Neolocalism, craft beer and beer tourism in South Africa

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(1)COPYRIGHT AND CITATION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THIS THESIS/ DISSERTATION. o Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. o NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.. o ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.. How to cite this thesis Surname, Initial(s). (2012). Title of the thesis or dissertation (Doctoral Thesis / Master’s Dissertation). Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/102000/0002 (Accessed: 22 August 2017)..

(2) Neolocalism, Craft Beer and Beer Tourism in South Africa By. KEAGAN JAMES EDWARD COLLINS A Dissertation Submitted In Fulfilment of the Requirements. For The Degree Of Masters In Tourism and Hospitality Management In the. The College of Business and Economics School of Tourism and Hospitality. UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG. SUPERVISOR PROF. C.M ROGERSON. DECEMBER 2018.

(3) .. DECLARATION. I declare that the information presented in this thesis is my own original work, conducted under the supervision of Prof. C.M. Rogerson. It is submitted for the degree of Masters in Tourism and Hospitality Management in the College of Business and Economics at the University of Johannesburg. This work has not been submitted as part of a degree at another institution, but it has informed the production of three co-authored journal articles written by the same author.. I understand that plagiarism means presenting the ideas and words of someone else as my own without appropriate recognition of the source. Therefore I declare the following:  The work that I submit for assessment is my own, except where I explicitly indicate otherwise (please see Acknowledgments).  Where material written by other people has been used (either from a printed source or from the internet), this has been carefully acknowledged and referenced.  I have used the Harvard method convention for citation and referencing. Every significant contribution to this research, as well as quotations in this thesis from the work of other people has been acknowledged through citation and reference.  I am aware of the University’s policy, with regards to plagiarism as a serious offence punishable by a disciplinary committee.  I have not allowed, and will not allow, anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as his or her own work.  This thesis is my own work, and it has not been, partially or wholly, copied from another.. Student Name: K.J.E Collins Student Number: 200900358. ………………………………………………… Signature. Date…………………........................................ i.

(4) .. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. “Great things are brought about and burdens are lightened through the efforts of many hands “anxiously engaged in a good cause.” Quote ― M. Russell Ballard. Hence I would like to extend a very heartfelt thank you to the following people:  First and foremost, I would like to thank God Almighty for giving me the strength, knowledge, ability and opportunity to undertake this research and whose many blessings have made me who I am today. “If you remain in my word, you are really my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.”— John 8: 31 - 32.  Secondly I would like express my utmost appreciation and gratitude to Prof. Chris Rogerson, my Supervisor for this Dissertation. None of this could have been achieved without his valuable guidance, noble support and necessary inputs. A man who I will forever admire as a role-model and close friend. Thank you for your unparalleled devotion and incredible faith in me even at times when I may have pushed you towards insanity. I apologize deeply. From the bottom of my heart I thank you for everything you done for me and I pray that god blesses you and your family abundantly. I will truly miss your great sense of humour  .  A special mention and thank you must be directed to towards Prof. Jayne Rogerson, Bella and Jono for their wonderful friendship during the duration of this Masters. Their moral support and valuable inputs were much appreciated. . A special thank you to Teddy, Skye and Dawn Norfolk for their unconditional love and encouragement during the writing of this dissertation..  I would also like to give much needed praise to my loving Aunty Lauryn, for coming to my aid at a time most needed. Your kindness and willing desire to help those in need does not go unnoticed. Thank you for being my guardian angel and most trusted advisor. Forever and Always!  [*Coldplay – “Fix You”]  To Anton, Amber and Abigail – thank you for your most gracious hospitality and all-round support during the writing of this dissertation. Your helpful contributions to continuous encouragement are much appreciated.  To Stephen, Josh, Bella, my adoring mother and most beautiful sister – I thank you for never giving up on me and always ensuring I never go with-out. Your love and support has always been infinite. From the depths of my soul I love you both very much! . To my Oups, Nana, Taryn and the rest of the family, thank you for your never-ending guidance and unconditional love towards me.. ii. spiritual.

(5) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  To Blade, Catherine, Troy and the rest of the Lane family, I thank you for your incredible love, support, belief and most importantly laughter during this chapter of my life. May our friendship and families always be blessed with gods beautiful light.  To Meryl, Mark, Clint and many cousins as well as all the rest of my family members and close friends – I truly thank you for your constant patience, support and understanding.  A special thank you to Wendy Job for preparing the maps..  Finally, to all of the microbreweries entrepreneurs and beer-tourists who participated in this study, I thank you for not only sharing with me your valuable time, assistance and thoughts during the collection of data. In addition, thank you for providing me with a new found appreciation for such magnificent craft beer.  To my “Honey” and the rest of the dog cartel – thank you for your unconditional love. You all truly define the statement “Man’s best friend”.  To the University of Johannesburg, the National Research Foundation (NRF) and the School of Tourism and Hospitality – Thank you for your most generous funding and assistance in furthering my academic career.. Lastly it must be acknowledged that certain portions of this dissertation, specifically in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 draw extensively from three previous co-authored and published papers (Please see list below). In addition, I presented some of the material in this dissertation at the inaugural ‘International Geographical Union Conference in Moscow’, August 2016.. 1. Rogerson, C.M. and Collins, K.J., (2015). Festival tourism in South Africa: Characteristics and motivations of attendees at craft beer festivals. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 21 (Supplement 2), pp.76-87. 2. Rogerson, C.M. and Collins, K.J., (2015). Beer Tourism in South Africa. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 24 (3&4), pp.18-18. 3. Rogerson, C.M. and Collins, K.J.,(2016). Developing beer tourism in South Africa: international perspectives .African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure.4 (1), pp.1-15.. iii.

(6) ABSTRACT One consequence of the advance of globalization is a trend towards homogeneity and the standardization of consumer products which are produced and marketed by large enterprises, often multinational corporations. Over the past two decades the rise and hegemony of this global monoculture has been challenged by a counter-movement which is styled as ‘neolocalism’. This term refers to attempts made to preserve or recreate the ‘local’, and the ‘unique’ in the promotion and consumption of alternative foods and other products that reject homogeneity and instead support local identity. Support for the growth of farmers markets, local food products, and local food sourcing represent examples of this counter-movement. The international growth of craft beer and of microbreweries is one further example of this expanding trend towards neolocalism. Essentially, it represents a reaction by consumers to the sameness of beers which are produced under the conditions of global or local dominance of beer markets by a handful of large enterprises. Over the past decade in South Africa there has been a remarkable surge in the industry of producing craft beers as an alternative product to the types of beers marketed by SABMiller and Brandhouse. The aim in this study is to examine through the theoretical lens of neolocalism the emergence, growth and organisation of craft beer production in South Africa and of the role of craft beer as a base for local tourism development. The study examines the time period 1983-2016. By 2016, there were a total of 187 craft breweries across all of South Africa’s nine provinces but with the major clusters in Western Cape and Gauteng. Using mixed methods and based upon a national audit of craft beer microbreweries as well as detailed interviews undertaken with craft beer entrepreneurs and craft beer festival attendees, this research investigates the rise of the craft beer industry in South Africa, assesses the extent to which it can be viewed as a manifestation of neolocalism and the potential of craft beer for growing beer tourism in South Africa.. iv.

