emission studies. [Keywords: Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester, Transesterification, Methyl Ester, Blending, Performance, Emissions]. Introduction It is evident that that the crude oil and petroleum products will become very insufficient and costly at present. Fuel economy of engine is getting improved and will continue to improve in the future, tremendous. However, increases in number of vehicles have started dictating the demand for fuel. With increased utilization and decreased availability of fossil fuels, alternative fuel technology which will become more common in the coming decades. Biodiesel is considered a gifted alternative fuel for the reduction of pollution from diesel engines, boilers and other combustion equipment 1. In comparison with conventional diesel fuels, biodiesel fuel is renewable and the fuel-borne oxygen in biodiesels, which could be over 10% by mass, may encourage a more total combustion and thus efficiently reduce exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC) in modern four-stroke compression- ignition engines. However, a slight increase in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which could be partially caused by the fuel property incurred combustion-timing variations,. has been observed in the use of oxygenated fuels in general 2. Several studies have found that biodiesel seems to emit minor pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing of carbon dioxide (CO2) by using biodiesel contributes to reduce greenhouse effect 4, 6. Such reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke density improve the air quality 3, 5. ASKOME (Apricot Seed Kernel Oil Methyl Ester) has been produced as an alternative fuel by transesterification method. The optimum transesterification conditions in terms of viscosity, density and ester transformation rate were determined by transesterification in different reaction conditions which is combination of temperature (50°, 60°, and 70°C), volumetric ratios of oil to methanol ratio and catalyst NaOH. In this study, waste cooking oils (WCO), which contain large amounts of free fatty acids produced in restaurants, are collected. Biodiesel production from WCO was studied in this paper through experimental investigation of engine performance and emission profile observation..

(2) INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 46, NO. 02, FEBRUARY 2017. Materials and Methods Biodiesel is produced by transesterification process. Chemically, transesterification means taking a triglyceride molecule or a complex fatty acid, removing the glycerin, neutralizing the free fatty acids and creating an alcohol ester. Waste Cooking Oil was collected from Madurai Kamaraj University men’s hostel, Madurai, India. Acid value for the WCO was determined from which, FFA content was calculated. For one liter of waste cooking oil, 200 ml of methanol and 4gm of sodium hydroxide were added based on FFA content of the Waste Cooking Oil. Mixture was heated up to 60°C for 60 minutes in the magnetic stirrer by stirring. At the end of the reaction period of the two layers formed, the lower layer was separated by gravity, found to be glycerol and upper layer was WCOME (Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester). Finally, the crude WCOME was washed by warm water thoroughly and dried at 105°C for 1 hour 7, 8. The blends of B10, B20 and D100 were prepared and tested in single cylinder air cooled high speed diesel engine equipped with AVL data acquisition system, five gas analyzer and smoke meter for the entire load range at constant speed of 1500 rpm at a constant injection timing of 23.4° bTDC (before Top-Dead-Center) in Automobile Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Conventional diesel fuel was purchased from local petrol bunk, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India. The schematic diagram of the experimental setup and specifications of diesel engine are shown in Fig.1 and Table 1. The cylinder compression ratio of all the experiments was 17.5:1 and the results were recorded after attaining the steady state conditions.. Fig. —1 the experimental setup of marine engine used for testing the blended fuel. 285. Table 1—Technical specifications of the diesel Engine Make Engine type No.of.Strokes per cycle Rated speed Stroke Compression ratio Orifice Diameter Loading type Rated power. Kirloskar Single cylinder air cooled Diesel engine 4 Constant speed (1500 rpm) 110 mm 17.5:1 13.6mm Eddy current dynamometer 4.4 kW. Results and Discussions. Fig. 2— FTIR analysis of the biodiesel produced from WCO. Figure.2 shows a typical FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrum of WCOME. The FT-IR spectra in the mid-infrared region have been used to identify functional groups and the bands corresponding to various stretching and bending vibrations in the samples of oil and biodiesel. The position of carbonyl group in FT-IR is sensitive to substituent effects and to the structure of the molecule. Methoxy ester carbonyl group in WCOME appeared at 1744 cm-1. The band appeared at 3299 cm-1 showed the tinge of ester functional group. C-O stretching vibration in WCO showed two asymmetric coupled vibrations at 1118 cm-1 and 1170 cm-1 due to CC(=O)-O and 1030 cm-1 due to O-C-C 9.