(7) TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION....................................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................................... ii ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................. iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................... x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... 1 1.1 Context of Study .............................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Importance of the Study ................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study .................................................................................... 4 1.4 Overview of the Study...................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................... 6 2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 The Homogenizing Nature of Globalization .................................................................... 6 2.3 Interpreting Neolocalism .................................................................................................. 7 2.3.1 Defining “Local’ .................................................................................................................. 10 2.3.1.1 The ‘Local’ As Non-Global ........................................................................................ 11 2.3.1.2 The ‘Local’ As Transparent ....................................................................................... 11 2.3.1.3 The ‘Local’ As Non-Corporate ................................................................................... 12 2.3.1.4 The ‘Local’ As Unique ............................................................................................... 12 2.3.1.5 The ‘Local’ As Environmentally Responsible ............................................................ 12 2.3.1.6 The ‘Local’ As Empowered And Self Sufficient ........................................................ 13 2.3.1.7 The ‘Local’ As Community Building ......................................................................... 13 2.3.1.8 The ‘Local’ As Authentic ........................................................................................... 13. 2.4 Critiques of Neolocalism ................................................................................................ 13 2.5 The Essential Attributes of Neolocalism ....................................................................... 14 2.5.1 The Expression of Neolocalism: The Rise of Alternative Food Networks ......................... 14 2.5.1.1 Farmers Markets .......................................................................................................... 15 2.5.1.2 Community Supported Agriculture (CSA’s) ............................................................. 15 2.5.1.3 Local Produce within Grocery Stores and Food Co-ops ............................................. 16. 2.6 The International Rise Of Microbreweries ..................................................................... 18 2.7 International Review of Literature On Craft Beer and its Links to Neolocalism .......... 19 2.7.1 Idiosyncratic Names ............................................................................................................ 22. v.

(8) 2.7.2 Historical Connection .......................................................................................................... 23 2.7.3 Interpretative Imagery and Distinctive Labeling ................................................................. 23 2.7.4 Harvest Cycle ....................................................................................................................... 23 2.7.5 The Environmental Influence ............................................................................................. 24. 2.8 Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 24 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY .......................... 25 3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 25 3.2 Data Collection Methods ................................................................................................ 25 3.3 Data Analysis Procedures............................................................................................... 27 3.4 Professional Honesty ...................................................................................................... 27 3.5 Informed Consent, Participation and Confidentiality ................................................... 27 3.6 Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 28 CHAPTER FOUR: NEOLOCALISM AND CRAFT BEER RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................ 29 4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 29 4.2 Broad Historical Profile of Craft Beer In South Africa ................................................. 29 4.3 The Evolution and Geography of Craft Beer in South Africa........................................ 32 4.4 Structural Aspects of the Craft Beer Industry in South Africa ...................................... 40 4.5 Profile of Craft Beer Entrepreneurs and Their Businesses ........................................... 48 4.6 Neolocalism and Craft Beer in South Africa ................................................................. 61 4.7 Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 71 CHAPTER FIVE: BEER TOURISM RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ............................................................ 72 5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 72 5.2 International Research and Literature on Beer Tourism and Festivals .......................... 74 5.3 Current Policy and Research Directions ........................................................................ 83 5.4 The Emergence of Beer Tourism in South Africa.......................................................... 88 5.5 Profile of Contemporary Beer Tourism in South Africa ................................................ 91 5.5.1 Craft Beer festivals in South Africa ................................................................................. 92 5.5.2 Craft Beer Festival Attendees .......................................................................................... 94 5.5.3 Craft Beer and Local Development ................................................................................. 97. 5.6 Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 99 CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION ....................................................................................... 100 6.1 Context ........................................................................................................................ 100. vi.

(9) 6.2 Summary of Key Findings ........................................................................................... 100 6.3 Future Research ............................................................................................................ 103 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 105 APPENDICES ...................................................................................................................... 123. vii.

(10) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.1: Development and Growth of Microbreweries in South Africa 1983-2016 ........... 33 Figure 4.2: The Location of Craft Breweries in South Africa: Provincial Scale 2013 ............ 35 Figure 4.3: The Location of Craft Breweries in South Africa: Provincial Scale 2016 ............ 36 Figure 4.4: The Location of Craft Breweries in South Africa: Urban Scale 2016 ................. 38 Figure 4.5: Schematic View of the Different Segments within the Broader Structure of the Industry ........................................................................ 41 Figure 4.6: The Source of Capital Utilized by Entrepreneurs to Establish Businesses .......... 52 Figure 4.7: The Small Scale Production Capacity of “Porcupine Quill Brewing Co” ........... 53 Figure 4.8: The Large Scale Production Capacity of “Cape Brewing Company” ................. 54 Figure 4.9: Different Microbrewery Sales Techniques .......................................................... 57 Figure 4.10: Example of Direct Sales at “Wagon Trail Brewery” Situated in the Cape Winelands... ...................................................................... 58 Figure 4.11: Local Bootleggers with a Large Variety of Craft Beer Stock on Sale ............... 58 Figure 4.12: The Number of Different Craft Beer Style Currently Produced By the Microbrewery Respondents ............................................................................... 62 Figure 4.13: Smack Republic Brewing Company, Distinct Naming and Beer Labels ........... 68 Figure 4.14: Amanzimtoti Brewery ........................................................................................ 69 Figure 4.15: Devils Peak Brewery .......................................................................................... 70 Figure 5.1: Location of Craft Beer Festivals in South Africa ................................................. 93 Figure 5.2: Seasonality of South African Craft Beer Festivals............................................... 94. viii.

(11) LIST OF TABLES Table 5.1: A Categorization of Breweries Based upon their Involvement in Beer Tourism Activities ..................................................................................... 85 Table 5.2: Demographic Profile of Festival Attendees (n=132) ......................................... 94 Table 5.3: Festival Attendance: Patterns and Motivations .................................................. 95. ix.

(12) LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. Acronyms/Abbreviations. Definition/Explanation. AB InBev. Anheuser-Busch InBev. AFNs. Alternative Food Networks. CAMRA. Campaign For More Real Ale. CBC. Cape Brewing Company Craft Beer South Africa. CBSA DTI. Department of Trade and Industry. NSB. National Sorghum Breweries. SA. South Africa. SAB. South African Breweries Limited. UK. United Kingdom. UNB. United National Breweries. USA. United States of America World Travel and Tourism Council. WTTC. x.