(3) 286. SABARISWARAN & SELVAKUMAR: EVALUATION OF WASTE COOKING OIL METHYL ESTER. Advantages of higher flash point in biodiesel include improved safety, making it easier to transport compared to Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel (D100); lower fire hazard, safer storage and reduced chances of unrestrained ignition. This will result in increased operation heat, higher losses, larger pressures and temperatures and reduced overall cycle efficiency 15. The increase in concentration of biodiesel in a fuel sample lowers its calorific. It leads to higher fuel consumption.13 Table 2— Fuel properties of tested fuels Properties. D100. B10. B20. Density (kg/m3) Viscosity at 40C(mm2/s) Flash point Fire point Gross calorific value. 0.835. 0.843. 0.84. 1.382. 1.407. 1.430. 42˚ C 68˚ C 45240a. 41˚ C 61˚C 38972. 43˚C 65˚ C 40606. Fig. 3 —1H NMR analysis of biodiesel. The 1H-NMR spectrum of mixtures of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) compounds such as triacylglycerols as found in vegetable oils as well as animal fats and methyl esters are characterized by several salient regions of the fatty acid chains containing the signals of specific types of protons. The signals of these types of protons in the 1HNMR spectra of vegetable oils were used to quantity individual unsaturated fatty acids. Obviously, in the spectra of other saturated fatty acids and methyl esters, the intensity and the integration value of the signals of the methylene moieties change. With the change in integration value, and if the integration is sufficiently accurate, fatty acid chain length can be determined, although this is of little practical value. The 1H-NMR spectrum of methyl esters is virtually identical to that of stearic acid except for the strong singlet peak caused by the methyl ester protons at about 3.7 ppm. This peak of the methyl ester protons can be useful for quantification purposes transesterification reaction. Fuel Properties The fuel properties are density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point, pour point and calorific value for D100 and its blends B10, B20 are reported in Table-2. Apart from the calorific value, the other properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point values are higher than that of petrodiesel as we are anticipated and also noticed that the values of all above fuel properties increases as the blend level increases 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.. Biodiesel standards a,b ASTM D 6751–02a DIN EN 14214b 0.86– 0.90 1.9– 3.5– 6.0 5.0 >130 >120 -. Performance Characteristics. Fig. 4 — Variation of BSFC with different load. The variation of BSFC with respect to different load for B10, B20 and D100 is shown in Fig.4. BSFC measures the amount of input energy necessary to develop 1 kilowatt power 17. The BSFC increases when the load increased. Very low fuel consumption was found in D100 when compared with blends. It is due to higher density and lower calorific value of the blends 18. Most of the studies confirm that the increase in BSFC is on average similar to the decrease of the lower heating value for engines fueled with.

(4) INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 46, NO. 02, FEBRUARY 2017. 287. biodiesel 19-20. Fig. 5 —Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with different load. It can be seen from Fig.5 for B10, B20 and D100, by varying load, BTE of B10 and B20 were found to be lower at full load level. Among the blends, B20 is found to have the maximum thermal efficiency, almost the same as that of diesel and B10 at full load. It was observed that as the amount of WCOME in the blends increases, the thermal efficiency decreased, because of high viscosity and density due to the low calorific value 21 .. Fig. 7 — Variation of HC with different load. The comparison of Hydrocarbon emission (HC) for B10, B20 blends and D100 is shown in Fig.7. Emission of HC is the direct effect of incomplete combustion 25. Amount of HC in the exhaust depends on the operating conditions of the engine, fuel-spray characteristics, fuel properties and the interaction between air and fuel spray in the combustion chamber 26. It is observed that HC emission of B10, B20 blends are lower than that of diesel for a given load condition. This is due to complete mixing of fuel and air in combustion chamber resulted in low HC emissions 27.. Emission characteristics. Fig. 8— Variation of NOx with different with load Fig. 6 —Variation of CO with different load. The comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) emission at different engine load is shown in Fig.6. The CO emission depends on carbon content was combustion efficiency of the fuel. Compared with D100, the CO emissions of B10288 and B20 blends was lower, because of lower viscosity and the good spray characteristic for biodiesel blends, which lead to good mixing and good combustion. Complete combustion of fuel due to higher availability of oxygen results in lower carbon monoxide 23-24.. The variation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in for B10, B20 blends and D100 is shown in Fig.8. The formation of NOx dependents on the advance in injection and combustion 24, 28. NOx emissions increased as the injection advance reduced and found that the retardation of injection timing resulted in reduced NOx emissions 22, 29. In this investigation, it was observed that NOx emissions of B10 and B20 blends are lower than that of diesel. This is due to high latent heat of vaporization of blends and also the lower.