(13) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION. 1.1 Context of Study Due to the pervasive yet multi-faceted process of globalization, the concept of a “global village” has been widely discussed. One impact of globalization is this has resulted in the homogenization of products and services (Schnell, 2013). However, in recent years product standardization and the unification of consumer behavior trends through the process of globalization has triggered the development of a so-called “counter-movement” known as “neolocalism” (Schnell and Reese, 2003). According to Brain (2011: 9) neolocalism “represents a lens for discussing the ways in which individuals experience the impacts of globalization”. Cultural geographers such as Wes Flack (1997), Steven Schnell (2003, 2013) and Joseph Reese (2003) have laid the framework for looking at craft beer and microbreweries as potential ways that local communities have begun reclaiming self-identity and re-establishing connections with the local, the personal, and the unique.. Neolocalism can best be described as a conscious reaction against the various impacts of globalization on product differentiation by reiterating the notion of local uniqueness within the broad framework of numerous expressions (Shortridge, 1996: Schnell and Reese, 2003; Schnell, 2011). Globally, this is reflected variously in the development of alternative food networks, boutique wineries, agri-tourism and most notably, in the context of this study, the rise of microbreweries. Microbreweries represent a conscious attempt to construct new senses of place by establishing new types of sustainable connections with the places people live, as well as to potentially provide support towards locally-based economies by emphasizing local identity and distinctiveness (Schnell and Reese, 2003; Schnell, 2011, 2013, 2014). This conception is supported by Flack (1997) who provides an explanation for the rapid growth of the microbrewery sector in the United States by emphasizing the importance of “locality” and the uniqueness of different craft-beer products. It is argued that “one may explain the microbrewery proliferation as a response to changing tastes and a growing beer connoisseur subculture. These are significant elements, but just as important is the neolocal craving that is. 1.

(14) being satisfied” (Flack, 1997: 37). In a parallel to the views of Flack, Schnell and Reese (2003: 66) extended upon these foundational ideas by articulating that “the explosive growth of microbreweries in the United States indicates a desire . . . to reconnect with the cities or the towns in which they [brewers and consumers] lived, to resurrect a feeling of community tied to a specific landscape”. The “local” aspect in this case may also be associated with that of the freshness and variety of the craft-beer products as well as to the subsequent growth of alternative food networks. More broadly, Everett and Aitchison (2008) mention in their study that food tourism can be a vehicle for local and regional development with opportunities to diversify local economies as well as strengthen local identities and traditions.. Since the introduction of craft beer in the early 1980s, the South African beer industry has in common with trends observed in USA, UK, Europe and Australia witnessed the appearance and growth of a craft beer sector of microbreweries (Corne and Reyneke 2013). It can be argued that following global trends and triggered by the enormous consolidation of SABMiller with its production of increasingly standardized lager and light beers, there has emerged a counter-movement in South Africa’s beer industry which took place over the past 30 years and closely resembles the distinct development patterns and noticeable trends which occurred in other countries. This reaction against consolidation and lack of variety offered to consumers essentially resulted in a revitalized interest by South African consumers in ‘older’ beer styles, such as pale ales, porter, brown cask ales, stout and bitters (Corne and Reyneke, 2013).. As the neolocalism counter-movement increases so does the potential interest in building upon local products, in this case the purchase of local beers from local markets and visits to local craft festivals (Schnell, 2013). In a significant observation Bell and Valentine (1997: 149) aver that as localities and regions “seek to market themselves while simultaneously protecting themselves from the homogenising forces of globalization, regional identity becomes enshrined in bottles of wine and hunks of cheese”. Arguably, therefore, local food and beverages of a region can assume a vital role in the culture of regions and can be one of the essential motivations for tourists to travel to certain areas (Plummer et al., 2005).. 2.

(15) One particular theme of this research is to examine how a traditional product, often taken for granted, can be used to sustain and promote tourism in South Africa. Beer tourism is a growing dimension of culinary or food tourism. Although South Africa is traditionally associated with wine tourism the country is actively enjoying the development of beer tourism, in particular associated with the expansion of craft beer microbreweries. Beer tourism must be understood as a growing tourism segment and part of the expanding scholarship about culinary tourism. The emphasis on neolocalism has become an important asset for the development of culinary tourism “because of its symbolic ties to place and culture” (Spracklen et al., 2013: 307). Therefore this study will attempt to describe in detail the different aspects of beer tourism, from tourist attractions to festivals and beer trails and concludes by presenting key findings relating to opportunities for the tourism industry as well as developing a social and economic profile of festival attendees at beer festivals in South Africa.. 1.2 Importance of the Study Globalization is the process arising from the interchange of world views, globally standardized products, ideas, and other aspects of culture all of which are available in the same form and as a result generate further interdependence of economic and cultural activities. This research is informed by the theoretical notion of neolocalism as a countermovement to globalization. Therefore it will explore the growth of the South African microbrewery industry and determine to what extent these microbreweries are reaffirming local identity. In a broader context of geographical scholarship this study addresses the knowledge gap which was observed by Maye (2012: 473) that “microbrewing is a form of business enterprise that has received limited attention in the economic geography literature”. In recent years Gatrell, Reid and Steiger (2018: 360) proclaim that “The craft beer industry is of increased interest to academics and geographers are beginning to not only chart a “geography of beer”; but also the local economic development implications of the industry”.. One critical aspect of local economic development is the importance and potential of craft beer as a basis for tourism. The international literature on beer-specific tourism contains a range of different works which examine the characteristics of beer tourists; the organization. 3.

(16) of beer tourism through visits to breweries, beer museums and exhibits, and a range of special events and festivals, including beer festivals and trails; and, research around the impacts of beer tourism for particular destinations (see for example Lyons and Sharples 2008; Niester 2008; Pechlaner et al. 2009; Alonso 2011; Baginski and Bell 2011; Bujdos and Szucs 2012a, 2012b; Dillivan 2012; Howlett 2013; Jablonska et al. 2013; Spracklen et al. 2013; Dunn and Kregor 2014; Eberts 2014; Kraftchick et al. 2014; Minihan 2014; Murray and Kline 2015).. 1.3 Aims and Objectives. The first objective of this research is to analyse the growth, geography of licensed microbreweries in South Africa since the introduction of craft beer in 1983. The study will explore the dynamics of the South African craft beer industry in relation to the concept of neolocalism. Craft beer provided the basis for the growth of beer tourism in South Africa. It is against the backcloth of the appearance of a dedicated beer-tourism literature that another objective in this research paper is to examine the growth and contemporary directions of beer tourism in South Africa, a destination which in terms of culinary tourism usually is associated with wine tourism (Ferreira and Muller, 2013). Within this research a sub-theme is to analyse the characteristics and motivations of festival attendees at beer festivals in South Africa.. The following three specific aims guided the research:  To analyze the historical evolution and growth of microbreweries in South Africa since the 1980s to the present-day;  To examine the emerging geographies of the microbrewing industry and to determine whether the operations of the craft microbrewers can be explained by the concept of neolocalism;  To identify the current links which exist between beer and tourism in South Africa, and, in particular, to examine the extent to which craft beer contributes to the growth of beer tourism in South Africa.. 4.

(17) 1.4 Overview of structure. The material is organised into the following subsequent sections of discussion. . A literature review of international research and debates around neo localism and work on the craft micro-brewing sector;. . The presentation of research design, methodology and issues of ethics;. . Analysis of the growth and geography of craft beer production;.. . Craft beer consumption as a potential catalyst for beer tourism in South Africa.. . Concluding remarks in terms of key findings and contributions.. . References and Appendix material.. 5.

(18) CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1 Introduction The literature review is structured as follows. The first section locates the emergence of the concept of neolocalism within the broader debates around globalization. The next sections turn to discuss the contested debates around defining neolocalism as well as critiques of the concept. The following section turns to illustrate its expression through the material on Alternative Food Networks. The last major section of material focuses upon an international overview of existing work which has been conducted on microbreweries. Discussion of the detailed literature on beer tourism and the role of craft breweries is reserved for Chapter Five which examines beer tourism and craft beer consumption in South Africa.. 2.2 The Homogenizing Nature of Globalization. The world is inexorably moving in the direction of becoming a global community. The term globalization has been referred to as “the massive flow of goods, people, information, and capital across huge areas of the earth’s surface” (Trouillot et al, 2001: 128). In terms of the process of globalization, society is observing its massive influence worldwide through the extensive distribution of several cultural phenomenon’, most specifically with regards to economics and international trade (Scholte, 2008). Reid and Gatrell (2017: 92) maintain that “one of the benefits of globalization has been the emergence of stable, familiar, and predictable landscapes, products, and quality that has been driven by homogenized economic processes and economies of scale”. In a broader scope ‘globalization’, in many instances, can be viewed as hegemonic because of its control and dominance by powerful individuals, national governments and multinational corporations whose policies, plans, and actions threaten cultural diversity and instead promote the rise of a global mono-culturalism (Marsella, 2005). Certain negative impacts of globalization can be observed in terms of the relevant homogenization of consumption. 6.

(19) through multinational brands, which have significantly changed how the majority of people currently individuals purchase different goods and services and from where (Scholte, 2008). Hence a resulting outcome from globalization is that the “distinctiveness of places and localities has inherently eroded across space and over time” (Reid and Gatrell, 2017: 92). By definition, “hegemonic” globalization minimally engages the participation and decisions of local populations. Advertising is unmistakably seen as the major driver of hegemonic globalization because it confuses consumer needs and wants as well as limits the range of offering variety (Marsella, 2005). As a consequence, consumers are constantly propelled to buy and prefer certain brands of beer, cigarettes, automobiles, clothes or foods. It is evident that people buy from the same “hegemonic” companies (most of which have a large number of factories throughout the world) and, in addition, the sale of products and services are in accordance with prices usually set by global market forces (Schnell, 2013). The satisfaction of society’s needs is now better understood through the buying and selling of commodities on the market, which, to a certain degree, is influenced by extensive advertising campaigns (Friedman, 1990). In recent times product standardization and the unification of consumer behaviour trends through the process of globalization has resulted in the development of a so-called “countermovement” known as neolocalism (Schnell and Reese, 2003). This movement has generated a form of resistance to globalization as an attempt to preserve incomparable and authentic ways of life. The term ‘neolocalism’ was first coined by James Shortridge (1996: 10) who described it as the "the deliberate seeking out of regional lore and local attachment by residents within a community”. 2.3 Interpreting Neolocalism. In a globalized world, the emergence and prominence of local identity is a recent phenomenon, which has been highlighted in literature discussing the potential impacts of globalization (Renard, 1999).. The resurgence of ‘local identity’ as a concept can be. attributed to the work done by several authors (see for example Shortridge, 1996; Flack, 1997; Schnell and Reese, 2003, 2014; Schnell, 2011; Schnell, 2013; de Wit, 2013; Zelinsky,. 7.

(20) 2011; Eberts, 2014; McLaughlin et al., 2014; Cabras and Bamforth, 2016; Holtkamp et al., 2016; Lamertz et al., 2016).. Many of these writers suggest that globalization is a homogenizing force whereby cultures and localities are becoming more similar. This is expressed through the continuous expansion of associated public support and the consolidation of multinational brands that have commonly been perceived as the only option for ‘quality’ aside from plain general consumption (Dillivan, 2012). However, local communities have begun to recognize how the essential parts that make their community unique and authentic, slowly disappear through the expansion of multinational brands such as ‘Walmart’ which is described as being the “poster child for destruction of local economies” (Schnell, 2013: 73). Accordingly, there has been considerable growth and support towards the development of an alternative countermovement. This counter-movement is described as ‘neolocalism’, a notion which Flack (1997) essentially refers to the movement of people to rejuvenate and preserve the local, unique, quality, and personal aspects commonly associated with their respective communities. It is observed that throughout most of history people have practiced cultural norms and followed local traditions which were effectively achieved by living in ‘local communities’. Hence they were accustomed to eating locally produced foods only within close the vicinity of their residence (Schnell, 2013: 56). It was only through the various processes associated with globalization such as industrialism, improved communications and more sophisticated travel technologies that the ‘sense of place’ attached to certain localities began to progressively decline (Schnell and Reese, 2003). The theoretical notion of neolocalism must be distinguished from that of the old form of ‘localism’ by reiterating that it is fundamentally the outcome of free will and conscious choice, whereas the former was necessary and natural.. Neolocalism as a conscious manifestation of the old form of localism is also noticeably different in the context of being aware of the rest of the world, and thus open to interactions with it, whereas the old localism tended to minimize links with the peripheral in order to maintain strong closed boundaries (Bramanti, 1999: 18). To a certain degree neolocalism is best understood as a revived concept which embodies creativity, resourcefulness and ingenuity but simultaneously possesses a defensive nature. In one recent Australian case. 8.

(21) study which explored the links between rural development and the evolving spatiality of the craft beer sector, the author generates the view from his findings that essentially neolocalism is a “strong form of social embeddedness, where notions of local commodity production, place marketing, authenticity and ‘wholesomeness’ are folded ‘together in support of local craft production” (Argent, 2018: 4).. In recent studies examining the various aspects of neolocalism, one of the most distinct themes reflected in this literature is the re-evaluation and association to ‘local’. Indeed, Schnell (2013) suggests that the foundation of neolocalism can be attributed to different ways in which the term ‘local’ is perceived as well as understood by participants through several interconnected neolocal movements. The trend towards individuals and communities becoming more engaged with this so-called counter-movement is viewed as predominantly because the term ‘local’ is essentially perceived; “as a primary form of identity, and the promotion of people thinking of themselves not only in the sense of abstract symbols, but also in terms of what they buy, what they eat, whom they interact with, and identifying not only with their own places, but with the idea of place itself” (Schnell, 2013: 82). Further, it is recognised that the term “local is always shifting its meanings, both in time and in context” (Schnell, 2013: 65). Rogerson (2016) highlights that neolocalism is thus a critical concept invoked to account for the international growth of the craft beer industry. Holtkamp et al. (2016: 66) view it “a conscious effort by businesses to foster a sense of place based on attributes of their community”. This reconnection occurs through processes wherein craft breweries concentrate efforts upon ‘the local’ by utilizing the naming and labeling of their beers to create a sense of place and strengthen ties with local communities (McLoughlin et al., 2014: 137). Indeed, Schnell and Reese (2003, 2014) state explicitly that neolocalism is evidenced in the active, conscious and maintenance of attachment to place. In addition, Eberts (2014: 176) points out that because brewers usually must draw their key raw ingredients, such as barley and especially hops, from a variety of non-local sources necessarily they rely on evoking localness primarily through “the art of brewing itself and the narratives of place they employ in their marketing”. Lastly, it should also be noted that the. 9.