(5) 288. SABARISWARAN & SELVAKUMAR: EVALUATION OF WASTE COOKING OIL METHYL ESTER. calorific value, which absorbs additional amount of heat and thereby reduces the temperature which prevails inside the combustion chamber and hence the reduction of NOx emissions.. Fig.9 —Variation of CO2 with different load. Fig.9. shows the variation in carbon dioxide (CO2) with different load. B10 and B20 showed slightly lower value of carbon dioxide emission when compared D100. However in full load condition, B10 and B20 showed lower emission of CO2. This indicates partially uncompleted air fuel ratio in combustion chamber 22 . Fig.10.shows the variation of smoke density with different load and fuel blends is shown in Figure.9. Smoke formation commonly occurs in the rich zone at high temperature, particularly within the core area of fuel spray, and is produced by high temperature decomposition 27, 29.. Fig. 10— Variation of Smoke Opacity with different load. Smoke emissions of D100 and B20 increased at all loads when compared with B10. It is due to the engine characteristic for which incomplete fuel combustion and retardation of injection timing is taking place 24, 28.. Conclusion The results of the engine test showed without any modification of diesel engine, under all conditions, B20 blend fuels reduced the particles, HC, CO2, and CO emissions significantly. However NOx reduction has not occurred when the biodiesel concentrations increased. Many kinds of Waste Oils are produced from restaurants, hotels and road side shops in India. Authorities should take initiations to make use of these waste oils for biodiesel production which meets the demand for biodiesel. Disposal of waste oil also causes several environmental damage. Acknowledgement Authors are thankful to UGC-BSRF for the financial assistance. The facilities provided through DST- Purse programme is greatly acknowledged. References 1. Yoon, SH., Parkand SH. & Lee, CS., Experimental investigation on the fuel properties of biodiesel and its blends at various temperatures, Energy & Fuels, 22(2008) 652–656. 2. Aliyu, A., Adoyi, O. & Hamza, A., Binary blends of petrodiesel with biodiesels derived from soyabean and groundnut oils, Advances in Appl. Sci. Res, 3 (2012) 611-614. 3. Krunal, K., Dabhi, D. & Oza., NP., A Review of Recent Research on Palm oil Biodiesel as Fuel for CI Engine, Int. J.of Appl. Res. & Stud, 2(2013)1-4. 4. Giwa, S., Layeni, A. & Ogunbona, C., Synthesis and Characterization of Biodiesel from Industrial Starch Production Byproduct, Energy and Environmental Engineering Journal, 1(2012) 45-51. 5. Singh, S., Sharma, S., Mohapatra, K. & Kundu., K., Characterization of biodiesel derived from waste cottonseed oil and waste mustard oil, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 5(2013)1443-1448. 6. Madyira, DM., Nkomo, Z. & Esther, T., Characterizing sunflower oil biodiesel blends as alternatives to fossil diesel, WCE 2012, July 4 - 6, 2012, London, U.K, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2012 Vol. III. 7. Oliveira LE, Silva ML, Relationship between Cetane number and calorific value of biodiesel from Tilapia visceral oil blends with mineral diesel, 20th to 22th March, 2013,ISSN 2172-038 X, No.11, March 2013, International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’13) Bilbao (Spain). 8. Adaileh, WM. & AlQdah, KS., Performance of Diesel Engine Fuelled by a Biodiesel Extracted From A Waste Cooking Oil, Energy Procedia, 18(2012)1317 – 1334. 9. Pillay, AE., Fok, SC., Elkadi, M., Stephen, S., Manuel, J., Khan, MZ. & Unnithan S., Engine Emissions and Performances with Alternative Biodiesels: A Review, J Sus Dev, 5(2012) 59-63. 10. Senatore, A., Cardone, M., Rocco, V. & Prati, M., A Comparative Analysis of Combustion Process in D.I, Diesel.

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Fig. 3 — 1 H NMR analysis of biodiesel
Fig. 3 — 1 H NMR analysis of biodiesel p.3
Fig. 4 — Variation of BSFC with different load
Fig. 4 — Variation of BSFC with different load p.3
Fig. 5 —Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with  different  load
Fig. 5 —Variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with different load p.4
Fig. 7 — Variation of HC with different load
Fig. 7 — Variation of HC with different load p.4
Fig. 6 —Variation of CO with different load
Fig. 6 —Variation of CO with different load p.4