(22) term “local” is constantly being scrutinized, and instilled with a variety of connotations based on the current world affairs (Schnell, 2013: 65). 2.3.1 Defining ‘Local’ According to Feagan (2007) and Schnell (2013) the term ‘local’ is contested and its definition varies in different contexts. Literally, the term ‘local’ indicates a relationship to a particular place, or a particular geographic entity. Overall, there is no single definition of the term ‘local’ or ‘local food systems’ in terms of the geographic distance between production and consumption. But, defining ‘local’ based on marketing arrangements, such as farmers selling directly to consumers at local farmers markets is well-documented (see Trobe, 2001; Brain, 2012; DuPuis and Goodman, 2005). There are also a number of different definitions trying to understand the term local, many of which have been used or highlighted by researchers assessing local food systems (Feagan, 2007; Schnell, 2007, 2011). During 2007 the word “locavore” was added to the New Oxford American Dictionary as the word of the year. A locavore is defined as someone who attempts to eat food produced within a 100-mile/ 160 kilometre radius of their residence (Adams and Salois, 2010). Schnell (2011) mentions that the perception of what makes up ‘local food’ tends to differ considerably by region which is due in large part to varying climates, soil types, and populations. Nevertheless, most researchers accept that eating locally means minimizing the distance between production and consumption, especially in relation to the modern mainstream food system. Arguably, when people purchase more of their food locally, more of the money spent by these respective consumers remains in the local community (Brain, 2012). Buying locally is therefore a way to make the local food industry more sustainable. Alonso and O’Neal (2010) show that local produce can enhance culinary experiences in the hospitality industry as well as benefit the region and businesses that promote it. Schnell (2011) notes, that local food system movements, practices, and writings pose increasingly visible structures of resistance and counter-pressure to conventional globalizing food systems. The place of food seems to be the centre of the discourses emerging from within these associated neolocal movements. Localism in the past was unintentionally carried out as an invisible movement. People were bound to a place due to spatial and economic restrictions. 10.

(23) as a result of poor transportation and communication networks. Thus, it only made sense to make use of local resources and their respective communities because that was their only available option at the time. In a globalized world, it is the uniqueness of local experiences which essentially distinguishes one place from another and ultimately contributes to the interactive norms in which ‘local identity’ is created (Schnell 2013). Whether it is a restaurant, park, museum, or historic landmark, it is considered that community residents naturally develop emotional connections as well as a sense of pride. In order to gain a stronger understanding of the cultural meaning associated with ‘local’ within a more modern contemporary context, Schnell (2013) identified and constructed criteria regarding some of the most prevailing themes best exemplified by neolocal followers. These specific themes are essentially what people within these neolocal networks are increasingly associating the term “local” with, and therefore more often than not usually encompass a variety of different yet fascinating types of places. Overall, in reviewing the debates about neolocalism, eight different views can be identified as to the ‘local’. These are as follows: 2.3.1.1 “The ‘local’ as non global”: This view basically refers to growing negative awareness of society regarding globalization, and its socially constructed constraints. Therefore, as a direct consequence of people’s mounting aversion towards globalization, it is perceived that globalization essentially has enabled the positive rise of neolocalism as an effective counter-movement which exhibits none of the attributes of the latter. Accordingly, “local then, conceptually becomes the opposite of everything that the global and is seen to be: personal instead of faceless, fair instead of exploitive, democratic instead of plutocratic, unique instead of homogenous” (Schnell, 2013: 66). 2.3.1.2 “The ‘local’ as transparent”: This view refers to a second emerging theme whereby the transparency of economic interactions at both national and global scales, systematically has become almost non-existent. The lack of transparency is essentially the outcome of extensive global supply chains which are so dominant and influential that consumers are increasingly incapable of deciphering how, where and under what. 11.

(24) conditions the items they purchase are manufactured and produced. This can be highlighted through the exploitation of labour, appalling treatment of animals and lack of environmental awareness. By contrast “the rhetorical promise of localism is that transparency can be restored to the system” (Schnell, 2013: 66). 2.3.1.3 “The ‘local’ as non-corporate”: This theme is potentially one of biggest draw cards for neolocal advocates and most recently is manifested in alternative food networks, microbreweries and local socio-economic movements. In essence, this theme exposes the nature of corporate institutions as playing an influential role towards the progressive loss of identity and character for many localities, because their sole mandate revolves around profit and not social sustainability. By contrast, it is argued that “one of the biggest attractions of ‘local’ enterprises for many is the fact that they are not owned by faceless corporations (who have become the objects of much suspicion and mistrust among the local movement)” (Schnell, 2013: 66). 2.3.1.4 “The ‘local’ as unique”: This theme basically suggests how large-scale corporate globalization results in indistinct and homogenous landscapes, whereby there is lack of creativity and aesthetic appeal regarding new and old places. Schnell (2013: 67) asserts that “promoters of neolocal enterprises argue that we need to make (or re-make) the distinctive”. Hence, local residents of newly developed landscapes as well as old rejuvenated places should strive towards embedding some form of meaningful identity in their respective localities. 2.3.1.5 “The ‘local’ as environmentally responsible”: According to the theoretical notion of “neolocalism” it is viewed that locally owned businesses tend to be more environmental sensitive and resource accountable specifically in terms of processes such as manufacturing, production and transportation in comparison to their globalized counterparts. This issue is highlighted through the amount of fossil fuels or more commonly known as “food miles” utilized in these above mentioned processes. Therefore, “local enterprises are also often argued to be better environmental stewards than multinational firms” (Schnell, 2013: 68). 12.

(25) 2.3.1.6 “The ‘local’ as empowered and self-sufficient”: This sixth theme is mostly synonymous with neolocal advocates actively lobbying towards retaining the long term financial wellbeing of their respective communities. It is considered that this can be accomplished by seizing power and control over local amenities from multinational corporations and instead promoting local community entrepreneurship, and therefore the surplus of money being re-invested back into the community (Schnell, 2013, p. 68). 2.3.1.7 “The ‘local’ as community-building”: This particular theme argues that worldwide societal changes have caused the rupture of communal life in local neighbourhoods. The answer is seen in community-building, which can be described as strengthening communities holistically, fostering participation and problemsolving, re-developing a ‘sense of place’ and promoting local co-operative schemes as well as engaging institutions to work as partners with residents and vice versa. Schnell (2013: 69) argues that “transactions are no longer just economic exchanges, but also interactions between neighbours and friends, based on mutual respect”. In essence there is a passionate yearning from neolocal advocates for a ‘sense of connectedness’. 2.3.1.8 “The ‘local’ as authentic”: Globalization is said to destroy the authenticity of local cultural products and human relations. Neolocalism argues that local communities should strive towards becoming self-sufficient, distinct, well-defined, and robust. By following this general direction, local residents can potentially create culturally-sustaining connections between geographical place and cultural experience, which ultimately strengthens the authenticity of their respective communities and the product they offer (Sims, 2009). By maintaining authenticity Schnell (2013: 69) asserts that “the implication is that local products are made by ‘‘real’’ people whom you know, rather than simply the result of elaborate marketing ruses fostered by multinational advertising firms and their corporate clients”.. 2.4 Critiques of Neolocal. 13.

(26) A number of academics have begun to investigate the potential negative critiques associated with alternative “neolocal movements” and some of the manifestations of these movements such as alternative food networks (AFNs). One such criticism is highlighted by Schnell (2011) that neolocal food movements tend to favour upper and middle-class white customers and to a certain degree may exhibit characteristics which promote further disparity and inequality amongst consumers of different incomes. In addition, a further criticism concerning neolocal food movements is that they often exhibit a defensive nature specifically towards global brands and large-scale companies; to an extent that outsiders from local communities are “deliberately demonized, local elites are exclusionary and political and social justice concerns are ignored” (Schnell, 2011: 283).. 2.5 The Essential Attributes of Neolocalism. Neolocalism in many instances is portrayed as a relatively new social awareness movement and simultaneously regarded as an attempt to go back to original roots by rejuvenating local economic, social, and cultural practices as entrenched in past traditions and moral values (Dillivan, 2012). Today, neolocalism can be seen through the exceptional growth of local food networks such as community-supported agriculture, farmers markets and farm-to-school programmes. Other expressions of neolocalism include locally-based music festivals, support for locally-owned businesses, as well as enforcing restrictions on the amount of high-end transnational retail companies located within communities. It is argued that people long for something in their community to attach themselves in order to cultivate a local identity. Microbreweries provide one example of such an attachment, to an extent that Flack (1997) argues the microbrewing phenomenon is wedged upon a strong attachment between beer and localities. Shifts in consumer preferences toward additional flavour, additional options, and added local products have fuelled the development of these microbreweries and the expansiveness of craft beer in general (Barajas et al., 2017).. 2.5.1 The Expression of Neo-Localism: The Rise of Alternative Food Networks. The rise of alternative food networks is one (and perhaps, the most) visible expression of neolocalism (Goodman, 2003; Goodman et al., 2011). The world agro-food system is. 14.

(27) becoming increasingly globalized. As the majority of the world moves into cities, and as rural inhabitants who are connected to infrastructure adopt more urbanized lifestyles, food consumption is becoming both more varied and more similar around the world. Over the past half a century, global food production and distribution have experienced ever-increasing levels of corporate concentration (Greenberg, 2010). This was partially a consequence of key technological innovations such as canning and freezing and mobile refrigeration. DuPuis and Goodman (2005) describe the alternative food movement by accentuating its rejection of the global, industrial and environmentally degrading conventional food system. Goodman and Goodman (2009: 10) provide a concise definition of alternative food networks by describing them as “new and rapidly mainstreaming spaces in the food economy defined by among other things the explosion of organic, Fair Trade, and local, quality, and premium specialty foods”. Alternative food networks (AFNs), and their respective products are most notably differentiated from those typically supplied by mainstream food manufacturers and retailers. It is also contended that the production and consumption of food within these specialized networks is linked together spatially, economically and socially (Goodman and Goodman, 2009). According to Goodman and Goodman (2009) there are a number of interrelated processes which are rapidly transforming and diversifying modern food provisioning throughout much of the world. Processes have previously resulted in the creation of new and vibrant economic and cultural spaces, often associated with relevant niche markets. Manifestations of AFN’s can be seen in the following examples: 2.5.1.1 Farmers’ Markets: Trobe (2001) indicates that farmers markets have been operating since pre-industrial times and have gained increased interest in the production, processing, and buying of local food. Local foods systems provide several advantages over conventional and global markets including socio-economic and environmental benefits (Brain, 2012). Buying locally strengthens regional economies, supports family farms, provides fresh foods for consumers, preserves the local landscape, and fosters a sense of community (Trobe, 2001).. 2.5.1.2 Community Supported Agriculture (CSAs): A CSA is an alternative food distribution system that engages eaters as equal partners in the growing of food.. 15.

(28) Consumers assume some of the risk involved regarding the farm by paying upfront for a share of the season’s produce grown by a local farmer or a group of farmers. The food is delivered direct to consumers or to nearby drop-off points on a weekly basis throughout the growing season (see Feagan, 2007: 27).. 2.5.1.3 Local Food within Grocery Stores and Food Co-ops: Schnell (2011) notes that the majority of consumers find direct sales inconvenient and prefer to do all their shopping mostly in a single locality. Now there are a number of retail options. Some retailers are beginning to show an interest in locally grown foods, despite the fact that such foods represent a significant challenge to their centralized procurement and distribution systems.. With regards to the increasing popularity of neolocal movements and the rise of alternative food networks, it is said the emergence of two specific themes has initiated particular interest by researchers. These notions incorporate the newly invigorated conception of ‘quality’ as well as the idea of ‘embeddedness’ (Winter, 2003). The ‘turn to quality’ within the agro-food industry has been reconstructed around the renewed interest of consumers in terms of human health and food safety, the environmental consequences of globalized and industrialized agriculture, farm animal welfare and fair trade. Ultimately these concerns are seen as the key motivating factors in a move away from the homogenized products of the global agro-food industry. Therefore, at present, the term ‘quality’ in society is now more closely linked with ‘local’ and more ‘natural’ foods (see Murdoch et al., 2000; Winter, 2003). The differentiated products supplied by AFNs and their remarkable growth has reinforced perceptions that ‘quality’, in its various socially-constructed and material dimensions, rather than price is becoming the new basis of competition in food provisioning (Hinrichs, 2003). In modern day society food-place associations have become embedded in the popular imagination. Adema (2008) suggests that local food and place has, over time, become consistently interconnected, and can be attributed as an end result from the portrayal of several types of mediums such as film, literature, and advertising.. According to Follet (2009) alternative networks most commonly follow a recognized path. First, there is an emphasis on redistributing the wealth back to farmers and local communities. 16.

(29) by selling products directly to consumers at a ‘fair’ market price. Second, by revealing transparency about their production practices they develop strong community relationships and instil a sense of trust with consumers. Finally, there is a tendency for alternative food networks, such as local farmers markets and community supported agriculture, to institute new space for new forms of political association and market governance by using unconventional distribution channels, which essentially challenge the conventional food system. Another distinguishing neolocal characteristic with regards to alternative food networks is that they provide consumers with an option in terms of the power to decide a food future (DuPuis and Goodman, 2005). It is argued “the food represents the glue that maintains relationships, a sense of place, and community values” (Follet, 2009: 43). Farmers who fall within the system of alternative food networks normally only sell to consumers within a modest distance of the farm, and thus the management of their respective farms resembles a ‘natural system’ rather than an industrial factory, and which in due course maximizes the positive environmental impacts of agricultural production (Follet, 2009).. As a manifestation of neolocalism, there is an important emphasis on farmers maintaining that close proximity with the relevant people purchasing and consuming their food. Therefore, alternative food networks tend to pride themselves upon building strong community ties, so that transparency, uniqueness, authenticity and trust can always be portrayed (Schnell, 2011). Neolocalism suggests that the deliberate creation and promotion of a new, as well as rejuvenated places. Distinguishing local foodscapes is one element of how communities or cities are trying to re-establish a sense of identity (Adema, 2008). Hence, by differentiating certain local places from other places, image makers intend not only to boost pride amongst locals but to also potentially to attract visitors and tourists. A neolocal movement thus demonstrates a way in which communities can generate both social and economical capital to their respective locale (Schnell, 2013). “Creating a foodscape can be part of the specialization of place: designating a place as special in order to create spectacle where one previously did not exist. Place specialization is about differentiation of and among places, and is the foundation of each locality’s promotion of a food-centered identity” (Adema, 2008: 16). 17.

(30) On the other hand, it is important to highlight that even with the rapid growth of Alternative Food Network sales and the subsequent positive outcomes that potentially follow, there is also a downside. Alternative food networks recently have developed a tendency to target more affluent income groups, which in turn has attracted the attention of the large-scale retail supermarkets, which now provide shelf-space for AFN products, often under their own labels. Thus, AFN producers are now increasingly subject to the rigorous cost-price disciplines of supply chain management (Hinrichs, 2003).. 2.6 The International Rise of Microbreweries. As argued above, craft microbreweries are part of the broader growth of neolocalism and alternative food networks. This said, beer has been a product for centuries. Archaeologists have found evidence that beer-like brews were made in Babylonia, China, Egypt and Iran in ancient times (as far back as 7000 BC). The art of making beer has been spread internationally through conquests, colonization, commercial ventures, and individual travel (Poelmans and Swinnen, 2011). According to Ascher (2012) beer has become globalized in the same sense as other familiar branded products which originate in one country and are later manufactured and consumed throughout the world. The pace of globalization for beer has greatly accelerated over the past century with the increased activity of multinational beer companies acquiring the majority of existing breweries and constructing new facilities in emerging markets, as well as licensing production of their brands outside their home countries. As incomes rise and living styles change in developing countries, demand for such products is growing.. During the earliest stages of the craft beer movement in the 1980s, the difference between the mainstream and craft beer industries was based on 1) a combination of the styles of beer produced; 2) the quantity of production; and 3) the level of distribution (Tremblay, Tremblay and Swinnen, 2011). However, the growing dominance of increasingly standardized lager and light beers produced by increasingly fewer mega-breweries has resulted in a “so-called” counter-movement in the past 25 years. This reaction against consolidation and lack of variety started in the USA during the 1980s because people began to show a renewed interest in ‘older’ European beer styles, such as porter, pale ales and brown cask ales, stout and bitters. 18.

(31) (Dillivan, 2012). It was this counter-movement which evidently had a major impact on the microbrewing and craft beer industry (Tremblay et al., 2011).. In the late 1980s and 1990s, the United States beer industry entered a period known as the ‘Microbrew Revolution’. During this period, a multitude of small breweries emerged to meet the new demand for specialty beers among American beer drinkers (Baginski, 2008). It must be noted that the craft beer movement in the United States is not an isolated phenomenon, nor is it original. Britain experienced its own movement in the early 1970s out of reaction to the significant contraction in the number of breweries which occurred during the 1960s, a period during the closure or consolidation of forty percent of its breweries. Consumers reacted by formulating the Campaign For More Real Ale (CAMRA) movement that resulted in the growth of craft beer and diffusion of microbrewing throughout the country (see ThurnellRead, 2016; Ragsdell and Jepson, 2014).. Craft breweries, or small, independent and traditional breweries, are rapidly increasing in the United Kingdom, USA, parts of Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of Asia. Schnell and Reese (2003) argue that one of the main reasons for this expansion, at least in the United States, is because consumers are breaking away from the smothering homogeneity of popular, national culture. Indeed, because the market for beer has become partitioned in recent years (Carroll and Swaminathan, 2000), with two global breweries (Anheuser-Busch InBev and SABMiller) dominating in many markets, most craft breweries are locally-oriented rather than oriented towards global markets. Mega-brewers predominantly sell nationwide and differentiate their products primarily by advertising on television; and microbrewers, conventionally sell locally or regionally and differentiate their products primarily with use of local raw materials (Adams, 2006). While the dynamics of the international beer market have altered in recent years (Carroll and Swaminathan, 2000),. with two global breweries. (Anheuser-Busch InBev and SABMiller) now controlling approximately 50% of the global market share, beer consumers in mature markets, appear to be turning away from mass produced beers. According to the Brewers Association, in 2011, the total retail sales of craft beer amounted to $8.7 billion or just over 9 percent of total beer sales (Ascher, 2012).. 2.7 An International Review of Literature on Craft Beer and its Links to Neolocalism. 19.

(32) The phenomenon of craft beer and the growth of microbreweries has been observed and researched in a number of countries and various issues have been explored on the expansion of microbreweries. Geographically most work has been undertaken to document aspects of the considerable expansion in craft brewing in the United States, which has experienced a counter-movement to what Choi and Stack (2005: 79) describe as the country’s “ preference for the homogenous, bland-tasting beer”. The origins of the American microbrewery movement are examined by Carrol and Swaminathan (2000). In a further study by Baginski and Bell (2011) it is argued that craft brewery expansion can be understood within the resource partitioning theory whereby firms that serve small niche markets challenge the monopolistic competition of the large enterprises that dominate the brewing industry in America. Another study in the USA draws attention to the fact that craft beer in the USA “has evolved out of a niche industry” and with its consolidation “ comes challenges for craft breweries to maintain the high quality that made them successful” (Lapoint, 2012: 11). Tremblay et al. (2005) examined the dynamics of industry concentration and argue that the homogenisation of the beer produced by large brewers alongside changes in local demand and a favourable regulatory environment generated profitable niches in many local markets across the USA for microbrewery beer. They indicate that entry into the microbrewing sector occurred at a rapid rate from 1977-1998. Indeed, according to Weiler (2000: 171) the period of the 1980s “witnessed a veritable explosion in craft brewing”.. But, over-exuberance. resulted in a shake-out in the sector as the number of microbreweries in the USA was reduced from 1998 onwards.. Issues relating to consumers brand loyalty for craft breweries have been examined in North Carolina by Murray (2012) who revealed that connections with the community was the most important factor influencing brand loyalty amongst local residents. One local niche market in which craft breweries have continued to expand is Alabama where regulatory changes have produced a craft beer sector which is potentially creating opportunities for the development of beer tourism in the state (Alonso, 2011) In the context of geographical research on craft beer the most instructive studies on the USA are those which have been conducted by Weiler, (2000), Baginski (2008) and Dillivan (2012). The location of breweries at a micro-scale was examined by Weiler (2000) who pointed out the influential role of craft breweries in the. 20.

(33) regeneration of old industrial districts in economic decline, and illustrated this in the case of lower downtown Denver. The research by Baginski (2008) highlighted the uneven geography of craft breweries in the USA. By undertaking a state level analysis Baginski (2008) points to number of factors which influence the extent of craft brewing development. The presence of highly educated residents and the general quality of life were variables that exerted the greatest amount of predictive power over the amount of breweries. The highest number of breweries at a state level was found in the Pacific North West and California. Another important study was completed by Dillivan (2012) which analyzed the relationships between microbrewery development and the demographic and economic characteristics in several cities in the USA. This revealed the important findings that areas with a high percentage of the creative class, 25-34 year adults and a high rate of education attainment most strongly represented and supported microbreweries. Accordingly, the work by Dillivan (2012) makes linkages with the concept of neolocalism, for his interviews with microbrewery owners and patrons disclosed that the microbreweries foster a sense of community, have a high level of responsibility towards the community, and function as local, social and cultural anchors.. Outside of the United States, the amount of research is more limited. In an Australian study Watne et al. (2012) examine the business models of craft breweries in Victoria, Australia. They highlight in particular that craft beer entrepreneurs are driven by a form of what they describe as “entrepreneurial passion”. These entrepreneurs are passionate for seeking competitive advantage by creating experiences and product uniqueness that is a valuable service for consumers. They argue that craft brewing in Australia is “part of the trend of caring more about what and how we consume products” but at the same time “part of an anticonsumption movement” in terms of shifting away from mass produced generic products (Watne et al., 2012: 21). The most recent work on craft beer Australia is that of Argent (2018).. Finally, another country where empirical work is available is the United Kingdom. Here Fry et al. (2001) analyze the extent to which the internet can provide small microbreweries with opportunities to overcome market access disadvantage by bypassing the distribution channels which are controlled by the major breweries in international markets. In addition, Wyld et al. (2010) examined the importance of changes in the regulatory environment in the UK in terms. 21.

(34) of affecting the rate of formation of microbreweries. Further research by Swann (2012) traces of what he coins the “historical fall and rise” of the local brews in England. His work highlights in particular the important role played by the consumer group CAMRA (The Campaign for Real Ale) formed 1971. The founders of this organization “were concerned with the decline of variety and the blandness of modern beer” in the UK and basically developed a campaign for the promotion of “Real Ale and the pleasures of regional diversity” (Swann, 2012: 3).. The works of Swann (2012) and Maye (2011) illustrate since the. foundation of CAMRA there has been an increased growth of new microbreweries and simultaneously “a rapidly increasing geographical dispersion of the microbreweries” (Swann, 2012: 1).. The worldwide expansion of microbreweries and the ever-increasing popularity of the craft beer industry are best described by Schnell and Reese (2003), as a conscious reaction against the impacts of globalization and the homogenization of culture. On that note there has also been considerable enthusiasm towards what Flack (1997) coined the so-called “neolocalism counter-movement”. According to Dillivan (2012) as the neolocalism movement strengthens so does the potential interest in purchasing local beers and of tourist visits to local microbreweries. In order for microbreweries to capture local markets they need to take into account a number of different marketing strategies to help them sell their product as well as keep their product geared towards a culture of neolocalism (Schnell, 2013).. Microbreweries use a variety of techniques to affirm their orientation towards the local population. The marketing of breweries, the naming of beers and breweries, use of local and national craft beer events and sponsorships all play a role in emphasizing a brewery’s local identity, and in turn sustaining its long term success (Dillivan, 2012).. 2.7.1 Idiosyncratic Names. The selection of names for the various types of craft beer produced at a microbrewery is essential to establishing a defined target market for that specific craft beer as well as maintaining the long term of success of speciality or seasonal craft beers. Attaching a sense of “rootedness” to a product allows the market to associate with local culture and traditions. 22.

(35) which the monopolistic multinational brands fail to recognize. This rootedness provides a firm foundation for consumers to associate with their beer. It is argued that “these names tend to reflect the places where they are brewed, and are derived from a wide array of sources: historical figures or events, local legends, landmarks, wildlife, or even climatic events” (Schnell and Reese, 2003). However, not all craft breweries follow a model of linking product names to the local community, but instead create a whole new identity of their own that still appeals to the local community’s interests.. 2.7.2 Historical Connection. By providing historical significance to a beer, it allows a consumer to gain a broader perspective to how the specific area was depicted in the past and why that specific beer can be attached to that historical image. Cultural geographers show that place attachment strengthens through the heightened consciousness of local (Schnell and Reese, 2003). Craft brewery pride in local culture and history is clearly evident in both the physical appearance and decoration of the brewery’s restaurant and bar areas.. 2.7.3 Interpretative Imagery and Distinctive Labelling. Microbreweries use images that help the consumer get a sense of the region. Microbreweries often have associated amenities such a brewpub located near (or attached to) the brewery and usually decorate it with pictures of local history, maps, and anything that connects with the local culture. The names and images of the products are not the only way a microbrewery can emphasize its local roots (Dillivan, 2012). Many microbrewery names are reflective of the area they are rooted within. The images foster a unique, local sense which has shown to create a response from beer drinkers. The beer names and labels which are conjuring local images and icons create a stronger attachment to the origin of neighbourhood, city, or region which the beer comes from (de Wit, 2013). The way in which a beer is marketed can tell a story. Attachment to place is strengthened by all forms of storytelling and a heightened consciousness of local history (Flack, 1997).. 2.7.4 The Harvest Cycle. 23.

(36) Brewing craft beers that interlink with the harvest cycles allow breweries to phase in and out specialty products that are genuinely compatible with the various seasons. This allows a regular consumer to become a connoisseur. The cycle of harvests throughout history has dictated which foods and beverages could be consumed and when. Microbreweries have reestablished this culturally and geographically (Schnell and Reese, 2003).. 2.7.5 The Environmental Influence. Relating beer to nature or even the surrounding infrastructure such as urban buildings or a natural waterfall allows a consumer to see where a brew originates from and the type of environment in which it was intended to be consumed. Schnell (2013) asserts that this is a reaction against cultural and commercial landscapes that has become increasingly homogenized by national and multinational corporations. Microbreweries represent an antimodern trend and a specialized tool employed to creating and building a sense of loyalty and distinctiveness rooted in place.. 2.8 Conclusion. The aim in this chapter was to provide the theoretical context for this investigation in terms of the concept of neolocalism and to offer a review of existing scholarship. It was argued that the development of neolocalism as a counter-movement to globalising tendencies has been stressed as critical in international research for understanding the emergence of craft breweries. Craft breweries seek to integrate their operations as part of the ‘local’ and in that manner their activities align with debates around alternative food movements and networks. The existing relevant work on micro-brewing in various parts of the world has been reviewed to provide the context for this empirical examination of the growth of the craft beer industry in South Africa and the rise of beer tourism. Attention turns in Chapter Three to issues of sources and research methodology.. 24.

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